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To his ercellency George Washington, esquire, general, return again in peace and triumph to enjoy the
The fortitude and perseverance which you and
returned from exile, in behalf of themselves and of the war, have not only endeared you to your their suffering brethren:
countrymen, but will be remembered with adorira. S18-At a moment when the army of tyranny ion and applause, to the latest posterity. is yielding up its fondest usurpations, we hope the May the tranquility of your city be perpetualsalu:ations of long-suffering exiles, but now happy may the ruins soon be repaired, commerce flourish, freemen, will not be deemed an unhappy tribute. In science be fostered, and all the civil and social virthis place, and at this moment of exultation and tri. tues be cherished in the same illustrious manner umph, while the ensigns of slavery still linger in our which formerly reflected so much credit on the sight, we look up to you, our deliverer, with unusual inhabitants of New York. In fine, may every species transports of gratitude and joy. Permit us to wel- of felicity attend you, gentlemen, and your Forthy come you to this city, long torn from us by the hard fellow-citizens.
GEORGE WASHINGTOY. band of oppression, but now, by your wisdom and energy, under the guidance of Providence, once more The address to gov. Clinton, with the answer. the seat of peace and freedom. We forbear to speak to his excellency George Clinton esquire, goderner of our gratitude or your praise. We should but echo
the state of New York, commander in chief of the the voice of applauding millions. But the citizens
militia, and admiral of the navy of the sane, of New-York are eminently indebted to your vir.
The address of the citizens of New York, who have tues; and we, who have now the honor to address
returned from exile, in bebalf of themselves and your cxcellency, have often been companions of
their suffering brethren: your sufferings and witnesses of your exertions. Permit us, therefore, to approach your excellency the head of the government of this state, devoid, as
S1Q-When we consider your faithful labors at with the dignity and sincerity of freemen, and to
we conceive every free people ought to be, of fistassure you that we shall preserve, with our latest
tery, we think we should not be wanting in grati. breath, our gratitude for your services, and venerad tude to your vigilant and assiduous services in the tion for your character; and accept of our sincere civil line. and earnest wishes that you may long enjoy that
The state, sir, is highly indebted to you in your calm domestic felicity, which you have so gener. military capacity; a sense of your real merit will ously sacrificed that the cries of injured liberty
secure to you that reputation which a brave man may never more interrupt your repose and that opposing himself in defence of his country, will your happiness may be equal to your virtues.
ever deserve. Signcd, at the request of the meeting,
We most sincerely congratulate you on your bap. Thomas Randall, Thomas Tucker,
py arrival at the capital of the state. Your excel. Danh. Phenix,
Pat. Dennison, lency bath borne a part with us in the general dis-
Abrm. P. Lott.
you could not effectually remove. Your example Epbraim Brashier,
taught us to suffer with dignity. New-York, Nov. 25, 1783.
We beg leave to assure your excellency that, as
prudent citizens and faithful subjects to the people His excellency's answer to the citizens of NewYork, of the state of New.York, we will do every thing who have relurned from exile:
in our power to enable you to support order and GEXTLENES--I thank you sincerely for your affec. good government in the community, over which you tionate address, and entreat you to be persuaded have, by the suffrages of a free and discerning peothat nothing could be more agreeable to me than ple, been elected to preside. your polite congratulations. Permit me, in return, Signed, at request of the meeting, to felicitate you on the happy repossession of your
Thomas Randall, Thomas Tucker,
Danl Pl enix, Henry Kipp, city.
Pai, De nison, Great as your joy must be on this pleasing occa
Wm. Gilbert, sen. Wm. Gilbert, jun. sion, it can scarcely exceed that which I feel at
Francis Van Dyck, Jeremiah Wool,
Geo. Janeway, Abrm. P. Lott. seeing you, gentlemen, who, from the noblest mo.
Ephraim Brashier, tires, bave suffered a voluntary exile of many years, New York, Noo. 25, 1783..
