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try, under the conduct of that superior man who so various the face of death, that not all the grand combines in quality the unshaken constancy of tragedies which bave been since acted, can crowd Cato, the triumphant delay of Fabius, and upon from our minds that æra of the human passions, proper occasions, the enterprising spirit of Hannibal. that preface to the general conflict that now rages.
May the name of Washington continue steeled, May we never forget to offer a sacrifice to the as it ever bas been, to the dark slanderous arrow manes of our brethren who bled so early at the that lies in secret. As it ever has been for who font of liberty. Hitherto we have nobly avenged have offered to eclipse his glory, but have after their fall: but as ages cannot expunge the debt, Ward sunk away diminished, and "shorn of their their melancholy gliosts still rise at a stated seaown beams."
son, and will forever wander in the night of this
noted anniversary. Let us then be frequent pil. Justice to other characters forbids our stopping
grims at their tombs--there let us profit of all our to gaze at this constellation of heroes, and would fain draw forth an eulogium upon all who have with woe,” give wing to the imagination. Hark!
feelings; and, while the senses are "struck deep gathered true laurels from the fields of America.
even now in the hollow wind I hear the voice of “ Thousands-the tribute of our praise * Demand; but who can count the stars of heaven?
the departed. Oye, who listen to wisdom and aspire "Who speak their influence on this lower world."*
to immortality, as ye have avenged our blood, thrico Whither has our gratitude borne us! let us be blesseel' a8 ye still war against the mighty hunters of hold a contrast-the army of an absolu e prince-a the earth, your names are recorded in heuven! profession distinct from the citizen and in a dif.
Such are the suggestions of fancy: and having ferent interest-a haughty phalans, whose object given them their due scope; having described the of warfare is pay, and who, the battle over, and if memorable fifth of March as a season of disaster, · perchance they conquer, return to slaughter the it would be an impiely not to consider it in its sons of peace. This is a hard saying. But does other relation. For the rising honors of these states not all history press forward to assert its justice? are distant issues, as it were, from the intricatet do not the prætorian bands of tottering Rome now though all-wise Divinity which presided upon that crowd upon the affrighted memory?. do not the night. Strike that night out of time, and we embodied guards from Petersburg and Constantino. quench the first ardor of a resentment which has pie stalk horrid the tools of revolution and murder? been ever since increasing, and now accelerates to come nearer home for an example, do we not the fall of tyranny. The proviscations of that night see the darkened spring of 1770, like the moon iu must be numbered among the master-springs which a thick atmosphere, rising in blood and ushered gave the first motion to a vast machinery, a noble in by the figure of Britain plunging her poignard and comprehensive system of national indepenin the young bosom of America? 01, our bleed. dence. “I'he independence of America," says the ing country! was it for this our hoary sires sought writer, under the signature of Common Sense, thee through all the elements,f and having found "should have been considered as dating its æra thee sheltering away from the western Wave, dis- from the first musquet that was fired against her.” consolate, cheered thy sad face, and decked thee Beit so! but Massachusetts may certainly date
inany out like the garden of God time was when we of its blessings from the Boston massacre- dark could all affirm to this gloomy question-when we hour in itself, but from which a marvellous light were ready to cry out that our fathers had done a has arisen. From that night revolution became vain thing.-I mean upon that unnatural night which inevitable, and the occasion commenced of the We now commemorate; when the fi.e of Brutus was present most beautiful form of government. We on many a beart--when the strain of Gracchus was often read of the original contract, and of inankind, on many a tongue. "Wretch that I am, whither in the early ages, passing from a state of nature to shall I retreat? whither shall I turn me! to the immediate civilization. But what eye could pene. Capitol? the capitol swims in my brother's blood. irale through gothic niglit and barbürous fable to To my family? ihere must I see a wretched, a mourn that remote period. Such an eye, p-rhaps, was ful and afflicted toother?" --Misery loves to brood present, when the Deity conceived the wniverse over its own woes: and so peculiar were the woes and fixed his compass upon the great deep # of that night, so expressive the pictures of despair,
** Plurima mortis imagu." •Thomson.
førhe ways of heaven are dark and intricate." I-elementa per omnia quærunt. Juv.
Hedison's Cat,. Guthrie's Cicero de Orature.
