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WHEN A NUMBER OF CITIZENS
WERE KILLED BY
-Nunc ea perit, quæ dare nullo modo possumus, nisi A PARTE OF BRITISH TROOPS, QUARTEKED AMONG
prius volumus nos bello vicios confileri. Cic.
. THEM, IN TIME OF PEACE.
Your design in the appointment of this cere. [These orations were first collected and published
mony, my friends and fellow-townsmon, cannot fail in a volume, by Mr. Peler Edes of Boston, printer,
to be examined in quite different lights at this son of the MR. Enes of that town whose press
season of political dissension. From the principles was so notorious for its fearless devotion to the
I profess, and in the exercise of my common righ: liberties of America; both before the revolution
to judge with others, I conclude it was decent, wise, commenced and during the time of its continu.
and honorable. ance.]
The certainty of being favored with your kindest TO THE INHABITANTS OF THE TOWN OF BOSTOX.
partiality and candor, in a poor attempt to execute I hope my collecting, in one volume, the follow the part to which you have invited me, has overing orations, which were first severally printed at come the objection of my inability to perform it your request, but many of which have been long in a proper manner; and I now beg the favor of since not to be purchased, will be considered in your animating countenance. the mild light of an attempt to please the public.
The horrid bioody scene we here commemorate, Americans have been reprehended for not pre. whatever were the causes which concurred to bring serving, with sufficient care, the various pamphlets it on that dreadful night, must lead the pious and and political tracts which this country has afforded during the late war.
humane, of every order, to some suitable reflec
tions. The pious will adore the conduct of that Many of those productions which appear trite to Being who is unsearchable in all his ways, and with. us, who live on the spot where they grew, may, out whose knowledge not a single sparrow falls, in however, be considered as sources of curiosity 10 permitting an immortal soul to be hurried by the strangers. Many of these orations have been con- Aying ball, the messenger of death, in the twink. sidered as the sentiments of this metropolis, from ling of an eye, to meet the awful Judge of all its time to time, touching the revolution; and as our secret actions. The humane, from having often earliest public invectives against oppression. thought, with pleasing rapture, on the endearing
As the institution of an oration upon the fifth scenes of social life, in all its amiable relations, of March is now superseded by the celebration of will lament, with heart felt pangs, their sudden the anniversary of independence, upon the fourtir dissolution, by indiscretion, rage and vengeance, of July, I have given to this volume a general title, But let us leave that shocking, close, of one which will apply to both institutions: so that if continued course of rancor and dispute, from the hereafter there shall be a like volume, containing first moment tbat the troops arrived in town: that the orations of that anniversary, this may be con- course will now be represented by your own re. sidered the first and that the second volume of Aections to a much more solid, useful purpose, than Boston orations.
by any artful language. I hope, however, that I am, with the greatest respect, your obedient heaven has yet in store such bappiness for this bumble servant,
PETER EDES. afflicted town and province, as will in time wex Boston, January, 1785.
out the memory of all your furmir troubles.
I sincerely rejoice with you in the happy even jupon the army. A less body of troops than is now of your stcady and united effort to prevent a second maintained has, on a time, destroyed a king, and tragedy.
fought under a parliament with great success and Oir fathers left their native land, risqued all glory; but, upon a motion to disband them, they the dangers of the sea, and came to this then urned their masters out of doors, and fixed others
in their stead. Such wild things are not again to suvage desart, with that true uodaunted courage which is excited by a confidence in God. They happen, because the parliament have power to stop came that they might here enjoy themselves, and payment once a year: but arma tenenti quis neget? leave to their posterity the best of earthly portions, which may be easily interpreted, “who will bind full English liberty. You showed upon the alarm. Sampoon with his locks on?” ing cause for trial, that their brave spirit still The bill which regulates the army, the same existsi: vigor, though their legacy of right is much fine author I have mentioned, says, "is, in many impaired. The sympathy and aciive friendship of respects, hastily penned, and reduces the soldier to some neighboring towns, upon that sad occasion, a state of slavery in the midst of a free nation. This cuinmands the highest gratitude of this. is impolitic: for slaves envy the freedom of others, We have seen and felt the ill effects of placing
and take a malicious pleasure in contributing to starding forces in the midst of populous communi destroy it.” ties; but those are only what individuals suffer. By this scandalous bill a justice of peace is Your vore directs me to point out the fatal tendency empowered to grant, without a previous oath from of placing such an order in free cities-farul indeed! the military officer, a warrant to break open any Athens once was free; a citizen, a fuvorite of the (freeman's) house, upon pretence of searching for people, by an artful siory, gained a trifting guard deserters. of fifty men; ambition taught him ways to enlarge I must not omit to mention one more bad ten. that number; he destroyed the commonwealth and dency: 'tis this a standing force leads to a total made liinself the tyrant of the Athenians. Cæsar, neglect of militias, or lends greatly to discourage by the length of his command in Gaul, got the them. aflections of his army, marched to Rome, overthrew
You see the danger of a standing army to the the state, and made himself perpetual dictator. By
cause of freedom. If the British parliament conthe same instruments, many less republics have
sents from year to year to be exposed, it doubtless been made to fall a prey to the devouring jaws of
has good reasons. But when did our assembly pass tyrants.--But this is a subject which should never
an act to hazard all the property, the liberty and be disguised with figures; it chooses the plain stile lives of their constituents? what check have we of dissertation.
