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What but the want of patrio:ism, that hath buried; them in old age. They lead us to reflect seriously in ruins the mighly empires of Greece and Rome, in the hour of retirement, and to cherish those that standing armies, the scourge of the innocent, qualifications which are frequently lost in the glare prevail throughout all Europe, that the pages of of prosperity. history present to our view so melancholy &
The important prophecy is nearly accomplished. picture of the human species, and that America The rising glory of this western bemisphere is al. and Britain are not at this day running the road ready announced, and she is summoned to her seat to greatness and glory in concert; and what is it
among the nations.
We have publicly declared but the want of patriotism that could induce that ourselves convinced of the destructive tendency haughty nation, divested of every public virtue, of of sta"ding armies: we have acknowledged the every bosom feeling, of every pretension to bu- necessity of public spirit and the love of virtue to manity, without apology or pretext, to usher a stand the happiness of any people, and we profess to be ing army, composed of vagrants, criminals, and sensible of the great blessings that Aow from them. mercenaries, into our peaceful country.
Let us not then act unworthy of the reputable
character we now sustain: like the nation we have O my countrymen, it is the want of patriotism that we are at this time called to weep over the abandoned, be content with freedom in form and
yranny in substance, profess virtue and practice wanton massacre of innocent men; that this is not the only house of mourning; that the fields of Ame. vice, and convince an attentive world that in this rica have become devoted to war, and scenes of glorious struggle for our lives and properties, the
only men capable of prizing such exalted privileges, slaughter familiar to her sons; that our oppressors
were an illustrious set of heroes, who have sealed yet persist in tbeir destructive system of tyranny,
their principles with their blood. Dwell, my fel. and if their power was equal to their thirst of
low-citizens, upon the present situation of your blood, with the spirit of ambition by which they are now directed, would lead them to destroy and country. Remember that though our enemies have
dispensed with the hopes of conquering, our land extirpate the whole human race. But thanks be to beaven, that by the force of those virtues which is not entirely freed of them, and should our resist.
ance prove unsuccessful by our own inattention and they have discarded, we have nobly resisted the
inactivity, death will be far preferable to the yoke attempts of these cruel men, and the miseries they
of bondage. bave so profusely dealt out to us, are relurning, with additional vengeance, upon their own heads.
Let us therefore be still vigilant over our ene. The danger of the issue is now past, and if we but mies-instil into our armies the righteous cause retain the same patriotic ardor, with which we first they protect and support, and let not the soldier defended our rights from the grasp of our enemies, and citizen be distinct characters among us. By they are every day in our power. We have every
our conduct let us convince them, that it is for thing to hope; they on the other hand have every
the preservation of themselves and their country thing to fear. Youth, vigor, and the invincible they are now fighting; that they, equally with us, are of justice, are on our side:-The genius of li. are interested in the event, and abandon them not berty also is our advocate, who, though persecuted, to the insatiable rapacity of the greedy extortioner. bath never been conquered.
As a reward for our exertions in the great cause In our day we are called to see a happy country
of freedom, we are now in the possession of those Jaid woste at the shrine of ambition; to experience rights and privileges attendant upon the original those scenes of distress which history is filled witb: state of nature, with the opportunity of establishbut experience rivels its lessons upon the mind, ing a governments for ourselves, independent upon and if we resolve with deliberation, and execute any nation or people upon earth. We have the with vigor, we may yet be a free and flourishing experience of ages to copy from, advantages that people. Repine not too much at the ravages of *It has ever been thought inconsistent with good war, nor murmur at the dispensations of Providence policy and even common sense to commit the de. We oftentimes rate our blessings in proportion to
fence of a country to men who have no interest in its preservation.
