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precise condition for which he shall treacherously state of slavery, for an obligation to work for any betray the interest of his country, and violate every other purpose than one's own advantage, is truly obligation of private friendship and public virtue, the condition of a slave, and every new tax addo a to beat down every fence to honor and principle, link to the chain. But even in this gloomy picture to destroy the very bond and frame of civil society, there is a dawn of hope; all bodies are capable of to make the pillage of property the means to ac-refraction to a certain degree, beyond which it is complish the plunder of liberty, and to drive the impossible to expand them ever so little, without people into all the miseries of a civil war, in pur. absolute destruction. It is evident to all the world, suit of this dream of power, are instances of such that the nerves of public credit in England are on determined depravity as are not to be described the rack of extension, and the dreadful explosion even in the language of a country where new vil. must follow of course; and can it be supposed that lany adds to the catalogue of crimes almost every the system of weakness and folly, that has so long day. The perfect similarity of the declaratory act usurped the name of constitution, can survive the of supremacy, and that relating to your country, viz. shock; and their people may yet hope to see a That Ireland should be subordinate to and depend vigorous young one grow out of the ruins of the on the imperial crown of Great Britain is very ob- old. vious; but this declaration ex parte can avail nothing,

I have it in my commission to repeat to you, at the same time that it furnishes the most incon. testible and decisive proofs, that no such subordina. my good friends, the cordial concern that congress

takes in every thing that relates to the happiness tion or dependence was ever understood before,

of Ireland; they are sensibly affected by the load of or there would have been no necessity for such an

oppressive pensions on your establishment, the ar. act.

bitrary and illegal exactions of public money by The navigation act, which had been framed for king's letters; the profuse dissipation, by sinecure the sole purpose of securing to the British sub- appointments with large salaries, and the very arbi. jects, all the advantages to be derived from the trary and impolitic restrictions on your trade and commerce of their own settlements, has, by sub- manufactures, which are beyond example in the sequent acts, been framed into the most odious and history of the world, and can only be equalled by impolitic monopoly that could be devised; creating that illiberal spirit which directs it, and which has local distinctions and commercial schisms, giving shewn itself so abundantly in petitions from all privilege to one set of subjects to the injury of parts of their islands, and in the debate in their others, and operating on all the indicted provinces house of commons, when you had been lately as an oppressive tax, comprehending all the taxes amused with the vain hope of an extension of your of Britain, however variously modified or com- trade, and which were conducted with such tem. pounded. And we wish to have it forever fixed per, and language as might be supposed to suit on your minds, that by a monopoly of trade every their copper colored allies in America, but must pretence to internal taxation is given up; for were fix a stain on the character of a civilized nation you even without a constitution of your own, and forever. as dependant as usurpation has endeavored to

When I had the pleasure of residing in your camake you, the monopoly of your trade is more than a full and equitable compensation for all other pital some years ago, it gave me pain to observe

such a debility and morbid langour in every de. taxes, and it will not appear paradoxical to futurity, that the rise and fall of the British empire have partment of your government, as would have disbeen owing to this act; and the engine by which the graced anarchy itself; the laws are too weak to ese. wise politician, who framed it, designed to wind cute themselves, and vice and violence often reign

with impunity; and even the military with you seem up and connect the British interest all over the

to claim an exemption from all civil restraint, or ju. world, we have seen employed as the wheel on

risdiction,and individuals are forced to trust to them. which British liberty and grandeur bave disgrace. fully expired.

selves for that security and protection which the

government of the country can no longer afford The anticipation of public revenue has fixed the them. We congratulate you however, on the bright crisis of Britain, the labor of their people for all prospect wbich the western hemisphere has afford. succeeding generations being engaged to pay the ed to you, and the oppressed of every nation, and interests of their public debts. I cannot suppose we trust that the liberation of your country bas it an unfair deduction to say they are all born in al been effected in America, and that you never will be called on for those painful, though necessary, the sword of victory, and promised in the voice esertions, which the sacred love of liberty inspires, of peace, remain to be confirmed by our future and which have enabled us to establish our free exertions—while the nourishment, the growth, dom forever.

and even the existence of our empire depend up.

on the united efforts of an extensive and divided We hope the political Quixots of Great Britain people--the duties of this day ascend from amusewill no longer be able to disturb the peace and ment and congratulation to a serious patriotic em. happiness of mankind, and which providence has

ployment. permitted perhaps to shew the monstrous abuse of

We are assembled, my friends, not to boast, but power; yet lost to all public virtue as they are, we

to realize-not to inflate our national vanity by : wish they may turn from their wickedness and live;

pompous relation of past achievements in the coun. and we doubt not the noble efforts of America will

cil, or in the field; but, from a modest retrospect meet the full approbation of every virtuous Briton, or the truly dignified part already acted by our wben they shall be able to distinguish between the

countrymen-from an accurate view of our premad pursuits of government and the true interest

sent situation-and from an anticipation of the of their people. But as for you, our dear and good friends of Ireland, we must cordially recom familiarize the duties that still await us, as citizens,

scenes that remain to be unfolded-to discera and mend to you to continue peaceable and quiet in

as soldiers, and as men. every possible situation of your affairs, and endea. vor, by mutual good will, to supply the defects of