upon a British army? can we disband it? can we stop The true strength and safety of every common-lits pay? wealth or limited monarchy, is the bravery of its
Our own assemblies in America can raise an army; freeholders, its militia. By brave militias they and our monarcb, George the 3d, by our constitu. rise to grandeur; and they come to ruin by a tion, takes immediate command. This army can mercenary army. This is founded on historical
consent to leave their native provinces. Will the facis, and the same causes will, in similar circum- royal chief commander send them to find barracks siances, forever produce the same effects. Justice
at Brunswick or Lunenburg, at Hanover, or the comL'luckstane, in his inimitably clear commentaries, modious hall of Festminster? suppose the last-suptells 116, that "it is extremely dangerous in a land
pose this army was informed, nay thought the par. of liberty, to make a distinct order of the pro-liament in actual rebellion, or only on the eve of fession of arms; that such an order is an objec. of
one, against their king, or against those who paid jealousy; and that the laws and constitution of Eng, and cloatheil shem--for there it pinches:--we are land are strangers to it.” One article of the bill of rebels against parliament;--we adore the king. rights is, that the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in a time of peace, unless
Where, in the case I have stated, would be the
value of the boasted English constitution? it be with consent of parliament, is against law.
Who are a free people? not those wbo do not The present army, therefore, though called the
suffer actual oppression; but those who have a conpeace establishment, is kept up by one act, and
stitutional check upon the power to oppress. g verned by another; both of which expire ann
nnually. This circumstance is valued as a sufficient check *Trenchard.
We are slaves or freemen: if as we are called! if passage, son: bappier climate. Here at length the last, where is our check upon the following i hey settled down. The king of England was said powers, France, Spain, the states of Holland, (rio be the royal* landlord of this ierritory; with the British parliaments? now if any one of these uim they entered into mutual, sacred compact, by (and it is quite immaterial which) has right to which the price of tenure, and the rules of managemake the iwo acts in question operaie within this ment, were fsirly stated. It is in this compaci that province, they have right to give us up to an we find our ONLY TRUE LEGISLATIVE AUTHORITY. unlimiied army, under the sole direction of one
I might here enlarge upon the character of those Saracen commander.
Girst settlers, men of whom the world was little Thus I have led your thoughts to that upon whic! worthy; who, for a long course of years, assisted I formed my conclusion, that the design of this by no earthly power, defended their liberty, their ceremony was decent, wise and honorable. Make religion, and their lives, against the greatest inland the bloody 5th of March the æra of the resurrec danger of the savage natives: but this falls not tion of your birthrights, which have been murdered within my present purpose. They were secure by by the very strength that nursed them in their sea. infancy. I bad an eye solely to parliamentary
In our infancy, when not an over tempting jewel supremacy; and I hope you will think every other
for the Bourbon crown, the very nume of England view beneath your notice, in our present most saved us; afterwards her fieets and armies. We alarining situation.
wish not to depreciate the worth of that protection. Chatham, Camden, and others, Gods among men, of our gold, yea of our most fine gold, we will and the Farmer, whom you have addressed as the freely give a part. Our fathers would have done friend of mankind; all these bave owned that Eng. she same. But must we fall down and cry "let land has right to exercise every power over us, not a stranger rob and kill me, O my father! let me but that of taking money out of our pockets, with rather die by the hand of my brother, and let him out our consent.* Though it seems almost too ravish all my portion!"+ bold therefore in us to say “we doubt in every
It is said that disunited from Britain "we should single instance her legal rights overilsis province, "tweed at every vein.” I cannot see the çons quence. yet we must ansert it. Those I have named are
The states of Holland do not suffer thus,
But mighty characters, but they wanted one advantage
grant it true, Seneca would prefer the laricets Providence has given us. The beam is carried off
of France, Spain, or any other pwer, to the bow. from our eyes by the flowing blood of our fellow.
