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can be said to be the act of the aristocratic branch ression should be enforced by another, and th-re-
The ruinous consequences of standing armies to be at least as equitable; for I do not conceive it to free communities, may be seen in the histories of be of tbe least importance to us by whom our pro STBACUSE, ROME, and many other once flourishing perty is taken away, so long as it is taken without states; some of which have now scarce a name! our consent; and I am very much at a loss to know their baneful influence is most suddenly felt, when by what figure of rhetoric, the inhabitants of this
they are placed in populous cities; for, by a cor. province can be called FREE subjects, when they ruption of morals, the public happiness is imneeare obliged to obey implicitly, such laws as are made diately affected? and that this is one of the effects for them by men three thousand miles off, whom of quartering troops in a populous city, is a truth, they know not, and whom they never empowered to which many a mourning parent, many a lost, deto act for them, or how they can be said to have spairing child in this metropolis, must bear a very PROPERTY, when a body of men, over whom they melancholy testimony. Soldiers are also taught have not the least control, and who are not in any to consider arms as the only arbiters by, which way accountable to thein, shall oblige them to de every dispute is to be decided between contending liver up any part, or the whole of their substance, states;—they are instructed implicitly to obey their without even asking their consent: and yet whoever commanders, withoui enquiring into the justice of pretends that the late acts of the British parlia-, he cause they are engaged to support: hence it is, ment for taxing America ought to be deemed bind that they are ever to be dreaded as the ready ening upon us, must admit at once that we are ab. gines of tyranny and oppression. And it is too obsolute SLAVE6, and have no property of our servable that they are prone to introduce the same own; or else that we may be FREEMEN, and at the mode of decision in the disputes of individuals, and same tiine under a necessity of obeying the arbitra. from thence have often arisen great animosites bery commands of those over whom we have no con. tween them and the inhabitants, who, whilst in a troi or influence, and that we may have PROPERTY naked, defenceless state, are frequently insulted of our own, which is entirely at the disposal of and abused by an armed soldiery. And this will another. Such gross absurdities, I believe will not be more especially the case, when the troops are be relished in this enlightened age: and it can be informed that the intention of their being stationed no matter of wonder that the people quickly per lin any city, is to OVERAWE THE INHABITANTS. That ceived, and seriously complained of the inroads this was the avowed design of stationing an armed which these acis must unavoidably make upon their force in this town, is sufficient!y knowo; and we, liberty, and of the bazard to which their whole pro- my fellow citizens, have seen, we have felt the traperty is by them exposed; for, if they may be taxed gical effects!—THE FATAL FIFTH OF MARCH, without their consent, even in the smallest trifle, 1770, CAN NEVER BE FORGOTTEN—The borrors of they may also, without their consent, be deprived THAT DREADFUL NIGår are but too deeply impressed of every thing they possess, although never so va. on our hearts—Language is too feeble to paint Juable, never so dear. Certainly it never entered the emotion of our souls, when our streets were the hearts ufour ancestors, that after so many dan stained with the BLOOD OF OUR PRETUREN,-when gers in this then desolate wilderness, their hard. our ears were wounded by the groans of the dying, earned property should be at the disposal of the and our eyes were tormented with the sight of the Britisha parliament; and as it was soon found that mangled bodies of the dead.- When our alarmed this taxation could noi be supported by reason and imagination presented to our view our houses wrapt. argument, it seemed necessary that one act of op. jin dames,-our children subjected to the barbarous