Diod. Lib. 1. p. 67. the difficulty of attaining them, and if, without a
trhe true definition of a free state is where the struggle, we had secured our liberties, perhaps legislative adheres strictly to the laws of nature, we should have been less sensible of their value. and calculates every one of its regulations for im. Chastisements in youth are not without their ad. Iproving society and for promoting industry and
honesty among the people. Vantages; blessings most commonly spring from
Home's hist. col. 2. p. 132.
bave been denied to any who have gone before us progress in particular nations, if we paint the Let us thén, my fellow-citizens, learn to value the wounds she has suffered from corruption and blessing: Let integrity of heart, the spirit of despotic force, and from the whole deduce sucha freedom and rigid virtue be seen to actuate every sentiments as become a brave and free, though inmember of the commonwealth. Let not party rage, jured people. private animosities, or self interested motives, Numerous as the descriptions are of primeval succeed that religious attachment to the public man, the reflective eye is not yet weary. We still weal which has brought us successfully thus far; feel an interest in that Arcadian state which so for vain are all the boasted charms of liberty if well imitated the world we are looking for. And her greatest votaries are guided by such base
we shall continue to feel it so long as nature is passions. The trial of our patriotism is yet be
pleasing and the heart retains a feature of innoe fore us, and we have reason to thank heaven that
cence. Like the gods," our first fathers had but ils principles are so well known and diffused. Es few desires, and those to be satisfied by the works ércise towards each other the benevolent feelings of virtue. Their passions were as the gales of their of friendship, and let that unity of sentiment, which own Eden-enough to give a spring to good actions has shone in the field, be equally animating in our
-to keep the waters of life in motion without councils.
inducing storm and whirl-wind.t Conversing with Remember that prosperity is dangerous: that divinities, liberty, sent from above, was their thouge successful, we are not infallible; that like peculiar inmate: that liberty, whose spirit, mingling the rest of mankind we are capable of erring. The with the nature of man at his formation, taught line of our bappiness may be traced with exactness, him, unlike the other animals, to look upward and and still there may be a difficulty in pursuing it. hope for a throne above the stars:t that liberty who Let us not forget that our enemies bave other arts taught him to pluck, with confidence, the fruits in store for our destruction; that they are tempting of nature; to pursue the direction of reason upon os into those snares which, after successful strug bis heart, and, under thut direction, to acquire, gles, proved the ruin of the empires of the east; secure, and enjoy all possible happiness, oot iinand let this sacred maxim receive the deepest peding, but assisting others in the same privilege. impression upon our minds, that if avarice, if When families, and consequently human wants extortion, if luxury and political corruption, are were afterward multiplied, it was this same liberty suffered to become popular among us, civil discord who, joined with justice, led the patriarchs to and the ruin of our country will be the speedy con. some aged oak. There, in the copious shade, mis. sequence of such fatal vices; but while patriotism understandings were explained, and charity and is the leading principle, and our laws are contrived peace embraced each other.-Such was the mornwith wisdom, and executed with vigor, while in- ing of man! dustry, frugality and temperance, are held in
Bilt misunderstandings are quarrels in embrio. estimation, and we depend upon public spirit and satisfaction of one want originated another. De the love of virtue for our social happiness, peace pravity grew enraptured with strife. The wind and affluence will throw their smiles upon the was up. Passion raged. Brother's blood then brow of the individual, our commonwealth will smoaked from the ground and cried for vengeance. fourish, our land become the land of liberty, and Nimrod commenced his prelude to tyranny, and AMERICA an asylum for the oppressed.
Fame was clamorous with the deeds of death,
Liberty heard and trembled-considered herself ORATION DELIVERYD AT BOSTON, MARCH 5, 1781,
an outcast, and has, on many times since, travelled BY THOMAS DAWES, JUN. & Patria cara-carlor Libertas!"
*It was represented of Marcus Aurelius, that in Fathers, friends and citizens--- Avoiding apology, imita:ing the gods, his study was to have as few even at a time when uncommon propriety might wants as possible. Vod. Spectator No. 634.
flhe passions of every kind, under proper re. justify it, and trusting rather to a continuance of
straints, are the gentle breezes which keep life the same liberality which has ever noted my counc from stagnation; but, let loose, they are the storms trymen, I utlempi the duties of this solemn anniver and whirlwinds which tear up all before them.