His ercellency'r reply.
dition of, and proceedings in, that town many GENTLEMEN--Accept my most sincere thanks for years ago, from which we select the following as your very affectionate and respectful address: Citi. suited to the design of this work: zens who, like you, to vindicate the sacred cause of The British army evacuated Boston on the fore. freedom, quitted their native city, their fortunes noon of Sunday, the 17th March, 1776. On the af. and possessions, and sustained, with manly forti. ternoon of that day I landed (in company with a surtude, the rigors of a long and painful exile, super. geon who was ordered in by genenral Washington) added to the grievous calamities of a vengeful war, at the bottom of the common, near the high bluft, merit, in an eminent degree, the title of patriots which was taken away a few years ago to make and the esteem of mankind; and your confidence Charles.street. The first object that I observed on and approbation are honors which cannot be receiv. landing was a thirteen inch iron mortar on the beach ed without the utmost sensibility or contemplated of extraordinary dimensions and weight, which the without grati:ude and satisfaction.
British had thrown down from a battery they bad To your sufferings and to the invincible spirit erected on the height above. I was told that ano. with which they were surmourted, I have been wit. ther of the same size was sunk at the end of the ness, I have deeply lamented that I had not means long.wharf, which was afterwards raised. One of to alleviate them equal to my inclination.
thern is now at the navy-yard in Charleston, and the The assurances of your firm sunport in the admi. other was a few years since on the grand battery at nistration of government, give me singular plea New-York, were it was carried in the same year. sure. A reverence for the laws is peculiarly essen. On crossing the conmon we found it very much tial to public safety and prosperity under our free disfigured with ditches and cellars, which had been constitution; and should we suffer the authority of dug by the British troops for their accommodation the magistrate to be violated for the sake of private when in camp. To our great regret, we saw several vengeance, we should be unworthy of the number. large trees lying in the mall, which had been cut less blessings which an indulgent Providence hath down that morning. We were informed that the placed in our reach. I shall endeavor steadily to dis- tories were so exasperated at being obliged to leave charge' my duty, and I fatter myself that this state the town, that they were determined to do all the will become no less distinguished for justice and mischief possible, and had commenced destroying public tranquility, in peace, than it has hitherto that beautiful promenade; but it being told to some been marked, in war, for vigor, fortitude and per of the selectmen, they went in haste to general severance.
Howe, and represented the circumstance, who kind. Gentlemen-Your kind congratulations on my ar. ly sent one of his aids to forbid the futher destrucrival at this metropolis, after so long an absence, are lion of the trees, and to reprimand the tories for highly acceptable, and I most cordially felicitate their conduct. General Ilowe could not but feel you on the joyful events which have restored us to some degree of grateful regard and sympathy for the the free and uncontrolable enjoyment of our rights. people of Massachusetts, as they had erected a mon. While we regard, with inviolable gratitude and af- ument in Westminster Abbey to the memory of his fection all who have siled us by their counsel or their brother, whose urbane and gentlemanly deport. arms, let us not be unmindful of that Almighty Be- ment, had gained the esteem and respect of the ing, whose gracious Providence has been manifestly Massachusetts forces, and who was killed in a batinterposed for our deliverance and protection, and tle with the French and Indians in 1758. let us shew by our virtues that we deserve to par. The mall was originally laid out with only two take of the freedom, sovereignty and independence rows of trees, a third was added a few years before wbich are so happily established throughout these the war, which we found were all cut down for fuel, United States.
together with the entire fence which surrounded GEORGE CLIXTON.
the common, as was also a large magnificent tree New York, 25th Nov. 1783.
which stood on the town's land, near the school
house, in West.street, of equal size with that which RECOLLECTIONS OF A BOSTONIAN. now stands in the middle of the common, both of In the litter end of the year 1821 and early in 1822, which I suppose to be aboriginal.