Caprice of the raging soldiery,—our beauteous vir- with regard to us, is truly astonishing! what can be gins exposed to all the insolence of unbridled pas. proposed by the repeated attacks made upon our sion,-our virtuous wives, endeared to us by every freedom, I really cannot surmise; even leaving jus. tender tie, falling a sacrifice to worse than brutal tice and humanity out of question. I do not know violence, and perhaps, like the famed Lucretia, one single advantage which can arise to the Bri. distracted with anguish and despair, ending their tish nation, from our being enslaved:--I know not wretched lives by their own fair hands. When of any gains, which can be wrung from us by opwe beheid the authors of our distress parading in pression, which they may not obiain from us by our our streets, or drawn up in a regular battalia, as own consent, in the smooth channel of commerce: though in a hostile city, our hearts beat to arms; we wish the wealth and prosperity of Britain; we we snatched our weapons, almost resolved, by one contribute largely to both. Doth what we contridecisive stroke, to avenge the death of our slaugh bute lose all its value, because it is done voluntariTELED BRETANEN, and to secure from future dan- ly? the amazing increase of riches to Britain, the ger, all that we held most dear: but propitious great rise of the value of her lands, the fourishing heaven forbade the bloody carnage, and saved the state of ber navy, are striking proofs of the advan. threatned victims of our too keen resentment, not tages derived to her from her commerce with the by their discipline, not by their regular array,—no, colonies; and it is our earnest desire that she may it was royal GEORGE's livery that proved their still continue to enjoy the same emoluments, until shield--i: was that which turned the pointed en her streets are paved with AMERICAN GOLD; only, gines of destruction from their breasts.* The let us have the pleasure of calling it our own, whilst thoughts of vengeance were soon buried in our in it is in our own hands; but this it seems is too great bred affection tu Great Britain, and calon reason a favor-we are to be governed by the absolute condictated a method of removing the troops more mand of others; our property is to be taken away withmild than an immediate recourse to the sword. out our consent—if we complain, our complaints are With united efforts you urged the immediate de treated with contempt; if we assert our rights, that parture of the troops from the town--you urgei assertion is deemed insolence; if we humbly offer it, with a resolution which ensured success—you to submit the matter to the impartial decision of obtained your wishes, and the removal of the troops reason, the sword is judged the most proper arguwas effected, without one drop of their blood being ment to silence our murmurs! but this cannot long shed by the inhabitants.
be the case-surely the British nation will not suf. The immediate actors in the tragedy of rat
fer the reputation of their justice and their honor, SIGIT, were surrendered to justice.--It is not
to be thus sported away by a capricious ministry; Mine to say how far they were guilty? they no, they will in a short time open their eyes to bave been tried by the country and ACQUITTED
to their true interest: they nourish in their of murder! and they are not to be again arraigned at own breasts, a noble love of liberty; they hold an earthly bar: but, surely the men who have promis. Ser dear, and they know that all who have once cuously scattered deuth amidst the innocene inhabi possessed her charins, bad rather die than suffer tants of a populous city, ought to see well to it, that
her to be torn from their embraces--they are also they be prepared to stand at the bar of an omniscient sensible that Britain is so deeply interested in the judge! and all who contrived or encouraged the prosperity of the colonies, that she must eventually stationing troops in this place have reasons of eter. feel every wound given to their freedom; they can. nal importance, to reflect with deep contrition, on
not be ignorant that more dependence may be their base designs, and humbly to repent of their placed on the affections of a brother, than on the
forced service of a slave; they must approve your impious machinations.
efforts for the preservation of your rights; from a The infatuation which hath seemed, for a num- sympathy of soul they must pray for your success: ber of years, to prevail in the British Councils, and I doubt not but they will, e'er long, exert them. *I have the strongest reason to believe that I
selves effectually, to redress your grievances. have mentioned the only circumstance which suvel! Even in the dissolute reign of king Charles II. when the troops from destruction. It was them, and now the house of commons impeached the earl of Clais, the opinion of those wbo were best acquainted with the state of affairs at that time, that had thrice rendon of bigh treason, the first article on which that number of troops, belonging to any power at they founded their accusation was, that "he had deopen war with us, been in this town, in the same signed a standing army to be raised, and to govern the exposed condition, scarce a man would have lived to have seen the morning light.
kingdom thereby." And the eighth article was, that
BLOODY CONSEQUENCES OF PLACING AN ARMED FORCE
"he had introduced an arbitrary government into his vaili, if you, our offspring, want vélor in repel tlie majesty's plantation." A terrifying example to those assaults of her invaders!- -Stain not the glory of who are now forging chains for this COUNTRY, your worthy ancestors, but like them resolve, ne.