Mrs. Brooke. Sary.
Pronaque cum spectent animalia cæiera terram, And it is conceived that we shall, in some mea Os homini sublime dedit, cælumque tueri
Ovid, Mr. sure, perform those duties, if we sketch out some
No man's social liberty is lessened by another's general traits of liberty, and mark the lines of her 'enjoying the same,
up and down the world forlorn, forsaken, majesty, ther< was somewhere a happier institution for man
The name of Venice now occurs to memory as
another modern example of genuine greatness. Liberty, my friends, is a palladium to the place
The ascendency gained by that single city over of her dwelling, a rock and a sure defence. Wher.
the whole Ottoman power—the universal panic that ever she is, every man has something to protect.
struck and pervaded all orders of the Turks when He knows what are his riches, and that while he
routed at Dardanelles, and the reasonable fear of liveth himself shall gather them. He views, with
approaching dissolution that reached even to the conscious joy, his circumstances. His social affec
throne and blasted the heart and withered the tions shoot out and flourish. Even his prejudices
verves of a despot: these, amazing at first, neverare a source of satisfaction, and among them local
theless appear, when their springs are laid open, attachmeni, a fault which leads to the side of
the natural issues of a contest between free agents patriotism.
and slaves.f Supported by, and tenacious of these fruits of
A more ancient and perhaps still more brilliant liberty, some little free states, which the geogra.
proof of the proportionate powers of different pher in his map had otherways never noticed, have
degrees of liberty, may be gathered from the long stood uninjured by change, and some of them
annals of the city of Tyre. The Lybian madmant inaccessible by the greatest efforts of power.
who thought he had conquered all and wept that There is now, in a distant quarter of the globe, a living illustration of this remark. Situate upon Jove, before whom principalities and powers had
he had no more to conquerg-the invincible son of a venerable pile of rocks, in Italy, stands the com.
bowed down their heads as a bulrush--behold him, monwealth of St. Marino. It was founded by a
witli his phalanx, puzzled and confounded at the boly man whose name it bears, and who fled to this romantic fairy-land to enjoy religion and free * Many of the facts here mentioned of St. Marino air, unpursued by power and the restless spirit of may be seen in Addison's more complete accounts
of that republic. the world. His example was followed by the
fThis alludes only to a particular'æra in the pious, the humane, and the lovers of freedom.
Venetian history. And these, a favourite few, who were before #And the horned head belied the Lybian god. scattered up and down through other parts of
salexander, after all his conquests, complained Italy; who had lived all their days under arbitrary that he had no more worlds to subdue. rule, and whom nature had secretly taught that
Seneca on a happy life.
Walls of Tyre. To over-run Asia cost him less their country and its manners. Upon the banks of labor, enterprize and valor, than the reduction of Eurota flourished her principal state. Frugality this one favorite haunt of liberty." And perhaps of living and an avarice of time were of the riches he had never reduced her but for her own falling of Lacedæmon. Her maxims were drawn from off from her pristine wisdom. Her liberty was nature, and one was "that nothing which bore the not in first fuil vigor, but had received a shock name of Greek was born for slavery” From this from corruption introduced with riches. Bribery, idea flowed an assistance to her sister states. From pride, and oppression followed close behind. She a like idea in her sister states that friendship was was then cast out as prophane from the mountain returned in grateful measure. This, had it con. of Godf Tyre is become like the top of a rock tinued, would have formed the link of empire, the -a place to spread nets upon.