a series of papers were published in the "Boston On passing into the town, it presented an inde. Centinel,” under the head of “Recollections of a scribable scene of desolation and gloominess, for notBostonian"---in which the public were presented withstanding the joyous occasion of liaving driven with many curious facts in relation to the coo. our enemies from our land, our minds were in. pressed with an awful sadness at the sight of the Sewall, because he never wore a wig, wbich restorruins of many houses which had been taken downed the poor fellow to his senses. It was generally for fuel-the dirtiness of the streets-the wretched supposed to be a trick of one of the English soldiers, appearance of the very few inbabitants who remain- who wished to frighten a superstitious Scotchmas; ed during the siege the contrast between the Sun- and for that purpose, had dressed himself in the day we then bebeld, compared with those we for- clerical habit of the rev. Mr. Cooke, of the Menomerly witnessed, when well dressed people, with tomy, which he bad plundered, on his retreat at the cheerful countenances, were going to, and retur. battle of Lexington. ning from church, on which occasion, Boston exhi. In a former communication, I mentioned that bits so beautiful a scene-but more especially when one of the causes which led to the massacre of the we entered the Old South church, and had ocular 5th of March, 1770, was the affray between the inhademonstration that it had been turned into a RIDING bitants and the British soldiers, an account of wbich SCHOOL, for the use of general Burgoyne's regiment was related to me shortly after the event, by one who of cavalry, which formed a part of the garrison, but was an eye witness. which had never ventured to pass the barriers of the
At that time there was only one house on the east town. The pulpit and all the pews were taken
side of what is now called Pearl street, in which then away and burnt for fuel, and many hundred loads of resided Charles Paxtos, esq. On the west side of dirt and gravel were carted in, and spread upon the the street; stood four or five rope walks, extending floor. The south door was closed, and a bar was from the upper to the lower end of the street, which fixed, over which the cavalry were taught to leap
were all burnt in 1794. On Saturday afternoon, on their horses at full speed. A grog shop was erect. tbe 3d March, 1770, 2 British soldier of the 29th re. ed in the gallery, where liquor was sold to the sol.
giment, accosted a negro who was employed in one diery, and consequently produced scenes of riot and of the rope walks, by enquiring “wbether bis masdebauchery in that holy temple. All these circum. ter wanted to hire a man.” (The soldiers who were stances conspired to fill the mind with sombre re mechanics were sometimes hired as journeymen). flections. But amidst the sadness of the scene, The negro answered that his “master wished to have there was a pleasing satisfaction in the hope that the vault EMPTIED, aod that was a proper work for men, capable of such atrocities, could not have the
a Lobster.”* This produced a conflict between the blessing of Heaven in their nefarious plan of sub- soldier and the negro, and, before relief came to jugating our beloved country. The English sol. his assistance, the negro was very severely beaten. diers were generally Episcopalians, and viewed this some rope-walk men, (among whom was Mr. Gaur, act with indifference, but the Scotch, who were the foreman of the walk), came up and parted them. mostly dissenters, and much more moral and pious, Mr. Gray, (who was a very respectable man), told looked upon it with horror, and not without some the soldier that was be had obtained satisfaction for feelings of superstition.
the insult, he had better go to his barracks." The I was told that a ludicrous scene took place in the soldier "damned him" and said that "for six-pence course of the preceding winter. A good old wo be would drub him as he had done the negro"-A man that frequently passed the church, was in the
contest then took place between them in which the babit of stopping at the door, and with loud lamen soldier received a much worse beating than the de. tations, (amidst the hootings of the soldiery), be
gro, and went off to his barracks over Fort-bill, on wailed the desolation of the house of prayer. She Wheelwright's (now Foster's) wharf swearing redenounced on them the vengeance of Heaven, and
venge. In about half an hour the soldier returned assured them that good old Dr. Sewall, the former with about seventy of his comrades, who came over parson of the church, would rise from his grave, and the bill huzzaing, armed with pipe staves split into carry them off.—A Scotch centinel was one night bludgeons, which they obtained at a cooper's shop, alarmed by an appearance of what he thought was and made the attack with great fury. Each party an apparition of the doctor. He screamed violent.
