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At the same time we cannot help ever, are all that are usually comprefeeling suspicious, in the first instance, hended under the term Holy Land; of such publications as the present. although, as the scene of Scripture We have seen so many of them, that history, the theatre of miracle and of have come forth with the highest prophecy,—the Peninsula of Mount pretensions, prove nothing more than Sinai, the shores of the Idumean Sea, mere jobs of trade, that we are in- and the coasts of Asia Minor, might stinctively on our guard when we lay claim to the appellation. But we take them in hand, against anticipated have now visited the whole of Palescharlatanism. Their aspect is omi- tine, Judea, Samaria, and Galileenous ;-they wear a loose livery ; those countries which, above all oththey are redolent of paste; they be- ers under the sun, are interesting to tray the mangling of the scissars. In- the Christian. And abhorrent alike stead of exhibiting the labour and the from reason and from true piety, as skill which such compilations, more is the superstition that has grafted itthan most others, demand, they dis- self upon this interest, yet, the curiplay the redundant symptoms of work osity which inspires the traveller, in by contract; and we feel, in turning reference more peculiarly to these them over, all the annoyance which scenes is rational and laudable. fl results from the double mischief of a Troy and Thebes, if Athens and Rome, good thing marred in the execution, are visited with classic enthusiasm, and operating as

a hindrance to a much more worthy of awakening the more spirited undertaking.

strongest emotions in the mind of a From all these depraved symptoms, Christian, must be the country whose the work before us, so far as the pre- history as far transcends in interest sent specimen extends, is entirely free; that of every other, as its literature and if it be conducted to the end with (if we may apply that term to the diequal ability, it will form one of the vine volume) excels in sublimity, all most useful and attractive publications the ethics, and philosophy, and poeof the present day. Of the two sec- try, and eloquence of the heathen tions, though Syria is the most enter- world. This sentiment of interest or taining, Palestine is the best done ; of reverence has, indeed, no necessait contains a masterly compression, ry connexion with religious principle marked, in some instances, by specific or enlightened worship; for it may originality, of most that is truly valu- actuate alike the pious and the profliable in the best of modern explora- gate. And, in the character of the tions. Maundrell, Pococke, Burk- Greek or Romish pilgrim, it is too hardt, and Dr. Richardson, have sup- generally found in connexion with an plied the ground-work; but a host of utter destitution of moral principle. other travellers have contributed to The savage fanaticism of the Crusades the superstructure, and a list of im- was an illustration of this fact on a portant desiderata' is subjoined. As grand scale; and the same spirit that an example of the composition, we breathed in Peter the Hermit, yet shall transcribe the eloquent and com- survives; the same fanaticism in a prehensive

milder form actuates the pilgrims

who continue to visit the Holy SepulCONCLUDING REMARKS.

chre, with the view of expiating their • Having now traversed the whole sins by the performance of so meritoLand of Israel west this boundary, rious a penance.

The Mussulman from Beersheba to Dan, we close here hadgi, or the Hindoo devotee, differs our account of Palestine ; preferring, little in the true character of his relifor the convenience of the arrange- gion, from these misguided Christians, ment, to include the districts east of and as little perhaps in his morals as the Jordan, under the general de- in his creed. Only the stocks and nomination of Syria, which in strict- stones in which their respective worness applies to the whole country. ship alike terminates, are called by The parts we have described, how- less holy names. It becomes the

