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of ornaments, nuch good sense is ne- strosities and extremes, all affectations cessary not to surcharge them; a man in dress, hats, cravats, great coats, with a huge fist, like a shoulder of mut- frocks, &c.; the dressing in a manner ton, whose fingers are encumbered appropriate to the occasion, the hunt. with costly rings, looks the more vul- ing frock for the chase, the jacket for gar, because an attempt at show is shooting, the box coat for the box only, easily detected, and only seems as a the travelling dress only for the road. . powerful contrast to a homely person ; He who hunts down St. James's Street, just so it is with something ponderous is a coachman in Pall Mall, a walking and vastly fine, stuck in the cravat or jockey in the squares, or a traveller at frill, and a long dangling watch chain, the theatres, is an object of ridicule as if it were that of an informer angling and contempt, as far at least as regards for a pickpocket. People of high rank taste in dress. Volgarity in buttons, are simple in these kind of ornaments, neck-kerchiefs, buckles, or any other they bring them out modestly and spar- article, must mar the general system of ingly ; but whatever they be, high gentlemanlike appearance. Nearly the value added to simplicity is their gene- same observations apply to the fair ral character, reserving for court-days sex : a red armed and red banded the diamond star, and other jewels, in young woman, with a dozen rings, is rings, &c. All paltry ornanients be- vulgar in the extreme. High dress in speak poverty, pride, the miser and a morning bespeaks something let out the upstart

. In a word, the perfection for parade or for some worse purpose. in dress for gentlemen, consists in the Flowers become youth, feathers an age finest texture of linen and of clothing, more advanced, diamonds sit well on a chasteness in the blending of colours, the courtly dame at her meridian, excellence as to shape and make, an pearls are pretty on a pretty woman immaculate cleanliness in every exter- not having attained the age of twentynal article worn, and of the person Simplicity is the character of the itself ; a hat almost new, boots or spring of life, costliness becomes its shoes of the most polished appearance, autumn, but a neatness and purity, like the rejection of all vulgar adoptions, that of the snow-drop or lily of the (for fashions they ought not to be called) valley, is the peculiar fascination of the sober use of change, so as however beauty, to which it lends enchantment, never to wear a decaying article, noth- and gives a charm even to a plain ing careless or slovenly in the operation person, being to the body what amiaof dressing, the avoiding of all mon- bility is to the mind.



Yr. Edilor.--I observe that the Reviewer of Peele's Jests, in the last LONDON, is some

what puzzled by the epithet clenches, applied to them by Ant à Wood, and hazards a conjecture, that it means “shists or stratagems.” In this, however, he is unistaken-it was formerly a common expression for a quibble, or play upon words, though about its

etymon I am quite as much in the dark as the Reviewer himself. I shall conclude my remarks on this weighty affair with a “ modern instance,” consisting

of a whole string of clenches :



CURRANTS have check'd the current of my blood,

And berries brought me to be buried here;
Pears have pard off my body's hardilood,

And plums and plumbers spare not one so spare.
Fain would I feign my fall; so fair a fare

Lessens not fate, yet 'tis a lesson good ;
Gilt will not hide guilt ; such thin-wash'd ware

Wears quickly, and its rude touch soon is rued.
Grave on my grave some sentence grave and terse,

That lies not as it lies upon my clay,
But, in a gentle strain of unstrain’d verse,

Prays all to pity a poor patty's prey :
Rebearses I was fruit-ful to my hearse,

Tells that my days are told, and soon I'm toll’d away!




No. I. “ Auctoritatem nullam debemus, nec fidem commentitiis rebus adjungere."--Cic. THE Romish religion, as well as troduced and fostered. The scenes

many of our christian sectaries, which had, during so many ages, been has given birth to innumerable super- associated with the prevailing belief, stitions. Wherever its influence pre- —the fairy caverns, the enchanted vails, especially beyond the sphere of streams and rocks, the romantic hills polished life, the mind is prepared to and grottos of the country, would still admit, without scruple, the truth of be regarded with mysterious awe by traditions, which to a soberunderstand- the first protestants. An entire straning, must appear contemptible or ri- ger to the manners and habits of the diculous. This boundless credulity, solitary inhabitants of the mountains, -this prostration of the mind to mon- can form little conception of the influstrous fables, will not surprise us, ence which local associations possess when we consider, that the conscien- over the mind. The village church, tious catholic regards tradition, as of whose ivy mantled tower has been almost equal authority with scripture; “ Rocked by the storms of a thousand years," and that he is accustomed to receive and in whose gothic aisles, his forefathwith the blindest reverence, all that the former teaches*. Such a one can

