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The new system of breaking large of the stone may be fixed even wita stones into small pieces, will not do the others. If another should happen so well in confined streets, where there to be not so deep as the general run, is much traffick, for the frequency of more loose ground is to be added, so opening the ground to repar pipes, as to raise it up to an equal level. would always keep the road in a state Then comes the rammer to beat them of old and new, or firm and loose. down firm : a slight blow sinks the Not only that, but if not kept wet the the stone which has the most loose dust would be a greater annoyance dirt under, and it takes, perhaps, three than the present rough pavement. or four heavy ones to knock down
What makes the present paved the one which has little or none under streets the most objectionable, is, that it. Now, with an equal weight on they are continually in a state of hills these, for instance, a loaded waggon, and holes. The pavement does not will not the first stone which has had become so from wear; the stones have but a slight ramming sink much more not wore away, for you may invaria- than the other ? Why, in fact, the bly see, in every street where there is present system of paving is nothing much traffick, that about a week or more than putting the ground into a two after new pavement is done, it is hard and soft, or hills and holes, and as uneven as almost any of the old. placing stones upon it to prevent our
Now this I think, may be remedied seeing or believing that it is so. by a more careful and judicions mode Now, the amendments in paving in arranging and squaring of the stones, which I suggest, are first, to leave off and in fixing them down. In the first ramming the stones, and to ram the place, the present way of arranging ground instead on which the stones them is, to put together little and big are to be placed to precisely the same ones, just as may happen ; one may form that you intend the top of the be twelve inches in length and the pavement to be ; second, to place tonext one only six. The one which gether all the stones which are exactly stands only upon six inches of ground, of one size ; fourth, the bottom, or will sink further in with a heavy weight bed, to be perfectly flat or square ; that the other, which stands on twelve then set them on this hard-rammed inches.
ground, and you will seldom see paIn the second place, there is not ving in hills and holes. much attention paid to the squaring of For example, suppose that such the bottom part, or bed of the stone. squared stones were placed on the Now, suppose two stones to be togeth- top on any good hard road without at of an equal size, the one quite square, all loosening of it, would not the paveor flat, at the bottom, and the other ment be firmer and less likely to sink to be pointed like a wedge, would not in holes than if the ground were peckan equal weight on the top press one
and the stone rammed ? Recolfurther into the earth than the other? lect, the knocking of them down does
In the third place, the present way not make them harder; it is only done of fixing them down is, first, to loosen to make the ground harder on which the ground on which they are to be they stand. Surely, then, it would be fixed. If one of them should be much more effectually done by beating it deeper than another, then to scrach down hard before the stones are put away the loose ground, so as the top upon it.
Aug. 11, 1824.
ANTI-ANIMAL SOCIETY. A new society of Christians bas One curious thing has resulted from been formed at Manchester, one of this carcinophobia of new Christians, whose tenets is to abstain entirely from which ought to be recorded. They vcery kind of animal food, which they have all found their health, strength, consider themselves bound to do, from and intellect improved by the new their particular interpretation of the regimen, which many religious percommand, Thou shalt not kill.” sons have ascribed to the Divine fa
vour as a reward for their conscien- sect whose tenets are unconnected tious abstemiousness, but which physi- with cruelty. They form a good ologists more rationally attribute to antithesis to the savage acts of the inthe curative effects of a natural diet, fernal mode of expelling the devil, reand the temperance it neccessarily en- sorted to in Ireland. We have lately tails in other respects.* The society heard an authentic account of a young is said to be rapidly increasing, and woman who sacrificed her own aged when we reflect on the blood-thirsty grandmother, killing her herself, as a character of most sects of fanatics, we sort of expiation : this happened may rejoice that there is at least one near Geneva, and not long ago.
From the German of Goethe.
A hero's shade on bigb-
Thus bids them oft good bye :
My swelling heart was up;
And liquor in my cup.
And half in ease to dwell;
Be glad to do as well."
NEW SPECIES OF ANIMAL.