You have, my friends and countrymen, frustrated Ver to part with your birth-right; be wise in your the designs of your enemies, by your unanimity and deliberations, and determined in your exertions
for the preservation of your liberties. Follow not fortitude: it was your union and determined spirit
the dictates of passion, but enlist yourselves under which expelled those troops, who polluted your streets with INNOCENT BLOOD. You bave appointed
the sacred banner of reason; use every method in this anniversary as a standard memorial of the your power to secure your rights; at least prevent
the curses of posterity from being heaped upon IN A POPULOUS CITY, and of your deliverance from your memories. the dangers which then seemed to bang over your
If you, with united zeal and fortitude, oppose heads; and I am confident that you never will be the torrent of oppression; if you feel the true fire tray the least want of spirit when called upon to of patriotism burning in your breasts: if you, from guard your freedom. None but tbey who set a just your souls, despise the most gaudy dress that sla. value upon the blessings of liberty are worthy to very can wear; if you really prefer the lonely cot. enjoy ber--your illustrious fathers were her zeal. tage (whilst blest with liberty) to gilded palaces, ous votaries-wben the blasting frowns of tyranny surrounded with the ensigns of slavery, you may drove her from public view, they clasped her in have the fullest assurance that tyranny, with her their arms, they cherished her in their generous whole accursed train, will hide their hideous heads bosoms, they brought her safe over the roughi in confusion, shame and despair--if you perform ocean, and fixed her seat in this then dreary wilder- your part, you must have the strongest confidence, ness; they nursed her infant age with the most ten- that THE SAME ALMIGHTY BEING who protected your der care; for her sake, they patiently bore the se. pious and venerable forefathers—who enabled them verest hardships; for her support, they underweat to turn a barren wilderness into a fruitful field, the most rugged toils: in her defence, tbey boldly who so often made bare his arm for their salvation, encountered the most alarming dangers; neither will still be mindful of you, their offspring. the ravenous beasts that ranged the woods for prey, May This ALMIGHTY BEING graciously pre nor the more furious savages of the wilderness, side in all our councils. May he direct us to such could damp their ardor!-Whilst with one land measures as he himself shall approve, and be pleasthey broke the stubborn glebe, with the other they ed to bless. May we ever be a people favored of grasped their weapons, ever ready to protect her GOD. May our land be a land of liberty, the seat from danger. No sacrifice, not even their own of virtue, the asylum of the oppressed, a name and blood, was esteemed too rich a libation for her al la pruise in the whole earth, unil the last shock of tar! God prospered their valor; they preserved her time shall bury the empires of the world in one brilliancy unsullied; they enjoyed her whilst they common undistinguished ruin! lived, and dying, bequeathed the dear inheritance
ORATION, DELIVERED AT BOSTON, MARCH 5, 1773, to your care. And as they left you this glorious
BY DR. BENJAMIN CHURCH. legacy, they have undoubtedly transmitted to you
Impius hæc culta nova lia miles babebit! some portion of their noble spirit, to inspire you Barbarus bas segetes? in quo discordia cives
perduxit miseros? in queis consevimus agros? with virtue to merit her, and courage to preserve
Virgil, Ecl. 1 her: you surely cannot, with such examples before O! SOCII
o passi graviora, dabit Deus his quoque finem; your eyes, as every page of the history of this coun
-revocate animos, mæstumque timorem
mittite, fursan et hæc oliw meminisse juvabit try affords,* suffer your liberties to be ravished
Virgil, Ane. I. from you by lawless force, or cajoled away by flał.
From a consciousness of inability, MY FRIENDS tery and fraud.
AND FELLOW COUNTRYMEN, I have repeatedly de. The voice of your fathers' blood cries to you from clined the duties of this anniversary. Nothing but the ground, MY SOns scoNN TO BE SLAVES! in vaja firm attachment to the tottering liberties of we met the frowns of tyrants--in vain we crossed America" added to the the irresistible importunity the boisterous ocean, found a new world, and pre- of some valued friends, could have induced me (es. pared it for the happy residence of LIBERTY-in pecially with a very short notice) so far as to mis. vain we toiled--in vain we fought-we bled i
*Periculosæ plenum opus alex * At simul beroum laudes, et facta parentis
Tractas, incedis per ignes mam legere, et quæ sit poteris cognoscere virtus.Virg.