were accustomed to worship, is

regarded by the rustic with holier and not reasonably reject any popular su

more reverential feelings, than the elperstition, however absurd, especially

egant structures of the present age can if it be in any degree connected with inspire ; had it not been for the his religion. The wildest of the Dan

strength of these feelings, the reformaish and Norwegian fables, are scarce

tion would never perhaps have been ly more extravagant, than many le

effected. The people were unwilling gends of the Romish saints.

to forsake their churches, and they But traces of popery may be found became insensibly reconciled to the in many parts of the empire, from

new faith. which that faith has long been banish- this attachment to the old religious ed

Some strong instances of ed. Wales, the Isle of Man, many ifices of the country, have come to the counties and isles of Scotland, and writer's knowledge, but none, he besome of the more mountainous districts lieves, more striking than the followin the north of England, abound with

ing :

-A young married woman of traditions which originated with our good understanding, and of virtuous catholic ancestors, and which still con- habits, was persuaded by her husband, tinue to be received by their protes- a dissenter, with whom she had retant descendants. If the reformation moved to the distance of several miles threw off the burthensome observan- from her native village, to attend the ces of the Romish ritual, it certainly same place of worship as himself; but did not, in all places, throw off the lo- though she had nothing to say against cal superstitions, which popery had in- the doctrines preached at the conven

* It should not, however, be forgotten, ticle, she could not reconcile herself that the more enlightened Romanists, as to the step she had taken. The welTillemant, Baillet, Father Alexandre, Du come, but unfrequent sight of the vilPin, &c., though they have admitted, with- lage church thrilled her with an emoout hesitation, many absurd traditions, have had the courage to reject many which their tion, to her undefinable. At length church was supposed to have long received. notwithstanding the reasonings, exposAnd it should be known that this church her- tulations, and even threats of a husself has said : “ Judi cium Dei veritati quæ band whom she tenderly loved ; the nec fallit, nec fallitur seinper innititur: judicium autem eclesiæ nonnunquam opioni rugged paths, and dangerous marshes em sequitur, eui et fallere saepe contingit et which she was obliged to traverse evefalli.De Excom. Čap. 2.

ry sabbath-day; she returned, as she 9 ATHENEUM VOL. 2. 2d series:


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affectingly expressed it to the temple A

poor midwife was returning late and last earthly home of her fathers.” one evening from a neighbouring ham

We shall not then be surprised, that let, and her nearest, perhaps her only among a people so tenacious of the practicable path, lay close by the Fairy customs and traditions of their ances- Cavern. Though she was naturally tors, many superstitions continue to resolute, and the moon shone with unbe received and reverenced. Of these, usual brightness, her agitation encreasnone is more prevalent than the belief ed as she approached the dreaded in the existence of fairies-an imagi- spot, as if she had a secret presentinary race of beings, which are everyment of what was to follow. No where represented as possessed of the sooner had she turned round the prosame capricious qualities, to be some- jecting angle of one of the rocks, than times harmless as children, and some- she perceived something like a man, times malignant as demons. That but of lower stature, advancing towards this beliefshould be so carefully cherish- her. She had scarcely time to coned in our days, when according to the sider, whether that being were of this acknowledgment even of the vulgar, or another world, before she was seizes not one of those beings has either ed by the arm, and drawn with irrebeen seen or heard, would indeed ex- sistable force towards the mouth of cite our wonder, were it not sufficient- the cavern. In an agony of despair, ly explained by the force of heredita- she invoked her patron saint, and her ry prepossessions, and by that propen- mysterious conductor suddenly stopsity to the marvellous, for which a ped. "Fear not,” said he, “you will rude and uncultivated people is ever not be detained long, and no evil will remarkable.