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Protestant to avoid the appearance of sipid to general readers. Analysis symbolizing with this degrading and would ensure much repetition without brutalizing idolatry. But were all this an equivalent in valuable result. Mere mummery swept away, and the Holy extract would be nothing more than Land cleared of all the rubbish brought the paste-and-scissar system, and must into it by the Empress Helena, the perforce be wofully guilty of the morholy sepulchre included, more than tal sin of preterition. The editor of enough would remain to repay the the “ Modern Traveller” has taken Christian traveller, in the durable the effectual way of combining all the monuments of Nature. We know not three. He has introduced enough of the spot where Christ was crucified; extract and anecdote to give spirit, nor can determine the cave in which, freshness, and variety to the work, for part of three days, his body was with sufficient analysis and reference ensepulclired ; nor is the exact point to convey a general notion of what ascertainable from which he ascended has been contributed by different auto heaven. The Scriptures are silent, thorities ; and he has blended the and no other authority can supply the whole together, and given it cominformation. But there are the scenes pleteness, by a judicious digest of the which he looked upon, the holy mount great mass of his materials. He has, which once bore the temple, that above all, imparted unspeakable value Mount Olivet which once overlooked to his volumes, by the recognition, not Jerusalem ;-there is Mount Gerizim forced or obtrusive, but explicit, of overhanging the Valley of Shechem, the great principles of morality and and the hill where once stood Sama- religion. The adoption of Routes, ria ;-there is Nazareth, within whose as one of the principal vehicles of secluded vale our Lord so long await- description, though not always practied the time appointed for his public cable, has, in countries but partially ministry,—the Plain of Gennesareth known, the double advantage of indiand the Sea of Galilee,—the moun- cating the lines which have been pretains to which he retired, the plains viously traversed, and of directing fuin which he wrought his miracles, the ture travellers to the tracts of country waters which he trod,—and there the which still require investigation. In Jordan still rolls its consecrated wa- short, these little volumes contain the ters to the , bituminous lake where pith of many an expensive volume ; Sodom stood.' pp. 363—365. and while they will serve the travel

An editor of such a work as the ler as a pocket companion, and the present, would, we imagine, feel some general reader as

a useful compendifficulty in determining his plan. dium, they will be found singularly Mere digest would serve the purpose available for the purposes of educaof conveying information in a small tion, at an age somewhat advanced compass, but it would be in great beyond the mere elements of geoperil of proving uninteresting and in- graphical knowledge.


Rome. Two peasants of Macerata- broidered in gold ; gold candlesticks, Feltre, near Fort Leo, in digging a with ancient inscriptions, &c. The pit, at the beginning of May, discov- chest is five feet long, two broad, and ered something concealed below the two and half deep. We impatiently surface. They informed their master, expect farther particulars of this inwho immediately came to the spot teresting discovery. Some persons with three friends and a smith. With conjecture that these jewels may have great difficulty they raised from the belonged to Berengar, Duke of Ivrea ground a brass chest bound with iron. and King of Italy, who, in his war The smith opened it, and they found with the Emperor Otho I., fort fied in it the following valuable articles :- himself with his Queen Gilda, in the many rods and vessels of gold ; a celebrated rock of St. Leo, where he crown ornamented with diamonds; a was beseiged, and, together with his great quantity of female ornaments; consort, fell into the hands of Otho, cloths of Amianthus with borders em- who sent them both to Germany.


(Edin. Philosophical Journal.)



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE SCHOOL OF ARTS, EDINBURGH. THE HE public have heard a great design to Dr. Brewster, who entered

deal during the last year of insti- warmly into his views, a sketch of the tutions being established in different plan was drawn up, such as parts of the island, for the diffusion of thought probable might be carried into scientific knowledge among operative effect ; and it was circulated among mechanics, and several periodical publi- some of the most considerable master cations in a cheap form, have of late ap- mechanics, with a request that they peared with the same laudable purpose. would read it in their workshops, and It is an important epoch in the history take down the names of such of their of the country, and a spirit has been workmen as expressed a desire to obawakened, which, if properly directed, tain instruction of the kind proposed. may be productive of the most benefi- This was accordingly done, and in the cial effects, not only by ameliorating the course of a fortnight between 70 and moral condition of a great mass of the 80 names were put down. A Compeople, but also by increasing the skill mittee of several scientific gentlemen, and prosperity of our various branches of and of master mechanics, was inimedimanufacture. We are of opinion, there- ately formed for bringing the scheme fore, that a brief account of the School before the public; it met with very of Arts of Edinburgh, which has now general approbation, and a liberal subexisted for three years, will be accept- scription having been raised, a regular able to our readers.