Not that we can believe, with soine theoretical
Like the first fathers of immortal Romne.
And yet the people of Massachusetts have reduc. of our salvation, let his army be replenished. That ed to practice the wonderful theory. A numerous grand duty over, we will once more adopt an people have convened in a state of nature, and, like enthusiasm sublime in itself, but still more so as our ideas of the patriarchs, have deputed a few coming from the lips of a first patriot-the chief fathers of the land to draw up for them a glorious magistrate of this commonwealth. “I have, said covenant. It has been drawn. The people have he, a most animating confidence that the present signed it with rapture, and have, thereby, bartered, noble struggle for liberty will terminate gloriously among themselves, an easy degree of obedience for America.” Aspiring to such a confidence, for the highest possible civil happiness. To render
I see the expressive leaves of fate thrown wide;
of future times I see the mighty tide. that covenant eternal, patriotism and political
And borne triumphant on its buoyant wave,
A god-like number of the great and brave. virtue must forever blaze-must blaze at the pre The bright, wide ranks of martyrs- here they rise
Heroes and patriots move before my eyes: sent day with superlative lustre; being watched, These crowind with olive, those with laurel come, from different motives, by the eyes of all mankind. Fly time! oh lash thy fery steeds a way
Roll rapid wheels and bring the smiling day," Nor must that patriotism be contracted to a single When these blest states, another promis'd land, commonwealth. A combination of the states is
Chosen out and foster'd by the Almighty hand,
The fix'd abodes of empire and of liberty. requisite to support them individually. “Unite or die" is our indispensable motto. Every step from ORATION. DELIVERED AT BOSTON, MARCH 5, 1782, it is a step nearer to the region of death. This BY GEORGE RICHARDS MINOT. idea was never more occasional than at the present Quid tantam insano juvat indulgere dolori?
Hon hæc sine numine divum. crisis crisis pregnant with fate and ready to
Virg. Æn. 2d. 776.
Eveniunt. burst with calamity. I allude to that langor Inde genus durum sumus, experiensque laborum;
Zt documenta amus, qua sinus origine nati. which, like a low bung cloud, overshadows a great
Ovid Metam. lib. 1. 414. part of the dirteen states. That the young, enter Fathers, friends, and fellow citizens-When I conprising America, who stepped out in the cause of sider the important occasion from which this anhuman kind, and no other arm daring, lopped the niversary derives its origin, and the respectable branches of wide despotic empire-that the same characters that have exerted themselves to perAmerica should now suffer a few insolent bands to petuate its history, I confess there is an unusual ravage her borders with impunity—that her noro security in my feelings; since no mistaken effort tardy hand should suspend the finishing stroke of of mine can injure an institution, founded on so resentment, and leave to her generous allies a labor memorable an event, and supported by names so which ber own vigor ought to effect; this must justly claiming the applause of posterity. disturb those, illustrious, who fell in her infant
While I rely, then, upon that honesty of inten. exertions; this must stab the peace of the dead, tion, which is itself the best apology for its errors, however it may affect the hearts of the living. Oh permit me to employ the present hour, whict. your could I bear a part among the means of awakening united voices have annually made sacred to the comvirtue-oh could I call strength to these feeble memoration of our country's wrongs, in recapitulatlungs and borrow that note which shook the throne ing the most injurious of her sufferings, among of Julius! vain wish! if the silent suggestions of which that on the tragical fifth of March is by no truth-if the secret whispers of reason are not
means the least, and in recounting the blessings sufficient—the efforts of human eloquence might which have followed from measures as really disbe futile, her loudest bolt might roll unheeded!
graceful to those who adopted them, as they were This is not intended to inspire gioom; but only intentionally destructive to those against whom to persuade to those exertions which are neces- they were levelled. sary to life and independence.' Let justice then
A nation falling from those great principles of be done to our country--let justice be done to our justice and virtue which had made her respectagreat leader; and, the only means under heaven ble; subverting the boasted improvements of her writers, that individuals met together in a large arts to the savage purposes of revenge; with plain, entered into an original contract, &c. venality and corruption entrenched on her cabinet,
But though society had not its formal beginning affords a spectacle too serious for the amusement from any convention of individuals, &c.
