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of the Valley of Sarnen was pictur- nance. I hope the Valley of Sarnen esque and delightful,--and if it is will remain in the Regent's Park,not gone it is so still. The Swiss or that it may be replaced by somecottage, the mountain road, the flock thing as beautiful. of sheep feeding in a sequestrated There is likewise the Cosmorama, nook, gave a kind of lonely anima- and the Myriorama, and may others tion to the scene; the deep verdure not mentionable. I hear also that of the glades and slopes, contrasted there is one in preparation, which is with the blue surface of the lake into to be perfectly ecliptic of all its prewhich they decline, and the vapoury decessors, and is to be called the Panmagnificence of the surrounding hills, demoniopanorama, being an exact combined to throw a most romantic View of Hell, intended chiefly, I supair over this beautiful picture. I sigh- pose, for the patronage of those who ed for home when I saw it. A run- intend emigrating thither. It has nel of living water bestowed reality been painted from drawings taken on the scene, and was so contrived as by Padre B—who visited the preto flow down the canvas as naturally mises, and has been since restored to as if it was painted there, not spoiling life by Prince Hohenlohe. But I the eye
for the artificial part of the must defer the account of these to a
This is a good test of the future opportunity. At present_“I merits of the painting; the works of can no more" (as we say in a tragpature when set beside those of art edy). Vale ! generally put the latter out of counte
CHESELDEN the celebrated sur- the following reason for his remark.
geon and oculist gives some very The light coming from external obcurious particulars respecting a boy jects being let in through the matter who was couched by him in his thir- of the cataract which disperses and teenth year: his narrative is the more refracts the rays, these do not, as they interesting as it seems to determine ought, converge to a focus on the retthe question so long and so hotly con- ina or back part of the eye, so as to tested by philosophers,—Whether a form a picture of the objects there; person blind from his birth upon be- the person afliicted is consequently in ing made to see could, by sight alone, the same state as a man of sound sight distinguish a cube from a globe looking through a thin jelly. Hence Most persons would probably answer the shape of an object cannot be at in the affirmative, notwithstanding all discerned, though the colour may. the
many theoretical arguments which And this was the case with the boy might be brought against it--at least couched by the operator. Before until they have such facts as the ope- couching he could distinguish colours ration of couching discloses, which in a strong light, but afterwards, the are of too stuborn a nature to be easi- faint ideas he had previously acquired ly evaded.
of them were not sufficient for him It is previously remarked by Che- to recollect them by, and he did not selden that though we speak of per- know them to be the same that he had soos afilicted with cataracts as blind, scen dimly, when he was enabled to yet they are never so blind from that see them perfectly. Scarlet he now cause but that they can distinguish thought to be the most beautiful, and day from night; and for the most of others the gayest were the most part in a strong light distinguish black, pleasing : black, the first time he saw 'white, scarlet, and other glaring col. it perfectly, gave him great uneasiness, ours : but they cannot distinguish the but after a little time he became more -shape of any thing. And he gives reconciled to it ; he however always
associated some unpleasant idea with could be that a large face could be it, being struck with great horror at expressed in so little room, and saythe sight of a Negro woman whom he ing that it should have seemed as immet some months afterwards. possible to him as to put a bushel of When he first saw,
he was so far any thing into a pint. from making any right judgment At first he could bear but very litabout distances, that he thought all tle light, and the things he saw be objects whatever touched his eyes (so thought extremely large ; but upon he expressed it), as what he felt did seeing things larger, those first seen his skin. He thought no objects so he conceived to be less than they had agreeable as those which were smooth appeared before, never being able to and regular, though he could form no imagine any figures or lines beyond judgment of their shape, nor guess the bounds he saw : the room he was what it was in any object that pleased in he said he knew to be but part of him. He did not know any one thing the house, yet he could not conceive from another, however different in that the whole house could look bigshape or size ; but upon being told ger. Before he was couched he exwhat things those were whose form pected little advantage from seeing, he