Mr. Marion has found in the island whether kept motionless, or in a state of Manilla, a species of reptile, of the of agitation : but next morning, on refamily of the Agamoides, which has moving it from the inside of a bamboo, the faculty of changing colour, like where it had been placed, its colour the cameleon. Its head is triangular, throughout had changed to carmelite; pretty large in proportion to the bo- when exposed to the air, this colour dy; the tail long and slender ; along gradually disappeared, and the animal the back, the crest or rid is formed resumed its green robe. On this ground, of soft scales, and under the throat is certain brown lines were soon after a goitre. The feet have toes detach- visible : the animal was then replaced ed, and very unequal; the scales are in the bamboo, but, on drawing it out, mostly triangular, imbricated and es- it had acquired a blueish-green colour, pecially those of the tail. The iris is and it was only in the open air that blackish, bordered with a little white the brownish tints returned ; and at circle about the pupil. The animal length, without any variation of form is very active, and feeds on insects. or position, the brown colour gave When the author first came into pos- place to a uniform green, intermingled, session of it its colour, for 24 hours, however, with some brownish streaks. was a delicate green, whether held in When laid on green or red substances, the dark, or exposed to the sun, no grain of colour was observed.
PASTEBOARD ANATOMICAL FIGURES. Mr. Auzoux, a young physician of objects; but, the interior parts, Paris has invented a method of study- which are most wanted for inspection, ing the anatomy of the human body cannot be surveyed by it. Of course, superior to that by any imitation with waxen figures are better adapted to
The flexibility of the wax ren- the museum than the amphitheatre. ders it fit to represent the surface of Mr. Auzoux, with a composition re
* This circumstance ought to be known to the new society for preventing cruelty to animals, lately formed 'in London under the patronage of Mr. Buxton, and who meet regularly at Slaughter's Coffee-House.
sembling pasteboard, can imitate the the nerves, muscles, veins, all the human frame, including all its organs, vessels, are completely and correctly its internal and external parts, with exhibited. In anatomical pathology, exact fidelity. The upper parts are the effects of any malady will not oneasily displayed, according to the rules ly be visible on the surface, but the adopted in dissection, and the interior ravages made by it in the interior of are moveable with the like facility. the body and the alterations thereby The artificial structure may thus be effected. With the aid of variable decomposed into a thousand different pieces, the accoucheur may contemppieces, and readily put together again, late the different stages of pregnancy, by means of numerical cyphers at- &c. Comparative anatomy, veteritached. The only objection to this nary medicine, and many who are not process is, that the shades and colour- professionally obliged, and from the ing are not so well shown as on wax, fetid scent, cannot attend dissections, but this it is thought may be sur- will derive no small advantage from mounted. The most minute organs, this invention.
THE PLEASURES OF BRIGHTON.
A CIVIC SONG. HERE'S fine Mrs. Hoggins from Aldgate,
Tother day, ma'am, I thump'd and I cried, Bliss Dobson and Deputy Dump,
And my darling roar'd louder than me, Mr. Spriggins has left Norton-Falgate,
But the beast wouldn't budge till the tide And so has Sir Christopher Crump.
Had bedraggled me up to the knee ! From Shoreditch, Whitechapel and Wapping,
And it's O! &c. Miss Potts, Mr. Grub, Mrs. Keats,
At Ireland's I just took a twirl in In the waters of Brighton are popping,
The swing, and walk'd into the Maze,
And, lauk ! in that arm-chair of Merlin
I tumbled all manner of ways.
T'other night Mr. Briggs and bis nevy
To Tupper's and Walker's would go,
But I never beheld such a levee,
So monstrously vulgar and low!
And it's 0: &c.
On the Downs you are like an old jacket,
Hung up in the sunshine to dry ; Mr. Banter assured Mrs. Mumps,
In the town you are all in a racket, (But he's always a playing bis fun,)
With donkey-cart, whiskey, and fly. That the camel that bathes with two humps;
We have seen the Chain Peer, Devil's Dyke, Very often comes out with but one.