Revolutions in other countries have been effect. administration. But if the government, whom you ed by accident. The faculties of human reason at this time acknowledge, does not, in conformity and the rights of buman nature have been the to her own true interest, take off and remove every sport of chance and the prey of ambition. And restraint on your trade, commerce and manufac. when indignation has burst the bands of slavery, tures, I am charged to assure you, that means will to the destruction of one tyrant, it was only to be found to establish your freedom in this respect, impose the manacles of another. This arose from in the fullest and amplest manner. And as it is the imperfection of that early stage of society, the ardent wish of America to promote, as far as

which necessarily occasioned the foundation of her other engagements will permit, a reciprocal empires on the eastern continent to be laid in commercial interest with you, I am to assure you,

ignorance, and which induced a total inability of they will seek every means to establish and ex.

foreseeing the improvements of civilisation, or of tend it; and it has given the most sensible pleasure adapting the government to a state of social refineto have those instructions committed to my care, as I have ever retained the most perfect good will I sball but repeat a common observation, when and esteem for the people of Ireland. And am, I remark, that on the western continent, the scene with every sentiment of respect, their obedient was entirely different, and a new task, totally usand humble servant, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. known to the legislators of other Dations, was in. Versailes, October 4 1778.

posed upon the fathers of the American empire.

Here was a people thinly scattered over u Mr. Barlow's Oration, July 4, 1787. extensive terrilory, lords of the soil on which they An oration, delivered at the North church in trode, commanding a prodigious length of coast and Hartford, at the meeting of the Connecticut an equal breadth of frontiere people habituated society of the Cincinnati, July the fourth, 1787, to liberty, professing a mild and benevolent rein commemoration of the independence of the ligion, and bighly advanced in science and civiliza. United States-by Joel Barlow, esq. and publish. tion. To conduct such a people in a revolution, ed by desire of said society.

the address must be made to reason, as well as to Mr. President, gentlemen of the society,

the passions. And to reason, to the clear under. and fellow.citizens,

standing of these variously affected colonies, the On the anniversary of so great an event, as the solemn address was made. birth of the empire in which we live, none will A people thus enlightened, and capable of dis. question the propriety of passing a few moments cerning the connexion of causes with their remotest in contemplating the various objects suggested to effects, waited not the experience of oppression in the mind by the important occasion. But, at the their own persons; which they well know would present period, while the blessings, claimed by render them less able to conduct a regular op:


position. But in the moment of their greatest pros. It would be wandering from the objects which perity, when every heart expanded with the increas ought to occupy our present attention, again to ing opulence of the British American dominions, recount the numerous acts of the British parliaand every tongue united in the praises of the ment which composed that system of tyranny parent state and her patriot king, when many cir. designed for the subjugation of America: neither cumstances concurred, which would have render. can we indulge in the detail of those memorable ed an ignorant people secure and inattentive to events, which marked our various stages of resist. their future interests--at this moment the eyes ance, from the glooms of unsuccessful supplica. of the American Argus were opened to the first tion, to the splendor of victory and ack..owledg. and most plausible invasion of the colonial rights. ed sovereignty. The former were the theme of

senatorial eloquence, producing miracles of union In vain were we told, and perhaps with the

and exertion in every part of the continent, till we greatest truth and sincerity, that the monies levied

find them preserved for everlasting remembrance in America were all to be expended within the

in that declaratory act of independence, which country, and for our benefit; equally idle was the

gave being o an empire, and dignified the day we policy of Great Britain, in commencing her new

now commemorate; the latter are fresh in the system by a 80 all and almost imperceptible duty,

memory of every person of the least information and that upon very few articles. It was not the

It would be impertinence, if not a breach of quantity of the tax, it was not the mode of appro: delicacy, to attempt a recital of those glorious priation, but it was the right of the demand, which

achievements, especially before an audience, part was called in question. Upon this the people of who have been distinguished actors in the deliberated: this they discussed in a cool and

scene, others the anxious and applauding spectadispassionale manner: and this they opposed, in

tors. To the faithful historian we resign the task every shape that an artful and systematic ministry -the historian, whom it is hoped the present age could derise, for more than ten years, before they will deem it their duty, as well as their interest, to assumed the sword.

furnis!, encourage,


support. This single circumstance, aside from the magni. tude of the object, or the event of the contest,