knew before from feeling, he would worth undergoing an operation for, carefully observe that he might know except reading and writing ; for he them again. Having often forgot said he thought he could have no which was the cat, which the dog, he more pleasure in walking abroad than was ashamed to ask, but catching the he had in the garden at present, which cat (which he knew by feeling), he he could do safely and readily. And looked steadfastly at her, and then even in blindness he said he had this putting her down, “ So, Puss," said advantage, that he could go anywhere he, “ I shall know you another time.” in the dark much better than those He was very much surprised that who coul After he was enabled those things which he had liked best to see he did not soon lose this faculwhen blind did not appear most agree- ty, nor desire a light to go about the able to his eyes, excepting those per
house in darkness. He said every sons whom he loved most would ap- new object was a new delight, and the pear most beautiful, and such things pleasure was so great that he wanted most agreeable to his sight which words to express it ; but his gratitude were so to his taste. His friends at to the operator was extreme, never first thought that he even knew what seeing him for some time without pictures represented, but found after- shedding tears, and if he did not hapwards they were mistaken; for about pen to come at the time he was extwo months after he was couched he pected, the boy could not forbear crydiscovered that they represented solid ing at the disappointment. A year bodies, at first taking them for party- after his first seeing, being carried to coloured planes or surfaces diversified Epsom Downs, he was exceedingly with a variety of paint: but even then delighted with the largeness of the he was surprised that the pictures did prospect, and called it a new kind of not feel like the things they represen- seeing. He was afterwards couched ted, and was amazed when he found of the other eye, and found that obthat those parts of pictures which by jects appeared large to this eye, but their light and shade appeared promi- not so large as they did at first to the nent, and uneven to his sight, felt other : looking upon the same object equally flat with the rest. On this with both eyes, he thought it appearlatter occasion he pertinently inquired ed about twice as large as to the first
- Which was the lying sense, feeling couched eye only, --it did not appear or seeing ?
double. Being shown his father's picture in
Mr. Cheselden performed the opea locket at his mother's watch, he ac- ration of couching on several other knowledged the likeness, but was ve- persons, who all gave nearly the same ry much astonished, asking how it account of their learning to see as the
preceding. They all had this curious when we see a landscape or a group defect after couching in common, that of figures on canvass, the parts assume never having had occasion to move to our eyes a depth or protuberance, their eyes, they knew not how to do though really flat, because, exhibiting it, and at first could not direct them the same light and shade which the to any particular object, but had to objects represented by them do themmove the whole head, till by slow de- selves rerum neutrá present, we judge grees they acquired the faculty of them to be similar in all their dimenshifting the eye-balls in their sockets. sions, and to recede or come forward
Several philosophical inferences from the canvass in the same manner may be deduced from the above-cited as the real objects would do if placed experiment. First it is evident that against a wall
. In conformity with the eye is not a judge of direct, though this reasoning it appears that the boy it
may be of transverse distance, i. e. who was couched had no perception that it cannot estimate the distance of the effect of painting : not having between two trees, for example, near- yet obtained experience of the lights ly in a line with itself, though it may, and shades imitated on canvass they if they are at equal lengths from it, could not deceive him, as they do a but not in the same line with it. person of sound sight, into the suppoHence when we look at a chair stand- sition that they were reflected by ing against the wall of our chamber massive bodies,-he only saw flat canwe really do not see that the fore legs vass diversified with a variety of paint. stand out upon the carpet,—we see Secondly, as it appears that the both them and all parts of the chair boy could not tell a cat from a dog painted as it were (projected is the until he had felt them, it is plain that philosophical word) on the wall. It neither could he tell a cube from a is only by having felt that they do globe. It is to be observed, however, stand out from the wall that we judge that although at first all distinction of them so to do, when we merely see shape were perceived, yet experience them exhibiting the same appearances would shortly have taught him to disthey had when we felt them before. tinguish, by sight alone, a cat from a The boy upon whom Mr. Cheselden dog, a cube from a globe. All that operated, thought, it seems,