And ibis is what we mean by the original con. *Sun gallop down the western skies, tract of society; which, thougli perlimps, in no Gang soon to bed and quickly rise; instance it has been formally expressed, at the first O lash your steeds, post time away, institution of a state, yet, &c.-
And haste about the bleezing day. 1st Bluckstone's Com. p. 47, vid. The whole passnge.
of the beholder. He turns for relief to the annals as subservient to its purposes, as their hopes were of those people whose masculine virtues have dependent on its venality, and making pretence of obstinately, will be not say wisely, resisted the trespasses, which, if real, the laws were open to refinement of a civilized world. But from the punish, unmasked its true designs, by quartering misfortunes of such a nation, much is to be learn- an armed force in this metropolis in a time of peace. ed. As she is hurried onwards by the vortex of
Where was the citizen whose indignation did not that immeasurable gulph, in which empires sink Aash at this undisguised attack on his liberties? to rise no more, let her“serve us as a signal to avoid the soldiers pride too grew sanguinary at the idea the first impulse of its resistless tide.
of contempt from the people he himself had been To trace Great Britain through the whole pro taught to despise; and, as though heaven designed gress of her ambition in this country, would be to to effect its greatest purposes by the sacrifice of step back to a very early period: for, long before what men conceive to be the dearest objects of she avowed her system of colonial slavery in the its guardianship, the lives and rights of citizens stamp-act, the liberties of our ancestors had were delivered over to the scourge of military endured the most alarming innovation from her rancour. throne. Without cause, and without notice, she *Venerable patrons of freedom, wherever your bad invalidated their charters; laid impositions up. country may lie! boast not that the reason and on their trade; attempted a most dangerous influ. speculative truths of this our common cause, armed ence over their internal government, by endeavor. an extensive world in support of its justice. Turn ing to make it independent of the people;-and all to the tragedy we commemorate, as imprinted by this with the same confidence, as though her policy the bloody hand of the tyrant, and view the highest and foresight, and not her persecutions, had settled outrage his power could commit, or the forbear. them on this side the Atlantic.
ance of humanity sustain. There hecatombs of But the full display of her despotic policy was slaughtered citizens were offered at the shrine of reserved to add accumulated disgrace to the in- cursed ambition. What can we add to their glorious reign of the third-George. Then, intoxicat. memories through whose wounds their country ed with America, she slumbered upon the tottering bled; whose names are handed round the globe pillars of her own constitution; the hand of slavery willa the great occasion on which they fell; and rocked her as she lay on the giddy height; falsehood whose tombs shall ever stand a basis to the stateliest gilded her visions and bound her senses with the pillar in the temple of freedom? heaven has avenged enchantment of success; while her blind ambition their fall by realizing the prophecy of the indignant alone remained awake, to misdirect the ordinary American, as he vented his anguish over their assistance of fortune, and to make her fall equally rankling blood. "These are indeed my country's certain and complete.
wounds, but oh! said he, the deep and tremendous
restitutions are at hand; I see them with a prophetic The genius of Britain once interred, the first
eye this mo pent before me. Horrors shall be spectre which shot from its tomb was the stamp. repaid with accumulation of horror. The wounds act. This promulgation of a scheme so repugnant in America shall be succeeded by deep-mouthed to the fundamental principles of the late English con. stitution, announced the fall, but did not obliterate gashes in the heart of Britain! the chain of solemn
consequences is now advancing. Yet, yet my the memory of that much respected system, in this
friends, a little while, and the poor, forlorn one, country. America saw that the act bore not a sin...
who has fought and fallen at the gate of her proper gle feature of its reputed parent, and having de tected its illegitimacy, effectually resisted its ope of life
, for all the sweet and binding principles in
habitation, for freedom, for the common privileges ration. But, as though conviction must ever be
humanity, for father, son, and broiher, for the productive of obstinacy, Britain desisted not to
cradled infant, the wailing widow, and the weeping rend in pieces the charters of her colonies, which served to remind her of the violence she commited
maid; yet, yet a little while and she shall find an on her own. Her administration affecting to realize. avenger. Indignant nations shall arm in her dę. the fables" of its minions, whose very fears were
fence. Thrones and principalities shall make her
cause their own, and the fountains of blood that *For some of these fanciful misrepresentations, have run from her exhausied veins shall be ansves. see a vindication of the town of Boston, from many false and malicious aspersions, contained in certain *See Abbe Raynal's bist. American revolution, letters written by governor Bernard and others, p. 65. published by order of the town, 1769.