Suppositos cineri doloso.--HORACE.
take my abilities, as to render the utmost extent, instruments, and passive objects of the caprice of of your eandor truly indispensable.
an individual. When man was unconnected by social obliga. Mankind, apprised of their privileges, in being tions; abhorrent to every idea of dependence; rational and free, in prescribing civil laws to them. actuated by a savage ferocity of mind, displayed in selves, bad surely no intention of being enchained the brutality of his manners, the necessary exi- by any of their equals; and although they submitted gencies of each individual, naturally impelled him voluntary adherents to certain laws, for the sake of to acts of treachery, violence and murder. mutual security and happiness, they, no doubt, in.
The miseries of mankind thus proclaiming eter. tended by the original compact, a permanent ex. nal war with their species, led them, probably, to emption of the subject body from any claims, which
purpose ot consult certain measures to arrest the current of were not expressly surrendered, for the
obtaining the security and defence of the whole. such outrageous enormities.
Can it possibly be conceived, that they would voA sense of their wants and weakness, in a state luntarily be enslaved by a power of their own crear of nature, doubtless inclined them to such recipro. tion. cal aids and support, as eventually established so.
The constitution of a magistrate does not, therer ciety.
fore, take away that lawful defence against force and Men then began to incorporate; subordination
injury, allowed by the law of nature; we are not to succeeded to independence; order to anarchy; and
obey a prince, ruling above the limits of the power passions were disarmed by civilization: society leot entrusted to him; for the commonwealth, by conits aid to secure the weak from oppression, who stituting a head, does not deprive itself of the wisely took shelter within the sanctuary of law.
power of its own preservation. Government and Encreasing, society afterwards exacted, that the magistracy, whether supreme or subordinate, is a tacit con'ract made with her by each individual, at mere human ordinance, and the laws of every nathe time of bis being incorporated, should receive tion are the measure of magistratical power: and a more solemn form to become authentic and irre. kings, the servants of the state, when they degene. fragable; the main object being to add force to the rate into tyrants, forfeit their right to government. laws, proportionate to the power and extent of Breach of trust in a governor, for attempting to the body corporate, whose energy they were to di- enlarge a limited power, effectually absolves subrect.
jects from every boxd of covenant and peace; the Then society availed herself of the sacrifice of crimes acted by a king against the people, are the that liberty and that natural equality of which we highest treason against the highest law among men. are all conscious: superiors and magistrates were "If the king ( says Grotius) hath one part of appoinied, and mankind submitted to a civil and the supreme power, and the other part is in the political subordination. This is truly a glorious senate or people, when such a king shall invade inspiration of reason, by whose influence, notwith that part which doth not belong to him, it shall standing the inclination we bave for independence, be lawful to oppose a just force to him, because we accept control, for the establishnient of order. his power doth not extend so far." Although unrestrained power in one person may
The question, in short, turns upon this single have been the first and most natural recourse of point, respecting the power of the civil magistrate. mankind, from rapine and disorder; yet all restric. is it the end of that office, that one particular pertions of power, made by laws, or participation of son may do what he will without restraint? or ra. sovereignty, are apparent improvements upon what ther that society should be made happy and see began in unlimited power.
cure! the answer is very obvious-And it is my
firmo opinion that the equal justice of God, and the It would shock humanity, should I attempt to natural freedom of mankind, must sland or fall toge. describe those barbarous and tragic scenes, which ther. crimson the historic page of this wretched and de- When rulers become tyrants, they cease to be testable constitution, where absolute dominion is kings: they can no longer be respected as God's lodged in one persoa: where one maks the whole, vicegerents, who violate the laws they were sworn and the whole is nothing. What motives, what events, could have been able to subdue men, en.
*The celebrated Mrs. Macaulay.
Mrs. Macaulay. dowed with reason, to render themselves the mutel Salus populi suprema lex egte."
to proiect. The preacher may tell us of passive obe. , freely on every object worthy its attention, when dience, that tyrants are scourges in the hands of all the privileges of mankind are thoroughly compre. righteous God to chastise a sinful nation, and are hended, and the rights of distinct societies are ob. to be submitted to like plagues, famine and such |jects of liberal enquiry. The rod of the tyrant no like judgments: such doctrine may serve to mis longer excites our apprehensions, and to the frown lead ill judging princes into a false security; but men of the Despot, which made the darker ages tremare not be harrangued out of their senses; human ble,* we dare oppose demands of right, and appeal nature and self-preservation will eternally arm the to that constitution, which holds even kings in brave and vigilant, against slavery and oppression. felters.