6 that Locke and his partisans asserted was, all objects whatever touched his eyes," —that sight alone would never have i.e. all objects and parts of objects taught him to determine (unless by appeared equally distant from him, chance) which of the bodies was the the fore-legs of a chair as distant as cube of his feeling, which the globe. the hind, in short he could not see di- He would in a short time have seen rect distance at all. It was only by that one of these bodies was even, and habit, by feeling a table, for instance, the other angular, but he could not by then observing the lights and certainly tell that the former would shades its different surfaces presented feel as the globe felt before he saw it, to his eyes (for of colour the
is a nor the latter as the cube did. That judge), it was only by this process which was a cube to his sight he that he was at length enabled to know would probably have fixed upon as a table when he merely saw it. And that which was the globe to his feelit is the same process which gradual- ing. At least, there is no reason why, ly teaches us in our infancy to correct because a given body appeared eventhe errors of our sight by the testimo- ly shaped to his sight, it should enable ny of our feeling, and to know that him to determine that this body must that is protuberant which appears flat, necessarily, when he touched it, give as every object does to the eye of a him that sensation which he denominew-born child. This habit, which nated smoothnes: before he was made the mind gets of deciding upon the to see. massive form of objects immediately Thirdly, the above-mentioned exupen seeing them, is that from which periment appears to suggest a doubt the whole effect of painting results : of the truth of that philosophical dis
tinction which has usually been put tenance, which is to be seen in chil. between Reason and Instinct. If it dren and idiots, proceeds rather from is by an exertion of judgment that a an inability to move their eyes than man coming into a room where there from a want of thought at the time. is a real chair and one ill-painted on The former through inexperience, the wall, will sit down upon the form- the latter through mental weakness, er and neglect the latter, it is certainly have not been sufficiently conversant by an exertion of a similar faculty, with different objects to have exercisthat a cat coming into a room where ed the moving powers of the eye, there is a real mouse and an ill-paint- which therefore remains generally ed one,
will spring upon the former fixed. Both, when they wish to oband neglect the latter. And from serve a new object, turn the whole the same principle it is that the man head rather than the eyeball. And, will attempt sitting down on a well- that vacancy of look does not always painted chair, and a cat will attempt proceed from want of ideas in the catching a well-painted mouse, - neith- mind at the time, is evident from this, er discovering their error till they - that men intently engaged in concome near enough either to see the templating certain ideas generally defects of the painting or to feel the stare with a fixed and foolish countedelusive objects, and thus correct the nance, whilst their reverie continues. mistake of their judgment acting up- If a child were shut up in a dark room on the information of sight alone. where he might exercise all his senses For it is to be remembered that, in but one, it is obvious that upon light this case, it is not their sight which being admitted at the end of some deceives them, but their judgment ; years, when he had acquired a good sight informs them that certain col- stock of ideas by means of these four ours, lights, and shades, appear before senses,—it is obvious that he would them, and its information is true ; still continue to stare like an infant, whilst judgment tells them that these how full soever his mind might be of colours, lights, and shades, indicate a ideas. For the motion of his eyes is massive substance (viz. a chair or consequent upon an act of his will so mouse) which is false. From this it to move them, and he can have no would' appear, that instinct has no will to move them from the object at more to do with a cat mouse-catching, which he first looks, because he knows than with a man hare-hunting ; and as yet of no other object existing, and similar considerations may perhaps, could therefore have no motive to ex teach us, that brute animals approach cite his will to action. much nearer to us in faculties than There are many other inferences philosophers are generally disposed which might be drawn from this cuto allow.
rious experiment, but I will leave Lastly, it may be inferred, that the them to the reader's own sagacity or staring and vacant expression of coun- fancy.
THE BARGE'S CREW.