ed by a yet fuller measure of the horrible effusion must ever enliven her gratitude; exalt the honor of -blood før blood; and desolation for desolation; France, and we trust too, promote the interests of O my injured country! my massacred America!” both. Melancholy scene! the fatal, but we trust the
Among the advantages which have arisen from
these great events to the people of Massachusetts, last effect in our country of a standing army quarter. ed in populous cities in a time of peace.
that of securing their lives, their liberties, and pro
perty, the great object of all civil government, by Britain having thus violated the greatest law a constitution of their own framing, is not to be nations or individuals can be held by, to use the accounted the least. Dismembered from a govern. language of the ancients, threw a veil over the ment, which had long stood by the exactest balance altars of her gods whom she was too haughty to of its powers, even against the corruption of its appease. Would to heaven, for her sake, we too ministers, they found themselves accustomed to had a veil to hide from the eye of justice, the principles, which age had stamped with authority, ashes of our desolated towns, and the tracts which and patriots sealed with their blood. The cause ber ravages have imprinted through every quarter of their separation bad taught them the avenues of our once peaceful land.
through which despotism insinuates itself into the If* "every act of authority of one person over ano. community, and pointed out the means of exclud. ther, for which there is not an absolute necessity, ing it. Under these circumstances they produced is tyrannical," and if tyranny justifes resistance, a system which, we trust, experience will evince to haveremained inactive, under these injuries, had to be an improvement* upon the best mankind have been a kind of political stoicism, equally inconsist. hitherto admired. The quick return of all delegatent with the laws of nature and of society. Oned power to the people, from whom it is made to such principles arose the memorable declaration spring, and the check which each part of the go. of July, 1776.-A declaration which at once gave
vernment has upon the excesses of the other, seem life and freedom to a nation; dissolved a monopoly
to warrant us in placing on it all the confidence hu. unnatural as unjust; and extended the embraces of man laws can deserve. But, our country to the universe.- A declaration which
Let us not trust laws: an uncorrupted people can heaven has since ratified by the successful event exist without them; a corrupted people cannot long of her arms. For, when we consider the number
exist with them, or any other human assistance. of her victories; the disadvantages under which they are remedies which at best always disclose they were obtained; with the chain of important
and confess our evils. The body politic, once consequences which depended upon the very mo.
distempered, they may indeed be used as a crutch ment of their decision, who but must acknowledge,
to support it a while, but they can never heal it. after allowing to our military actors every thing
Rome, when her bravery conquered the neighborheroism can claim, that there appeared peculiar ing nations, and united them to her own empire, marks of more than human assistance the surrender
was free from all danger within, because her armies, of entire armies to a power which they affected to being urged on by a love for their country, would look upon rather as an object of their chains than as readily suppress an internal as an external ene. of their swords, was a degree of glory which no my. In those times she made no scruple to throw enemy that ever passed the Roman yoke afforded out her kings who bad abused their power. But to that republic. Hapless Britain! for even those
when her subjects fought not for the advantage of whom you injure must pity you, how has fortune
the commonwealth; when they thronged to the added acrimony to her fickleness, in choosing for a Asiatic wars for the spoils they produced, and prescene of your disgrace, that climate where, in a
ferred prostituting the rights of citizenship upon late war, she so loudly vaunted the invincibility of any barbarian that demanded them, to meeting your arms!
him in the field for their support, then Rome grew
too modest to accept from the hands of a dictator America once unfettered, nobly relied upon
those rights, which she ought to have impaled him uprightness of her cause and the bravery of her, for daring to invade. No alteration in her laws sons. But, as though the virtues of one crown
merely, could have effected this. Had she remained were to apologize for the merciless cruelty of ano- virtuous, she might as well have expelled her ther, a monarch, equally wise in council as brilliant dictators as her kings. But what laws can save a and powerful in arms, met her in an alliance which
* Is it not so in the equality of representation and * Beceria on crimes and punishments, p. 10. mode of election?
people who, for the very purpose of enslaving them are we in the frequent change of our soldiery. selves, choose to consider them rather as councils This seems to be the best antidote against such an which they may accept or refuse, than as precepts evil. It prevents that lethargy which would be a which they are bound to obey?* with such a people symptom of death in the citizen at bome; and checks they must ever want a sanction and be contemned. that immoderation in the soldier which is apt to - Virtue and long life seem to be as intimately mislead his virtues in the field. By this exchange allied in the political as in the moral world: she is of their qualities they mutually warrant happiness the guard wbich providence has set at the gate of to each other, and freedom to their country. freedom.