STRING, though applied by the fair hand of Bri. citizens, and now we may be allowed to attempt to
tannia. remove the mote from the eyes of our exalted patrons. That mote, we think, is nothing but our
The declarative vote of the British parliament ebligation 10 England first, and ofierwards Crear is the death.warrant of our birthrights, and wants Britain, for constant kind protection of our lives and only a Czarish king to put it into execution. Here birthrights against foreign danger. We all acknow. then a door of salvation is open. Great Britain ledge that protection.
may raise her feets and arnies, but it is only our Let us once more look into the early history of -vn king that can direct their fire down upon our this province. We find that our English ancestors,
heads. He is gracious, but not omniscieni, He disgusted in their native country at a legislation, is ready to hear our Appeals in their proper course; which ihey saw was sacrificing all their rights, lef. and knwing himself, though the most powerful its juris 'iction,t and sought, like wandering birds prince on earth, yet, a subject under a divine con.
stitution of law; that law he will ask and receive "Taxation and representation are inseparable. from the twelve judges of England. These will
Chath Cambil. From what in our constitution is representation prove that the claim of the British parliament over not inseparable!-multa a Crasso divinitus dicta us is not only ILLEGAL IN ITSELF, BUT A DOWN-NIGHT efferebantur, cum sibi illum, consulem esse negaret usurpation of UIS PREROGATIVE as king of Arnerica. cui senator ipse non esset.
Cic. ti confine myself to this province, partly from A brave nation is always generous. Let us apignorance of other charters; but more from a desire even to ver sone abler pen to pursue the idea of
I choose to bury a fruitful subject for any satyrical Cuck; which an unchartered Pne). Mas may do, as genius of the funily of Penn. well as any other in America.
teita vitan corpusque servato, ita fortunas, ita les sunt enim fundamenta fimissima nostræ com fariliarem, ut liæ posle: era libertati cucus, libertatis, sui quemque juris et retinendi et dimit. --nnc pro liis libertatem, sed pro libertali diec tendi esse dominum.
Cic. 'projicias, tanquam Pignora injuriæ.
pei, ihe ef re, at the same time, to the generosity |stitution leads us to expect. In that condition, let of the People of Great Britain, before the tribunal* us behave with the propriety and dignity of FREEof Europe, not to envy us the full enjoyment of the Mex; and thus exhibit to the world, a new character RIGHTS OF BRETANEY.
of a people, which no history describes. And now, my friends and fellow downsmen, having May the all-wise and beneficent RULER OF TAX declared myself an American son of liberty of true UNIVERSE preserve our lives and health, and pros. charter principles: having shewn the critical and per all our lawful endeavors in the glorious cause of dangerous situation of our birthrights, and the true PREEDOM. course for speedy redress; I shall take the freedom
ORATION DELIVERED AT BOSTON, MARCA 5, 1772, to recommend, with boldness, one prevjons step.
BY JOSEPH WARREN, Let us show we understand the true value of what
Quis talia fando, we are claiming
Myrmidonum, Dolopumve, aui duri miles Ulyssei, The patriotic Farmer tells us, "the cause of li.
Temperet a lacrymis. berty is a cause of too much dignity to be sullied
When we turn over the historic page, and trace by turbulence and tumult.-Anger produces anger;
the rise and fall of states and empires, the mighty and differences, that might be accommodated by revolutions which have so often varied the face of kind and respectful behavior, may, by imprudence, he world strike our minds with sulemn surprise, be er larged to an incurable rage. In quarrels - and we are naturally led to endeavor to search out risen to a certain height, the first cause of dissen. the causes of such astonishing changes. sion is no longer remembered, the minds of the
That man is formed for social life, is an observa. parties being wholly engaged in recollecting and tion, which, upon our first enquiry, presents itself resenting the mutual expressions of their dislike. immediately to our view, and our reason approves When feuds have reached that fatal point, con
that wise and generous principle which actuated siderations of reason and equity vanish, and a blind the first founders of civil government; an institu. fury goveri.s, or rather confounds all things. A peo.
tion which hath its origin in the weakness of indiple no longer regard their interest, but a gratifica.viduals, and hath for its end, the strength and secution of their wrath.”
rity of all: and so long as the means of effecting
this important end are thoroughly known, and re. We know ourselves subjects of common law: to
ligiously attended to, government is one of the that and the worthy erecutors of it, let us pay a richest blessings to mankind, and ought to be held steady and conscientious regard. Past errors in
in the highest veneration. th point have been ritten with gall, by the pen
In young and new formed communities, the grand of MALICE. May our fu ure conduct be such as to
design of this institution, is most generally undermake even that vile imr lay her pen aside.