The Chalybeate Spring, Rottingdean,
And the royal Pagoda, how like
Those bedaub'd on a tea-board or screen!
And it's O! &c.
We have pored on the sea till we're weary,
And lounged up and down on the shore Mr. Yellowly's lookidg but poorly,
Till we find all its gaiety dreary, It isn't the jaundice, I hope ;
And taking our pleasure a bore. Would you recommend bathing ? O surely,
There's nothing so charming as Brighton, And let him take plenty of soap.
We cry as we're scampering down,
But we look with still greater delight on
The day that we go back to town.
For it's O! what will become of us, On donkeys that stand in a row,
Dear! the Vapours avd BlueBut the more you belabour and flog em,
Devils will seize upon some of us The more the cross creatures won't go:
If we have nothing to do.
STEAM AND RAILWAYS. A great social revolution appears gave a graphic representation of them. to be on the eve of taking place from Since that time they have been used new application of the powers of in all the great collieries to convey steam. Some years since we describ- coals from the pits to the place of ed in this miscellany the loco-motive shipment. The principle is an iron steam engines of BLENKINSOP, and railway with pinions, so cast at the
same expense as plain, while the distance from fifty to thirty-three, wheels of the engine are cast with while the time will be reduced a full teeth to work in the pinions ; such half. Such prepared roads seem wheels being cast at the same expense therefore likely to supersede both caa as plain ones. Wheels thus turned by nals and turnpike roads between placa ten-horse power, have, like gas-fix- es of great intercourse and definite ing animals working with their feet, distance ; and already another is sugpurchase suficient to transport fifty gested from Birminghan to Liverpool ! tons of coal, six or eight miles per On our part, we would recommend hour, and to ascend, if necessary, the others from London to Brighton, &c. 100th of the length, or seventeen yards to Holyhead, and through York to in a mile, while
they would move less Edinburgh, with branches to Glasgow weights twelve or fourteen miles per and all the great towns. Here is an hour. The principle is obviously ca- opening for the advantageous employpable of extention ; and at length a ment of capital, combined with imline of thirty miles in Durham having mense public advantages. Bold as been prepared in this manner, the is the project, it is not less so than idea has been caught by public spirit- inany other applications of science ed persons in those focuses of enter which we have from time to time sugprize, Liverpool and Manchester, and gested and recorded in this miscellaa similar road is planned between ny, and which we have had the pleasthose towns, in which Manchester will ure to live and see realized. The represent the colliery of Liverpool. economy both of time and money The Durham engineer, Mr. Stephen- would be so great, that all England son, has made a survey which reduces would soon be united as one great the turnpike-road distance from thirty- metropolis, and its inhabitants enjoy six to thirty-three miles, and the canal a sort of personal national obiquity.
WHO IS THE AUTHOR OF THE BEGGAR'S PETITION” ? SIR,—I regret that a variety of en Yon house, erected on a rising ground,
With tempting aspect, drew me from my road; gagements has prevented me from
For plenty there a residence has found, sending earlier in the present month
And grandeur a magnificent abode. a communication, invited by one of your
Hard is the fare of the infirm and poor ! respectable correspondents,
Here craving for a morsel of their bread, which is now at your service.
A pamper'd mienial forc'd me from the door, For the satisfaction of your friend
To seek a shelter in an humbler shed. ly correspondent Investigator, I now
Oh take me to your hospitable dome, transcribe a copy of “ the Beggar's
Keen blows the wind, and piercing is the opld ! Petition,” as it was originally written Short is my passage to the friendly gomb, by the Rev. Thomas Moss, from
For I am poor, and miserably old. Shaw's “ History of Staffordshire,
Should I reveal the source of every grief, vol. ii. p. 238: a neatly executed en
If soft humanity e'er touch'd your breast, graving, of a decrepit old man leaning Your bands would not withhold the kind relief, upon crutches, is prefixed.
And tears of pity could not be represt.
Heaven sends misfortune --why should we repine ?