As a despotic government* is evidently produc. It is easy to project the subversion of a people, *tive of the most shocking calamities, whatever when men behold them, the ignorant or indolent tends to restrain such inordinate power, though in victims of power; bui it is difficult to effect their itself a severe evil, is extremely beneficial 10 so- ruin, when they are apprised of their just claims, ciety; for where a degrading servitude is the de and are sensibly and seasonably affected with testable alternative, who can shudder at the reluco thoughts for their preservation. God be thanked, tani poignard of a Brutus, the crimsoned axe of a the alarm is gone forth,t the people are universally Cromwell, or the reeking dagger of a Ruvillac. informed of their CHARTEN RIGHTS; they esteem
them to be the ark of God TO NEW ENGLAND, and like To enjoy life as becomes rational creatures, to
that of old, may it deal destruction to the profane possess our souls with pleasure and satisfaction, hand that shail dare to touch it. we must be careful to maintain that inestimable blessing, liberty. By liberty I would be understood,
In every state or society of men, personal liberty the liappiness of living under laws of our own mak. and security must depend upon the collective power ing, by our personal consent, or that of our repre.
of the whole, acting for the general interest. If sentatives.
this collective power is not of the whole, the free.
dom and interest of the whole is not secured: If Without this, the distinctions among mankind this confuent power acts by a partial delegation, are but different degrees of misery; for as the true estimate of a man's life consists in conducting it
*Celum non animum mutant, qui trans mare currant.
The citizens of Rome, Sparta, or Lacedemon, at according to his own just sentiment and innocent those blessed periods when they were most eminent inclinations, his being is degraded below that of a for their attachment to liberiy and virtue, could free agent, which heaven hus made him, when his never exhibit brighter examples of patriolic zeal,
than are to be found at this day in America; I will affection and passions are no longer governed by not presume to say that the original British spirit the dictates of bis own mind, and the interests of has improved by transplanting; but this I dare human society, but by the arbitrary, unrestrained siruggles of their American brethren, will be their
affirm, that should Britons stoop to oppression, the will of another.
elernal reproach. I thank God we live in an age of ratio:al inquisi. correspondence by the town of Boston, has served
fThe instituting a committee of grievances and tion, when the unfettered mind dares to expatiate this valuable purpose: The general infraction of
the rights of all the colonies, must finally reduce *The ingratitude and curruption of Rome is, the discordant provinces, to a necessary combina. peri..ps, in no insiance, more strongly marked than tion for their mutual interest and defence: Some in her ireatment of her colonies; by their labors, future congress will be the glorious source of the :,15, and arms, stie i, ad reached to that summit of salvation of America: The Amphicijones of Greece, gk rious exsliation, as to be like Britain, the won who formed the diet or great council of the states, der and dread of the world; but by fatai experience exisibit an excellent model for the rising Ameri. those ruined colonies inculcate this serious lessoni, cans. the ao bition of a DESPOT is boundless; bis rapine is #Lord chief justice Coke obserres "when any ins.giable; the accomplishment of his conquests new device is nioved in the king's behalf, for aid over his enemies, is but the introduction of slavery, or the like, the commons may answer, they dare with her concimitant plagues, to his friends. not agree without conference with their coun:ies."
fT:e very idea of representa ive, deputy or trus- The novel dev'ce of fleecing the colonies, was tec, includes that of a constituent, whose interest introduced in a way the constitucion knows not they are ordained and apnointed to promote and se of, and cramined down their throals, by measures cure; wy unappointed, self constituted age..t in the equally iniquitous. Britis: parliament, la fraudulently and ai biirarily I will not alain the sticklers for the present surrendered my best interest, without my priviy measures, by confronting them with more stale or consent; I do therefore bereby pro est agains authorities, if they will perinit me the following all suc powers as ne: dl claim in my bel alt, a. d/sor but express teclaralin of Sidney, which they most sounniy discard him my service forevita may chew at leisure. No MAN CAN GIVE THAT WATCH See Lock, civil government. Risum teneatis audici. 19 ANOTAER’s.