America once guarded against herself, what has Trne it is, when the nature and principles of a she to fear? her natural situation may well inspire government are pure, we have a right to suppose her with confidence. Her rocks and her mountains it at the farthest possible distance from falling. are the chosen temples of liberty. The extent of But when we consider that those countriegt in her climate, and the variety of its produce, throw which the wisest institutions of republican govern. tle means of her greatness into her own hands, ments have been established, now exhibit the and insure her the traffic of the world. Navies strongest instances of apostacy, we cannot but see shall launch from her forests, and her bosom be the necessity of vigilance. Commerce, wbich makes found stored with the most precious treasures of perhaps, the greatest distinction between the old nature. May the industry of her people be a still world and the modern, having raised new objects surer pledge of her wealth.-The union of her for our curiosity, babitual indulgence hath at length states too is founded upon the most durable prin. made them necessary to our infirmities.
Thus ciples: the similarity of the manners, religion, and effeminated, can we hope to exceed the rigor of laws of their inhabitants, must ever support the their principles, who even forbade the mentioning measure which their common injuries originated, of a foreign custom, and whose sumptuary laws are Yer government, while it is restrained from violat. held up in our age as objects of astonishment? Such ing the rights of the subject, is not disarmed against nations have mouldered away, an uncontrovertable the public foe. proof, that the best constructed human govern. Could Junius Brutus, and his colleagues, have ments, like the human body, tend to corruption; beheld her republic erecting itself on this disjoint. but as with that too, there are not wanting remedies ed neck of tyranny, how would they have wreathed to procrastinate their final decay..
a laurel for her temples as eternal as their own
memories! America! fairest copy of such great Among the causes of their fall there are none
originals! 'be virtuous, and thy reign shall be as more common or less natural than that of their own
happy as durable, and as durable as the pillars of strength. Continual wars making a military force
the world you have enfranchised. necessary, the habit of conquest once acquired and other objects being wanting, history is not
ORATION DELIVERED AT BOSTON, MARCA 5, 1783,
BY DR. THOMAS WELSH. withouts instances of its turning itself inwards, and
Non tali auxilio, nec defensoribus istis knewing as it were, upon its own bowels. Happy
Tempus eget: Virgil Eneid, Lib. 2. Lin. 521. *A conscience more scrupulous, than it is proba
Friends and fellow-citizens-Invited to this place ble Sylla ever had, would be apt to imagine this by your choice, and recollecting your well knowa general disposition of the people wiped away the indulgence, I feel myself already possessed of your guiit of enslaving them from any hand that effected it. If in any case,” is in this that we may apply the candor, while I “impress upon your minds, the mexím volenti non fit injuria.
ruinous tendency of standing armies being placed Virtue, in a republic, is a most simple thing, it in free and populous cities in a time of peace.” is a love for the republic; it is a sensation, and not & consequence of acquired knowledge; a sensation
A field here presents, annually traversed by those that may be felt by the meanest as well as by the who, by their sagacity have discovered, and by bigbest person in the state.
Spirit of laros, book 5th, chap. 2d. *The design of society being o protect the weak The politic Greeks who lived under a popular taking away the distinction between them, and to
against the more powerful, whatever tends to government, who knew no other support but virtue. The modera inhabitants of that country are entirely be consonant to its first principles. This was an
putting all its members upon the same level, must taken up with manufactures, commerce, finances, object with the old republics; Rome obliged her riches, and luxury. Spirit of laws, book 3d, chap. 3d.
citizens to serve in the field ten years, between the
age of sixteen years and forty-seven.- l'id. ReflecFor a complete collection of these, I beg lesve trons on the rise and fall of the Rom. Enp. c. lo last to refer to the 3d book of the political disquisitions.' note.