was brave and intrepid, but the science in this kind ly, and alarmed the guard of grenadiers, who were of warfare, which the ropewalk men had obtained in always stationed at the Province-house, then occultheir "Popc Day" battles gave them a decided supied by general Howe. There was no pacifying him, until some one asked how the doctor was dressed, • Lobsters was the usual term of contempt, es. and he answered with a large wig and gown. One pressed in those days by the citizens of Boston, toof the inhabitants who had been drawn there from don, in a late riot, at the queen's funeral, made use
wards the British soldiers, and the citizens of Lorcuriosity, assured him it could not bave been doctor of the same epitbeta
periority, and in their pursuit of the soldiers, halted on reputation for virtuous exertions in the hour of tri. Fort-bill, and gave three cheers in token of victory. al-patience under sufferings—and forbearance un
The noise of the shouting and huzzaing resound. der severe provocation. ed far around, and excited the curiosity of those at The threats of the soldiers, as mentioned in my a distance. At that time, Mr. Hallowell, (grand. last communication, were put in execution on Modfather of the present Admiral Hallowell, in the day evening the 5th of March, 1770, by insulting British navy), owned and resided in the house in and abusing many inhabitants in various parts of Battery March-street, now occupied by Mr. Good- the town, which resulted in what was called the rich, near which he also owned a ship yard, about "horrid massacre," by wbich four persons were inwhere now stands the Commercial Coffee House, in stantly killed, one died of his wounds a few days which he usually employed about fifty or sixty men. succeeding, and about seventeen in the total killed There was a mast yard a little south and several and wounded. wood wharfs, on 11 which were also employed har. Language cannot describe the horror and indigna. dy laborers, who, together with the blacksmiths, tion which was excited through the town by this blockmakers, and other athletic mechanics in the dreadful event. The bells rang a terrific peal, neighborhood, (whose brawny arms could wield a which roused the wbole population. More than five club with as much dexterity as an Highlander could thousand citizens were collected in State street and manage his broadsword), all ran towards the scene its vicinity. The 291b regt. Was marched into the of combat. The bravery of the soldiers was not same street. The 14th reg. was under arms at their doubted, and accordingly, preparations were made barracks. What a scene for contemplation! Lieut. to repel another attack which was expected, and in governor Hutchinson, and the king's council, were which they were not disappointed. The shouting assembled in the council chamber, even at the of the soldiers, issuing from the barrack.yard, totbe solemn hour of midnight! Many of the venerable number of more than three hundred, headed by citizens repaired to them and demanded the sur. the sergeant-major, moving over the hill towards render of the criminals to justice. The bigh-she. Pearl street, soon gave the alarm. The soldiers pul. riff appeared in the balcony of the state house, and led down the fence in High street, (then called Cow ordered silence !!! An awful stillness ensued Jane), which inclosed the field, where now stands when, with a loud voice, be declared, that he was Quincy place. The rope-walk men pulled down the authorized by his honor the lieutenant governor and fence on the opposite side in Pearl street, when bis majesty's council, with the consent of col. Dalboth parties rushed on each other with equal intre rymple, to say that capt. Preston, and the men who pidity.—But the Herculean strength of virtuous la- bad committed the outrage, should be immediately bor, united with the activity and science of the Yan- delivered to the civil power, and requested the kees, soon obtained a triumph over an idle, inactive, citizens to retire peaceably to their dwellings; which, enervated, and intemperate, though brave soldiery. after the soldiers had marched off, was complied with.
The effect of this rencontre was seen in the coun. The next day a town meeting was called, and the tenances and conduct of the soldiers the next and lieut. governor and council assembled, the proceedfollowing day, who looked vengeance on the inhabi. ings of which are very eloquently described by the tants, especially those whom they suspected to be venerable sage of Quincy in one of his letters to concerned in the affray on Saturday; and those of Mr. Tudor, lately published. them, who where friendly to the citizens, advised The result of this melancholy affair was, that all them to remain at home on Monday evening, as re- the troops were ordered out of town, and the cul. venge would then be taken.
prits brought to a trial, and acquitted, excepting The soldiers asserted on Sunday morning, that two who were found guilty of manslaughter. The one of their men had died of his wounds, but as the trial was one of the most important that had ever body was never shewn, it was supposed to be only come before an American tribunal, especially as the a pretence to justify the horrid scene which ensued public mind was wrought up to the highest tone on the Monday evening following.
of indignation. It established the character of the
judiciary for purity and independence, which bad So much has been written on the subject of the been questioned by the lories. The law was tri. massacre of the 5th of March, 1779, that it is un- umphant, but the needless barbarity of the act never pleasant to repeat “ugly recollections” respecting doubted. that borrid scene, except when it is necessary to The funeral of the unfortunate victims was attend. vindicate our town from slander-10 establish its'ed with great pomp and parade. Thousands came from the country; and the whole number that fol. become a member of her illustrious senate, and, sflowed them to the grave, was supposed to exceed ter a peace of thirty years, a strenuous advocate for ten thousand!