association was formed, under the title It is to Dr. Birkbeck that the merit of “ The School of Arts, for the inis unquestionably due, of having first struction of Mechanics, in such branchproposed a plan for conveying scien- es of physical science as are of practitific instruction to mechanics. While cal application in their several trades.” he was resident in Glasgow, and held The Institution was opened in October the situation of Lecturer in the Ander- 1821, each student paying 15s. for a sonian Institution, about the year 1801, ticket, which entitled him to attend all he gave lectures on Chemistry and the lectures, and have the use of the Natural Philosophy to operative me- library for a year. Such was the eachanics on certain days set apart for gerness for admission, that after 420 that purpose, a plan which was follow- tickets were sold, the book was obliged ed up by his successors, and has been to be closed, as the room could not acconsiderably extended and improved commodate a greater number. The by Dr. Ure, who now delivers the lec- lectures delivered the first year, were tures in that establishment. The valu- on the principles of Chemistry and able suggestions which Dr. Birkbeck their application to the arts, on the had thrown out remained unheeded for elementary principles of Mechanical twenty years; for we believe, that, Philosophy, on Architecture, and on during the whole of that time, the lec- Farriery. At the close of these lectureship which he had founded, was tures at the end of April, one lecture a the only thing of the sort that existed week on each subject having been dein the united kingdom.

livered during the preceding seven About the autumn of 1820, Mr. months, there was established a class Leonard Horner proposed the estab- for Architectural and Mechanical Drawlisbment of a school Edinburgh, in ing, which continued for four months. which such branches of science as There was established also an excellent would be useful to mechanics in the library, containing nearly 500 volumes exercise of their trade, might be taught of the best elementary works on the at convenient bours, and at an expense sciences taught in the school, together that would be within their reach, upon with some of the works of greatest aua plan similar to that of the Glasgow thority in the mechanical arts. These Institution. Having communicated his books the students have the privilege

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Lectures for the Instruction of Mechanics--Polar Seas.


of taking to their own houses, and they ments of Algebra and Geometry, with may be exchanged once a fortnight. their application. Without this instrucThe first session terminated very suc- tion it was obvious, that the students cessfully; and it appears from the could derive very little benefit from First Report of the Directors, that the, the lectures on Mechanical Philosophy, students followed the lectures with the and what was of still more importance, most profound attention and the deep- without the knowledge of Algebra they est interest. It is stated in that report, could make no use of some of the most that "no audience accustomed to ob- valuable works in the library. serve all those restraints which are the The course of instruction during the marks of good breeding and good edu- second year was, a lecture once a week cation in the more elevated ranks of upơn Chemistry, once a week upon society, could have conducted them- Mechanical Philosophy, and the Mathselves with more perfect propriety and ematical Class met twice a week. This decorum."

plan has also been followed during the The following year the plan of in- last year, and the Drawing Class and struction was in some degree changed, Library continue on the same plan as it having been found that the attention the first year. of the students had been too much dis- The Institution continues to gain tracted by variety; and that, in order ground in the estimation of those for to make the institution really useful, whose benefit it was established, and it by conveying solid instruction to the has now assumed all the characters of mechanics, it was necessary to direct a regular seminary of instruction. their whole attention to the acquisition It is supported by the fees of the of the elementary principles of chemis- students, and an annual subscription try and mechanical philosophy; as among the inhabitants of Edinburgh, these were quite sufficient for all the and other friends of the institution. time they could bestow, and were the The management of its affairs is conbranches of science of most general ducted by Eighteen Directors, chosen application in the mechanical arts. annually at a General Meeting of the The Directors obtained also this year Subscribers. Many of the details are the powerful assistance of Professor managed by Committees of the stuLeslie in digesting their plan of in- dents theniselves, appointed by the Distruction; and upon his suggestion a rectors, who act gratuitously, and are class was established for the higher found to conduct the business entrusted branches of Arithmetic, and the ele. to them with great assiduity and skill.