“ Tis sweet to poise the lab'ring oar
lufft up to get to windward of an That tugs us to our vative shore,
enemy, or sailed large to run down When the Boatswain pipes the barge to man.”
to the succour of a friend in disWHY, aye, Mr. What's your tress, it would have done good to
name, we were the pride your heart, man. Then there was of the ship—all picked men; and if our barge, so neat and trim with her you
had seen us in those days, when gratings in the bow, and starn sheets hope and enterprise spread our white as white as the drifted snow, and evecanvass to the breeze, and we either ry oar a perfect picture. But to see
her under sail with three lugs and a enemy's poop-—watch the roll, and jib set, and the sheets trimm’d aft, be ready, my men !”—“ Aye, aye, my eyes ! how she'd smack through Sir:" and we clapped the grapes into the breeze, skimming the billow-tops the still, and pressed them down with like a flying fish as he dips to wet his cannister, ramming all home with a wings and refresh him in his flight! vengeance. Rattle went a volley at Oh how sweetly she'd walk over the Joe again, but we matched 'em for it curling wave and climb the rolling in prime style; we smoked their maswell. Why she could do any thing noeuvres and powdered their wigs. Yes, but speak, and every one of the crew yes, our grape was squeezed into loved her as his own, and tended her Win de grave for a good many—it with the same affection that a fond damaged their upper works, and mother would her darling child. But knocked away their understandings. then what's the use of speechifying Well, d’ye see, by this time Joe had about it now ?-she's broke up by got to the main-top-mast head with this time, (though I'm glad I didn't the ensign under his arm, the hammer see it, for every stroke of the axe betwixt his teeth, and the nails in his would have gone to my heart;) and pocket; so he shoves one through of the jovial lads that once manned the head of the flag, just below the her, some are cast like weatherbeaten toggle, and drives it into the mast shattered hulks adrift upon the Ocean above the cross-trees. Down he comes of Distress, exposed to the windy about half a dozen rattlins, and in storm and tempest, without a port in went another nail, and so on till he view or friendly barque to hail them descended to the main cap, where he in adversity. Ah, they think of the took a severe turn with the tack, and barge now, and on those times they hammered all fast. At this moment will never see again, when they were all hands at their quarters were castcalled the jolly coach horses' that ing one eye aloft, and the other at never flinched from their duty. Eve- their gun, like a crow peeping into a ry soul was first captain of a gun; pitcher, or a goose at a thunder-cloud. and our coxwain, Joe Snatchblock, “Huzza !” roared Joe, as he threw was one of the finest fellows in the out the fly of the ensign, which catchfleet, be the other where he would- ing the breeze, waved majestically six foot two inches without his shoes above us, floating in grandeur, like -a heart like a prince and the spirits the Genius of Britain soaring on the of a lion-generous and brave. Why, wings of Victory. “Huzza!" shouted Lord love
Joe again, slueing his starn to the he was the very man as nailed the Dutchman, and slapping his hand in colours to the mast on board the an inexpressible attitude, while they Belly-quekes in Duncan's action. I returned the salute with a round of thinks I sees him now. Up went the musketry that, had he not been bomb helm, and away he bore down right proof, must have knocked him off his into the thick of it: slap comes a shot perch. “ Huzza !” responded the athwart the halliards, and down rattles main and quarter decks; the lowerthe ensign. “Hurrah !" shouted Myn- deck caught the soul-enlivening strain, heer in exultation. “Dunder de Blox- and three hearty cheers resounded am !" roared Joe from the gangway; from all hands. At it we went again, and shaking his fist at the enemy, like fighting-cocks, for, d'ye see, we 6 Dunder de bloxam, but we'll give it expected some of the right sort in the you presently !" and then he ran aft, prizes-real right arnest Schiedam and rolling up the flag, tucked it un- Ginever. At it we went, while Joe
and skimmed aloft like a came sliding down the top-mast backsky-rocket, while the musket-balls stay like a cat.
66 Weel behaved, my came pouring round him in leaden mon, weel behaved ! (said the capshowers. 6 Grape and cannister to tain—he was a Scotchman, though the five aftmost guns, (cried the first his name was English.) Troth ye've Lieutenant;) point them well at the the spirit of a Highlander. Bring the
der his arm,