befal you, if, after we have passed A few years ago, the writer of the through this aperture, you call not on present article, made an excursion in- God, St. Mary, or any of the saints. to one of the most secluded mountain- In vain you would oppose an unearthous districts in England ; while he re- ly being ; time presses :


we must mained there, he had frequent oppor- away." Unable to oppose and contunities of becoming acquainted with vinced that if she were able, opposiits traditionary superstitions. In a tion would be unavailing, she quietly place more than usually wild, and at resigned herself to the guidance of a considerable distance from any hu- her unknown companion. He immeman habitation, he was shown a cay- diately led her through the aperture, ern, which, whether formed by nature and she found that they were descendor art, may well be considered a curi- ing with inconceivable celerity. In a osity. It is known by the name of few moments their feet touched the the Fairy-Cavern, and is situated on bottom, all was utter darkness, until the declivity of a high and very steep he anointed her eyes with a kind of hill. Its aperture between two enor- salve; suddenly a scene of overpowmous rocks, is so narrow, as to be im- ering splendour burst upon

her astonperceptible at the distance of a very ished sight, she saw that she was in few yards. Through this aperture no the interior of a vast palace, the magentreaties could induce the youth, nificence of which, could never be whom the writer had engaged as guide, conceived by any mortal. The pillars, to accompany him ; and as he was furniture, and even the walls, were of unprovided with torches, he could not massy gold, and ornamented with explore the interior. He ventured a precious stones of the most dazzling few yards, but found the path so pre- lustre. While she was gazing around cipitous, and the darkness and silence of a considerable chain of bleak and lofty of the place so appalling, that he speed- hills, which run along the borders of three ily returned. Concerning this cav- adjoining counties, Yorkshire, Cheshire, and ern, there exists the following ancient Derbyshire ; and the latter is well known to tradition.*


the inhabitants of the district alluded to in

That district is distant about half * Neither the cavern qor the tra ition is a day's journey from the ancient village of imaginary. The former is in the very heart Mottram, on the borders of Cheshire.

the text.

That mortal aid our sister free."



with wonder and admiration, a female male population, that she seduced of extraordinary beauty advanced to- numbers at various times, to follow wards her, and taking her by the hand, her footsteps, till by degrees she led led her into another room, smaller in- them into the sea, where they perishdeed, but of equal magnificence. In ed. This barbarous exercise of pow. one corner of the room she perceived 'er had continued so long, that it was several female attendants, all young, feared the island would be exhausted beautiful, and gorgeously clad, stand- of its defenders. A knight-errant ing round the bed of a sick fairy, and sprung up, who discovered some chanting this couplet :

means of countervailing the charms “ Mortal, approach; the fates decree,

used by the syren, and even laid a

plot for her destruction, which she She now learned that her professional only escaped at the moment of extreme assistance was required. " After she hazard, by assuming the form of a had satisfactorily performed the task wren. But though she evaded punappointed her, she was brought back ishment that time, a spell was cast upinto the apartment she had quitted, on her, by which she was condemned where she found a table covered with to reanimate the same form on every the most exquisite viands, and with a succeeding New Year's Day, until she liquor more delicious than nectar.

should perish by a human hand.

In While she partook of the refreshment consequence of this legend, every prepared for her, the most fragrant man and boy in the island (except perfumes exhaled around, and strains those who have thrown off the tramof unseen, but of indescribable harmo- mels of superstition) devote the hours ny, threw

a soft enchantment over the from the rising to the setting of the

The old woman was in an sun, on each returning anniversary, to ecstasy of enjoyment, husband, child- the hope of extirpating the fairy. Woe ren, friends,-the world itself was

to the wrens which show themselves forgotten. But this enjoyment could on that fatal day, they are pursued, not be perpetual to a daughter of hu- pelted, fired at, and destroyed without manity. At the conclusion of her re- mercy; their feathers are preserved

with religious care ; for it is believed, ed; he carefully cleared her eyes from that every one of the relics gathered the enchanted salve with which he

in the pursuit, is an effectual preservahad anointed them ; and the palace, tion from shipwreck for the ensuing the entertainment, the attendants and year, and the fisherman who should the music, were in an instant succeed- venture on his occupation, without ed by darkness and silence. She was such a safeguard, would, by many of

, speedily carried out to the place the natives, be considered extremely where she had first seen her unearthly foolhardy. guide; and there she was left, but In the same island, it is still believ* not without receiving more substantial ed that genii and giants inhabit the proofs of the fairies' gratitude. subterraneous caverns of Rushen Cas.