charm that would have united and made Greece Let us consider the story of Tyre as a monument
invulnerable. While it lasted, the joint efforts of which upon one side shews the force of excellence,
her states rendered her a name and a praise through and upon the other the baneful influence of vice; the whole earth. And here, was it not for the a memento that every state below the sun has, like sake of a lesson to my country, I would not only Achilles of old, some vulnerable part. As not a
drop my eulogium of Greece, but draw an impervious nation is exempted; and lest, in a fond prejudice, veil over her remaining history. Her tenfold lustre we might exclude our own America, and so induce might at this day have blazed to heaven, bad the a fatal security, even America has received a caveat union of her states been held more sacred. But from heaven, and in her youthful purity has been that union of her states, that cement of her existtempted by her enemies. With what sort of successence once impared-hear the consequence! the tempted we need but remember the machinations fury of civil-war blows her accursed clarion. The and Aight of the most infamous Arnold, and the banners late of conquering freedom now adorn the affecting, though just separation of the unfortunate triumphs of oppression. Those states which lately Andre.
stood in mighty concert, invincible, now breathe Happy the nation that, apprised of the whole mutual jealousy and fall piece-meal a prey to the truth, impartially weighs its own alloy, and bars, common enemy. Attic wisdom, Theban hardihood, with tenfold adamant, its gate of danger.—But Spartan valor, would not combine to save her.
That very army, which Greece had bred and to return, I had cherished some aversion to names grown
nourished to reduce the oriental pride, is turned trite by repetition, and had, on that account, evaded vulture upon her own vitals—a damnable parricide, the ancient republics. But I find the observation the faction of a tyrant. "Behold the great and God. just, that "half our learning is their epilaph." I like Greece, with all her battlements and towers conceive that the “moss-grown” columns and about ber, borne bead long from her giddy height
the shame, the pity of the world. broken arches of those once-renowned empires are fall with instruction as were the groves of Lyceum * Arcuracy bas been offended that this example or the school of Plato. Let Greece then be the is employed for the American states—which resem:
bie each other in constitution and are united in siühject of a moment's reflection. When liberty their last resort; whereas the Grecian were unlike fled from the gloom of Egypt, she sought out and among themselves and professedly separate. But settled at infant Greece-there disseminated the attention to the history of Greece will discover in
the causes of her fall a lesson sufficiently apposite seeds of greatness--there laid the ground-work of
our purpose. The anonymous translator of republican glory. Simplicity of manners, piety to Tourreil writes as follows: "when Persia, so often the gods, generosity and courage were her earliest vanquished by the Grecians, despaired of subduing
them, her last shift was to divide them; to which character. “Human nature shot wild and free.”+ their prosperity opened her a means. Spirits ta. Penetrated with a spirit of industry, her sons turally quick and too licentious, blown up wiib scarcely knew of relaxation: even their sports were selves or govern their good fortune; they abandoned
their frequent victories, could not contain them. heroic. Hence that elevated, independent soul, themselves to jealousies and ambition. These that contempt of danger, that laudable bias to divisions ended, at last, in a general slavery.”
Thomson most beautifully speaks the trutb up. *For an illustration of this see ancient universal on the same occasion history, vol. ii. Page 75 and on; also-that part of
When Greece with Greece,
Embroil'd with foul contention, fought no more Newton on the prophecies which relates to Tyre, vol. i.
For common glory and for common weal:
But, false to freedom, sought to quell the tree; fEzekiel, xxxiii. 16.
Broke the firm band of peace, and sacred love,
That lent the whole irrefragable fore; Prom Dr. Blair's dissertation upon the works
And as around the partial trophy blusb'd, of Ossian.
Prepared the way for total overtbrow.