Whatever praise is due for the task already per. will stamp a peculiar glory on the American revolu- formed, it is certain that much remains to be done. tion, and mark it as a distinguished era in the his. The revolution is but half completed. Indepen. tory of mankind; that sober reason and reflection dence and government' were the two objects conhave done the work of enthusiasm, and performed tended for: 'and but one is yet obtained. To the the miracles of Gods. In what other age or na

glory of the present age, and the admiration of tion has a laborious and agricultural people, at the future, our severance from the British empire esse upon their own farms, secure and distant from was conducted upon principles as noble, as they the approach of Aleets and armies, tide-waiters, were new and unprecedented in the history of hu. and stamp-masters, reasoned before they bad felt, man actions. Could the same generous princi. and, from the dictates of duly and conscience, ples, the same wisdom and unanimity be exerted encountered dangers, distress, and poverty, for in effecting the establishment of a permanent the sake of securing to posterity a government of federal system, what an additional lustre would independence and peace? The toils of

it pour upon the present age! a lustre hitherto the fate of millions were to be sustained by a

unequalled; a display of magnanimity for which few bands. The voice of unborn nations called mankind may never behold ariother opportunity. upon them for safety; but it was a still small

Without an efficient government, our indepenvoice, the voice of rational reflection. Here was dence will cease to be a blessing. Shall that glow no Cromwell to infiame the people with bigotry of patriotism and unshaken perseverance, which and zeal, no Cæsar to reward bis followers with has been so long conspicuous in the American the spoils of vanquished foes, and no territory to character, desert us at our utmost need? Shall acquire by conquest. Ambition, superstition, and

we lose sight of our own bappiness, because it has avarice, those universal torches of war, never

grown familiar by a near approach? Shall thy illumined an American field of battle. But the permanent principles of sober policy spread through

*This oration was preceded by tbe lecture of the

act of independence; which, by an order of this state the colonies, roused the people to assert their society, is in future to make part of their public sigbts, and conducted the revolution.

exercises at every annual meeting.

ages and

labors, 0 Washington, have been bestowed in vain?|not ceased with the termination of the war; and Hast thou conducted us to independence and peace, whose successful endeavors to promote our inand shall we not receive the blessings at thy hands?terest, in commercial and political arrangements, Where are the shades of our fallen friends? and can only be equalled by his achievements in the what is their language on this occasion? Warren, field. How will the posterity of that nobleman, Montgomery, Mercer, Wooster, Scammel, and Lau. and that of the other brave officers of his nation, rens, all ye hosts of departed heroes! rich is the who have fought by your sides, on reviewing the treasure you have lavished in the cause, and pre. American history, rejoice in the fame of their fa. valent the price you have paid for our freedom.thers; nor even regret the fate of those who bled Shall the purchase be neglected? the fair inheri- in so glorious a field! tance lie without improvement, exposed to every dering invader? Forbid it, honor; forbid it, An acknowledgment of the merits of Rocham. gratitude; and oh, may Heaven avert the impend. beau and Chastellus, D'Estaiga, De Grasse, De ing evil.

Barras, and the other heroes of the French army

and navy-affection to the memory of our brethren In contemplating the price of our independence, it will never be forgotten, that it was not entirely

and companions who have bled in our battles the work of our own hands; nor could it probably mander in chief, and of all those sages and patriots

reverence to the advice of our illustrious conhave been established, in the same term of time, who have composed our councils, from the time by all the blood and treasure that America, un.

of the first congress to the present moment-honor assisted, was able to furnish for the contest. Much of the merit is due, and our warmest acknowledg.o our worthy creditors in Europe—a regard to ments shall ever flow to that illustrious monarcla, and Germany, wbo evince to the world that they

the conduct of the imperial sovereigns of Russia the father of nations and friend of the distrestthat monarch who, by his early assistance, taught

revere the cause of liberality and human bappi.

ness, in which we drew the sword--a respect to us not to despair; and who, when we had given a

the sufficient proof of our military virtue and persever. whose dying hand put the signature to a treaty of

memory of the venerable Frederic of Prussia, ance, joined us in alliance, upon terms of equality;

commerce with the United States, upon the most gave us a rank and credit among the maritime na. tions of Europe; and furnished feets and armies, matic council-a sacred regard to ourselves and to

liberal principles that ever originated in a diplo. money and military stores, to put a splendid period

all posterity-and, above all, a religious gratitude to the important conflict.

to our Heavenly Benefactor, who bath hitherto Where shall we find language to express a na- smiled upon our endeavors--call upon us, in the tion's gratitude for such unexampled goodness language of a thousand tongues, for firmness, and magnanimity? my friends, it is not to be done unanimity, and perseverance, in completing the with language. Our sense of obligation for favors revolution, and establishing the empire. received from Heaven, is best expressed by a wise improvement. Does Louis ask for more! and can The present is justly considered an alarming duty be satisfied with less? Unite in a permanent crisis: perhaps the most alarming that America federal government; put your commerce upon a