The theory that there are open seas prosecuted his voyage towards the Pole, round both the Earth's Poles, has re- if other considerations had permitted. ceived strong corroboration within the There was no field ice in sight towards last few months. We have now on the South ; and the water was inhabitour table a letter from a Naval Officered by many finned and humpbacked at Drontheim, who notices the fact that whales. The longitude was between Capt. Sabine had good weather, and the South Shetland Islands, lately disreached 80° 81' north latitude without covered, and Sandwich land : this obstruction from the ice, so that the proves the former to be an archipelago Expedition might easily have proceeded (as was supposed,) and not a continent. farther had its object so required. And The voyage is remarkable as being the we have also had the pleasure to meet utmost South upon record, and we recently with a British Officer, who, hope to be favoured with other particuwith two vessels under his command, lars of it. At present we have only to last season, penetrated to 74° 25' south add, that the variations of the needle latitude in the Antarctic circle, which were extraordinary, and the more imis above three degrees beyond Cook's portant as they could not readily be utmost limit. Here he found the sea explained by the philosophical principerfectly clear of ice, and might have ples at present maintained on the subject.

(Mon. Mag.)


the way.


HENRY ordered the carriage, and direct a single glance of curiosity on

quitted the Louvre, followed by the decorations which were preparing the Dukes of Montbazon and Epernon, in the streets and public places, in Marshal de Lavardin, de Roquelaure, honour of the approaching entrance of de la Force, de Mirabeau, and Lian- Mary de Medicis into Paris. Thoughtcourt, first equerry. Mathieu the his- ful, and, as it were, collected within torian affirms, that when Ravillac un- himself, the king remained absorbed in derstood the king had given orders for the profoundest reverie, when the carhis carriage, he with an air of exulta- riage was suddenly stopped at the end tion muttered between bis teeth : “I of the street Ferronnerie, in consehold thee fast: thou art lost !At quence of two waggons, the one loaded that moment, says the Journal d'Etoile, with wine and the other with corn, Vitry made his appearance ; when the which blocked up Numerous king said, “ I neither require you nor stalls, then placed at the termination of your guards; for these forty years that street, rendered the passage very past I have almost uniformly been the narrow; and Henry the Second, a few captain of my own guards; I will days previous to his death, had in connot have any one to surround my car- sequence commanded their removal :

The coachman then having this order, if executed, would have alinquired where he was to drive? Henry lowed a free passage to carts and wagreplied in a peevish tone, “ Convey me gons, in which case the regicide could from hence.On passing before the not have perpetrated his diabolical hotel de Longueville, the driver repeat- deed. The king's foot pages quitted ed the former question ; when the king the vehicle, in order to see the way said, “ To the Cross of Trahoir:" and cleared, when Francis Ravillac the on arriving at the spot, he observed in most execrable of murderers, who had a bewildered manner, To the Saints- followed the vehicle, placed his foot Innocents." By' a most unfortunate upon a spoke of one of the hind wheels, fatality, Henry, on a sudden, desired on the side where the monarch was that the curtains of the carriage might seated and supporting himself with one be raised ; for at that period there hand upon the door of the carriage, were no glasses to the vehicles, which he with the other struck the king with were closed in by leather curtains. Had a two-edged knife. The first blow they been down, the assassin could not thus inflicted grazed the second and have directed his aim, nor struck the third ribs, and would not have proved fatal blow !

mortal ; upon which the king exclaimNo unfortunate event had been wit- ed, “I am wounded !-at the same nessed during the queen's coronation, instant he received a second stab, the notwithstanding the opinion that had weapon piercing his heart, when the prevailed throughout the city that some monarch" expired on the instant. So dreadful misfortune would occur. The determined was this execrable assassin, day having passed happily, public dis- that he had intended a third blow, quietude had in consequence in a great which, however, struck the sleeve of measure subsided ; and the populace, the duke de Montbazon, who had raised re-animated by the presence of their his arm to parry off the weapon. adored monarch, made the air ring Francis Ravillac was a native of with their accustomed acclamations, as Angouleme, where he followed the he proceeded on his route. Henry, avocation of a school-master till the who usually felt touched at these de- age of 31 or 32. Mathieu surmises monstrations of love, appeared insensi- that he was of unsound mind; but, acble on this occasion ; neither did he cording to the ideas usually conceived

10 ATHENEUM VOL. 2. 2d series.

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