Having attempted some general sketches of li the same men should throw off a whig principio berty, from the dawn of social life to the fall of na. so fundamental, and thus come to clothe themtional glory, I would be somewhat more particular selves with the detested garments of the tories, upon those qualities to which ber triumphs are and if all that has been here discoursed on should chiefly indebted.
happen, then will the constitution of this country
be utterly subverted."* In the vile economy of depraved man, there ap. limits of the present occasion to expatiate upon all
It would exceed the pears an inclination to bestow upon one part power the instances wherein the liberties of Britain have and aifluence, and to impose upon the other
in fact suffered according to the views of Davenant, debility and woe. When that inclination is gratified, Suflice.it to say that a standing army has been, the majority being slaves, the reinains of freedom
long since, virtunlly engrafted a limb upon her are shared among the great; like the triumphal constitution, has frequently over-awed her parlia. bridge at the Archipelago, so strangely dignified,
ments, sometimes her elections, f and has carried that, hy a decree of the senate, none of the vulgar distraction and massacret into different parts of were suffered to enjoy it. When that inclination her empire. is counter-bulanced by the laws; when the true
That standing mercenary troops must sooner or interests of both those parts are reconciled; when society is considered as a public combination for later entail servitude and misery upon their em. private protection," —and the governed find ployers, is an eternal truth that appears from the their happiness in their submission—there is the nature of things. On the one hand behold an essence of all powerful liberty. Not to wire-draw inspired yeomanry, all sinew and soul, having a sentiment a'ready graven upon the hearts of this stepped out and defended their ancient altars, their
wives and children, returning in peace to till those audience, it is such a liberty, as that every man who has once tasted it, becomes a temporary soldier fields which their own arms have rescued. Sucha as soon as it is invaded and resents any violence are the troops of every free people.s Such were offered it, as an attack upon his lif---hence it is the troops who, led on by the patriot Warren, gave
the first home.blow to our oppressors. Such were that, in free states, us such, there is no such thing as a perpetual standing army. For the whole body the troops who, fired by Gates in the northern
woods, almost decided the fate of nations. Such of the people, ever ready, flock to the general standard upon emergency, and so preclude the use
were the troops who, under the great and amiable of that infernal engine. I say infernal engine, for Lincoln, sustained a siege in circumstances that the tongue “labors, and is at a loss to express,” the
rank him and them with the captains and soldiers hideous and frigh ful consequences that fow where. of antiquity. Such, we trust, are the troops who,
inferior in number, though headed indeed by the ever the powers of hell have procured its introduc. tion. Turkey and Algiers are the delight of its gallant and judicious Morgan, lately vanquished a vengeance. Denmark, once over-swarmed with
chosen veteran band long dedicated to Mars and the brave inhabitants of the north, has suffered disciplined in blood. And such, we doubt not, are depopulation, poverty, and the heaviest bondage
the troops who beat the British legions from the
Jersies, and have ever since preserved their coun. from the quartering troops amongst their peasants in time of peace: if it can be called peace, when *For the whole passage, which was to lengthy robbery, conflagration and murder are let loose
for our purpose, vid. the works of Dr. Davenant,
corrected by Whitworth, vol. ii. p. 333.-Edition upon the sons of men. Indeed, it is said that no 1771. nation ever kept up an army in time of peace that. The election of the Scotch Peers in the year did not luge its liberties. I believe it. Athens, at the election of the Westminster members in the
1735, and the misconduct of Blackerby and others, Corinth, Syracuse, and Greece in general were all year 1741, are instances well known.-Vid. Burgh's overturned by that tremendous power: and the politic disq. 2d vcl. p. 444 and 473. same power has been long operating with other London Magazine for 1737, in a variety of psges)
#Tbe affair of capt. Porteus at Edinburgb (vid. causes to humble the crest of Britain.
Let us and of capt. Presion, at Boston, are of themselves hear a passage from Davenant! "IF (says be, speak- sufficient examples. ing of standing armies) if they who believed this people”-was, if memory serves, in a celebrated
"That the yeomanry are the bulwark of a free eagle in the air frighted all motions towards li-lextempore speech of the honorable Samuel Adams, berty, if they who heretofore thought armies in made in the year 1773. The steadiness of that time of peace, and our freedom inconsistent; if sentiments grounded upon just data will not easily
great republican to his political creed, evinces that *Earl of Abingdon.
bend to a partial interesi, or accommodate to the changes of popular opinion.