declaration of war against his native country! History does not (perhaps) record an instance, And, “tho' last not least" among the citizens, was where the moral and patriotic character of a city a young barrister whose brilliant talents would place was ever more conspicuous than Boston exhibited hin in the front ranks of patriotism, and cause him on this occasion.
to become an ardent asserter of independence-an It was supposed by many, that the above recited ambassador to England, France and Holland-the horrid event, did more to effect an alienation of the father of a navy, (destined to be the rival of the mis. affections of the people of New England from the tress of the sea), and finally the first magistrate of a British government, than any other wbatever. great nation. In the council chamber, were many in
When I bring to my recollection, Mr. Russel, that the height of prosperity and honor, wbo, in a few solemn and impressive scene, when the high sheriff years, fell from their elevated stations; and a go. was delivering the governor's message from the vernor, who, then basking in the sunshine of royal balcony to the assembled thousands, I am irresisti. favor, was speedily consigned to infamy and ruin, bly drawn to a contemplation of what must have and, it is said, died of a broken heart. been the wonder and astonishment of any one of Such are the wonderful vicissitudes to which the that vast crowd of citizens, if an angel had descend. life of man is subjected. ed from heaven and unfolded to him the events of futurity:-That, in less than seven short years, we I believe it is Voltaire who says, that the publishshould throw off our allegiance to a beloved king, ing of history does not depend on its truth. The and our connection with our moiher country, to only question the publishers ask, is—"Will it selli" which we then looked with solicitude and affection, which brings to my recollection some circumstances and fondly called it our bome! That to establish relative to Gordon's history of the American revo. our independence, would produce an eight years' lution. war, in which all Europe would be directly or in. In the year 1784, I became acquainted with an directly engaged! That seven young men, among English gentleman, whose prejudices against our that populace, would array themselves against their country were as violent, as they had been previous nalive country, and, finally, become admirals and ge- to bis emigration in favor of it. One day when he nerals in the English service! That one of ther, then was inveighing most bitterly against our conduct only an apprentice to a Cornhill shop keeper, should and institutions, he mentioned, with great asperity, become distinguished, not only as a British officer, the larring and feathering of John Malcom, (a Bribut as a general and a count in the German empire! tish custom-bouse officer), before the revolution, A philosopher of a new school, which for usefulness whose only crime, he said, was chastising an impu. would be paramount to all others, and at his death, dent boy. I told him, that it Mr. Malcom bad not establish a professorship in the university in our have drawn bis sword on the boy, no notice would neighborhood.
have been taken of his conduct. I did not however That among them were two youths, a physician attempt to justify the deed, as it was condemned and a bookseller, who would become generals in by good men of both parties; yet I insisted, that the service of their native country; and one of the character of the town or country ought not to be them, by his heroic exertions in defending a post, implicated, as it was done in the night, by a very for would call forth the astonishment of the oldest ve disorderly persons in disguise, who, if they bad been terans and lose his life in the attempt! That among discovered, would have been amenable to, and pu. them were forty young men, members of a military nished by the laws. I then related to him the concompany, most of whom would become officers of duct of colonel Nesbit, of the 47th British regiment, artillery, and would distinguish themselves, (par. who caused an innocent countryman to be tarred ticularly on one occasion), where they would exhi. and feathered, and carted publicly through the streets bit so much science and adroitness, as to command at noon day, with a guard of grenadiers, and the the admiration of their English and German foes! band of the regiment playing “Yankee doodle," and More wonderful yet--that among the principal offi. himself at the head of the party, in defiance of those cers of the 29th British regiment, then arrayed laws he was sent to protect and enforce. My Eng. against the inhabitants, was one who would become lish friend seemed to think I was mistaken in the an highly respected American citizen! would hold person of col. Nesbit, and thought it impossible that important offices under the American goverment; a colonel of one of his majesty's regiments, could be