The Isle of Man, the “ fairy land,” tle ; and that the high-minded Countas Collins terms it has ever been dis. ess of Derby, who once resided in tinguished for its belief in ancient su- Man, and whose vigorous resistance perstitions. The ceremony of hunt- at the siege of Latham House, has ime ing the wren, is peculiar to the island. mortalised her name, takes her nightThe following account of it is extracted, ly rounds on the walls of the castle. with some slight variations, from á But perhaps the most dreaded spectre history, which though well known in in the island, is the Manthé Doog, or some parts of Lancashire, may not Black Hound, which is still thought perhaps be so to most of my readers. to be no stranger to Peel Castle.

The ceremony of hunting the wren, When a garrison was maintained at is founded on this ancient tradition. that fortress, the soldiers were freA fairy of uncommon beauty once quently thrown into great consternaexerted such undue influence over the tion by the nocturnal visits of the spec

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One of the soldiers, familiarised low the animal to its retreat. But hits at length. with its appearance, having temerity proved fatal. He soon reraised his courage by spiritous liquors, turned, speechless and convulsed, and ventured one night, notwithstanding survived his rash attempt no longer the opposition of his comrades, to fol- than three days.*

(Eclectic Review.)

THE MODERN TRAVELLER. A popular Description, Geographical, Historical, and Topographical, of the various Countries of the Globe


Palestine and Syria. THIS is a singularly well-timed, apt to imagine that what has gratified

and, so far as the parts hitherto themselves, must be interesting to published enable us to judge, an ex- others; they pay too little attention ceedingly well executed publication. to previous statements, and are rather Within comparatively a few years, overfond of telling again what has been geographical science and its collateral better told before. Our excellent investigations, have been cultivated friends the booksellers must come in with an ardour, and prosecuted with for a share of the blame. Without, an eagerness and a heedlessness of for a moment, venturing to attribute personal inconvenience and hazard, their excessive predilection for quartos that have brought to light an immense to any but the most liberal and disvariety of facts and elucidations of interested motives, we may be perthe most interesting and important mitted to hint, that it has a disastrous nature. Few portions of the globe effect on the character of this branch remain wholly unexplored ; and con- of literature. The information which cerning those which have not as yet would be respectable in an octavo, been subjected to actual scrutiny, a con- will but coldly furnish forth a tome siderable mass of valuable information of larger bulk; and when all the artihas been obtained from collateral and in- fices of typography fail to stretch it cidental sources. Great improvements, out, the author must be drawn upon too, have taken place in the modes of for supplementary, and too frequently research and narration. Instead of an for supererogatory matter. Now, how indiscriminate amalgamation of fact feelingly soever, as writers, we may and fable, hearsay and actual inspec- sympathize with the author, as readtion, the most cautious discrimination ers the case is very different. Our is made an indispensable prerequisite time, our patience, and our purse, fail to the reception of testimony. The before this protracting and extenulove of the marvellous, which looked, ating process, and we give a cordial in the olden time, to voyages and welcome to any publication that may distant journeyings--the mysterious give us the genuine information, withrealms of Prester John, or the glitter- out the overlay of paint and filigree; ing wonders of Ind and Cathay—for or at least, only so much of the latter its gratification, is now content with as may conduce to the real decorahumbler food, the diablerie of Ger- tion and connexion of the substantial many, and the tawdry inventions of matter. the Viscompte d'Arlincour. A moro legitimate source of entertainment is the following allusion in Sir W. Scott's Mar

* The tradition above related, will explain furnished by personal anecdote, his- mion torical and biographical inquiries, lo

“But none of all the astonished train, cal description, and antiquarian re- Were so dismayed as Deloraine ; search. At the same time it must be His blood did freeze, his brain did burn, confessed, that there is still room for improvement. Travellers are of dif

For he was speechless, ghastly wan! ferent calibres ; they are a little too

Who spake the spectre hound in Man."

'Twas feared his mind would ne'er return :

Like him of whom the story ran,

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