We have contended with the most respectable footing: your arts and manufactures, powerful nation, and subdued the bravest and best your population, your wealth and glory will in-appointed armies: but now we have to contend with Grease; and when a hundred millions of people are

ourselves, and encounter passions and prejudices, comprised within your territory, and made happy more powerful than armies, and more dangerous by your sway, then shall it be known, that the to our peace. It is not for glory, it is for existence hand of that monarch assisted in planting the vine, that we contend. from which so great a harvest is produced. His

Much is expected from the federal convention generous heart shall exult in the prospect: his

now sitting at Philadelphia: and it is a happy cirroyal descendants, fired by the great example, shall cumstance that so general a confidence from all jmitate his virtues: and the world shall unite in bis

parts of the country is centred in that respectable praise.

body. Their former services, as individuals, coinHere shall that pride of the military character, mand it, and our situation requires it. But although the gallant FAYETTE, find his compensation for much is expected from them, yet more is demand, a life of disinterested service; whose toils haveled from ourselves.

ever saw

The first great object is to convince the people of erroneous sentiments arising from our inexperi. of the importance of their present situation: for ence; sentiments which, if uncorrected in this The majority of a great people, on a subject which early stage of our political existence, will be the they understand, will never act wrong. If ever source of calamities without measure and without there was a time, in any age or nation, when the end. Should that venerable philosopher and states, fate of millions depended on the voice of one, it man be induced to continue his enquiries, by is the present period in these states. Every free racing the history of confederacies, and with his citizen of the American empire ought now to usual energy and perspicuity, delineate and defend consider himself as the legislator of half mankind a system adapted to the circuinstances of the Unite When he views the amazing extent of territory, ed States-I will not say he could deserve more settled and to be settled under the operation of from bis distrest country, but he would crown a life his laws—when, like a wise politician, he contein- of patriotic labors, and render an essential addi. plates the population of future ages-the changes tional service to the world. to be wrought by the possible progress of arts,

While America enjoys the peculiar felicity of in agriculture, commerce, and manufactures--the seeing those, who have conducted her councils increasing connexion and intercourse of nations, and her battles, retire, like Cincinnatus, to the and the effect of one rational political system upon hamble labors of the plough, it must be remember. the general happiness of mankind-his mind, ed that she there expects a continuance of their dilated with the great idea, will realize a liberality patriotic exertions. The society of the Circinnati, of feeling which leads to a rectitude of conducto established upon the most benevolent principles He will see that the system to be established by will never lose sight of their duty, in rentering his suffrage, is calculated for the great benevolent

every possible aid, as citizens, to that community purposes of extending peace, happiness, and pro- which they have defended, as soldiers. They will gressive improvement to a large proportion of his rejoice, that, although independence was the result fellow creatures. As there is a probability that of force, yet government is the child of reason. the system to be proposed by the convention may as they are themselves an example of the noblest answer this description, there is some reason to effort of buman nature, the conquest of self, in hope it will be viewed by the people with that obeying the voice of their country, and exchanging candour and dispassionate respect which is due to the habits, the splendor, and importance of milió the importance of the subject.

tary life, for domestic labor and poverty--they While the anxiety of the feeling heart is breath. will readily inculcate on others, the propriety of ing the perpetual sigh for the attainment of so sacrificing private and territorial advantages, to great an object, it becomes the strongest duty of the good of the great majority, the salvation of the social connexion, to enlighten and harmonize the United States. the minds of our fellow-citizens, and point them

Slaves to no party, but servants of the whole, to a kr.owledge of their interests, as an extensive they have wielded the sword of every state in the federal people, and futhiers of increasing nations, union, and bled by the side of ber sons. Their The price put into their hands is great, beyond attachments are as extensive as their labors.all comparison; and, as they improve it, they will Friendship and charity, the great pillars of their entail happiness or misery upon a larger proportion institution, will find their proper objects, through of human beings, than could be affected by the the extended territory, and seek the happiness of conduct of all the nations of Europe united.

all. Those who are possessed of abilities or informa.

While we contemplate the endearing objects of tion in any degree above the common rank of their our association--and indulge in the gloomy plea., fellow-citizens, are called upon by every principle sure of recollecting that variety of suffering which of humanity, to diffuse a spirit of candour and prompted the sympathetic soldier to institute rational enquiry upon these important subjects. this memorial of his friendship--fraternal affection

recalls the scene of parting, and enquires with Adams, to his immortal hanor, and the timely solicitude the fate of our beloved companions. assistance of his country, has set the great exam. ple. His treatise in defence of the constitutions, Since the last anniversary, the death of general 'though confined to the state republics, is calculat. Howe has diminished the number of our brethren, ed to do infinite service, by correcting thousands land called for the tribute of a tear. With some of

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