'Tis heaven has brought me to the state you see ; inopemque paterni Et laris, et fundi. Hor:
And your condition may be soon like mine,
The child of sorrow and of misery.
Then like the lark I sprightly hail'd the morn; Whose days are dwindled to the shortest span, But, ah! oppression forc'd me from my cot,
Oh! give relief, and heaven will bless your store. My cattle died, and blighted was my corn. These tatter'd clothes my poverty bespeak,
My daughter! once the comfort of my age ! These hoary locks proclaim my lengthen'd years, Lurd by a villain from her native home, Aud many a furrow in my grief-worn cheek
Is cast abandon'd on the world's wide stage Has been the channel to a stream of tears.
And doom'd in scanty poverty to roam.
My tender wife ! sweet soother of my care ! referred the readers of that article to Struck with sad anguish at the stern decree,
Mr. Moss himself, who was at that Fell-lingering fell,- a victim to despair, And left the world to wretchedness and me.
time “ Minister of Trentham,” for the
truth and confirmation of his statement. Pity the sorrows of a poor map,
I judge from personal recollection of Whose trembling limbs have borne him to your him, that he was about seventy years of door,
age at the time of his decease; and Whose days are dwindled to the shortest span, Oh! give relief, and heaven will bless your store.
have ascertained, by a certificate copied
from the register of burials, that the I am not able to communicate any Rev. T. Moss was interred in the ceadditional information concerning the metery adjoining to the parish church time when this poem was written. It of King's Swinford, in the county of deserves consideration, however, that Stafford, on the 11th of December, the friend of Mr. Moss, whose letter 1808. It is to be lamented that no has been quoted in the first page of this memorial distinguishes the spot where volume, and who declared in the Gen- he reposes, as he was not only admired tleman's Magazine, vol. lxx. p. 41, as a poet, but also deservedly esteem" that he had authority to state, that he ed as a man of exemplary character, wrote it about the age of twenty-three," and as an acceptable preacher.
MASTICATION AND DIGESTION, Discharges of blood from the lungs that though mastication is important, have lately been prevalent, and have very few, indeed, act up to the knowlin some instances excited more alarm edge which in this particular even on the part of the patient and his feeling imparts. But let it be recolfriends than has been due to the occa- lected by the more than commonly sion. When the consumptive dispo- careless in this respect,that the inconsition is not strongly marked, when venience which the stomach suffers, the hæmorrhage soon subsides, with- from being obliged to perform the ofout being followed by hurried pulse or fice of mastication as well as digestion hurried respiration, and when the in- does not end with the moment. Many dividual finds himself rather relieved more die of mere indigestion than is than made worse in his feelings by generally imagined ; and, where chrothe occurrence, the accident ought nic disorganization is the result not to be considered, as it is too apt of even temperate intemperance, you to be, a necessary indication of and may repent and call for aid as you prelude to a break-up of constitution, will, but it will be found that the time and a coming on of consumption. for repentance and for succour is gone
Some cases of disturbance in the by. Large draughts at dinner, under stomach and bowels, not quite reach- the notion of the solvent property of ing to the height of cholera, have drink, will do more harm than good. been clearly traced to taking meals The writer does not subscribe to the with careless and gourmand rapidity. position that “ man is not a drinking At this season of the year, when the animal (a position, by the way, which stomach is morbidly alive to excita- has been advocated with much ingenution, and the biliary secretion has ity and eloquence), but he thinks, nay, more than usual susceptibility to de- he knows, that a well-masticated meal ranged action, hurried meals, with co- requires but little of fluid to aid its sopious draughts, ought especially to be lution, and that much drink of any abstained from. It is a curious fact, kind rather tends to distention than that while every one almost is aware digestion.
Sept. 1, 1824.
CURING OF SAGE FOR THE CHINA MARKET. The Monthly Review, in reviewing Dutch have been long in the habit of Phillips' History of Vegetables, 1822, drying sage leaves to resemble tea, for respecting Sage, states 6 that the which they collect not only their own,
15 ATHENEUM VOL. 2. 2d series.