stood, and most strictly regarded; the motives The right which imposes duties upon us, is in which urged to the social compact, cannot be at dispute: be whether they are managed by a once forgotten, and that equality which is remem. surveyor general, a boarı! of commissioners, Turkish bered to have subsisted so lately among them, pre. Janizaries, or Russian Cossacks, let them enjoy, vents those who are clothed with authority from during our time of fair trial, the common personal attempting to invade the freedom of their brethren; protection of the laws of our constitution. Let or if such an attempt is made, it prevents the comus shut our eyes, for the present, to their being munity from suffering the offender to go unpunishexecutors of cluims subversive of our rights. ed: every member feels it to be his interest and
Watchful, hawk-eyed jealousy, ever guards the knows it to be bis duty, to preserve inviolate the portal of the temple of the GODDESS LIBERTY.
constitution on wbich the public safety depends,*
This is known to those who frequent her altars. Our and he is equally ready to assist the magistrate in whole conduct therefore, I am sure, will meet with the execution of the laws, and the subject in de. the utmost candor of her VoTARIES: but I am
tence of his right; and so long as this noble attachwishing we may be able to convert even her basest ment to a constitution, founded on free and bene
volent principles, exists in full vigor, in any state,
that state must be flourishing and happy. We are slaves until we obtain such redress,
It was this noble attachment to a free constitu. through the justice of our king, as our happy con.
* Omnes ordines ad conservamdam rempublicam, *I do not think the quo WARRANTO against our mente, voluntate, studio, virtute, voce, consentiunt. first charier, was tried in a proper court.
tion which raised ancient Rome, from the smallest solutely as they possibly could be by any human beginnings, to that bright summit of happiness and instrument which can be devised. And it is undeglory to which she arrived; and it was the loss of niably truc; that the greatest and most important this which plunged her from that summit into the right of a British subject is, that he shall be govern. black gulph of infamy and slavery. It was this at.jed by no laws but those in which he either in person or tachment wbich inspired her senators with wisdom; | by his representative hath given his consent: and this it was this which glowed in the breast of her he. I will venture to assert, is the grand basis of Bri. roes; it was this which guarded her liberties and (tish feeedom; it is interwoven with the constitution; extended her dominions, gave peace at home, and and whenever this is lost, the constitution must be commanded respect abroad: and when this decay- destroyed. ed, her magistrates lost their reverence for justice The British constitution (of which ours is a copy) and the laws, and degenerated into tyrants and op- is a happy compound of the three forms (under pressors-her senators, forgetful of their dignity, some of which all governments may be ranged) viz. and seduced by base corruption, betrayed their monarchy, aristocracy,and democracy:of these tbree country-ber soldiers, regardless of their relation the British legislature is composed, and without the to the community, and urged only by the hopes of consent of each branch, nothing can carry with it plunder and rapine, unfeelingly committed the ihe force of a law; but when a law is to be passed most flagrant enormities; and hired to the trade of for raising a tax, that law can originale only in the death, with relentless fury, they perpetrated the democratic branch, which is the house of commons most cruel murders, whereby the streets of impe. in Britain, and the house of representatives here rial Rome were drenched with her noblest blood.
-The reason is obvious: they and their constitu. Thus this empress of the world lost her dominions ents are to pay much the largest part of it; but as abroad, and her inhabitants, dissolute in their man. the aristocratic branch, which, in Britain, is the ners, at length became contented slaves; and she house of lords, and in this province, the council, stands to this day, the scorn and derision of nations, are also to pay sorae part, their consent is neces. and a monument of this eternal truth, that PUBLIC sary; and as the monarchic branch, which in Bri. HAPPINESS DEPENDS ON A VIRTUOUS AND UNSLAKEN tain is the king, and with us, either the king in ATTACHMENT TO A FREE CONSTITUTION.
person, or the governor whom he shall be pleased It was this attachment to a constitution, founded to appoint to act in his stead, is supposed to bave
a just sense of his own interest, which is that of all on free and benevolent principles, which inspired
the subjects in general, uns consent is also neces. the first settlers of this country:—they saw with grief the daring outrages committed on the free sary, and when the consent of these three branches
is obtained, the taxation is most certainly legal. constitution of their native land-they knew that nothing but a civil war could at that time restore
Let us now allow ourselves a few moments to its pristine purity. So hard was it to resolve to examine the late acts of the British parliament for embrue their hands in the blood of their brethren, taxing America-Let us with candor judge whether that they chose rather to quit their fair possessions they are constitutionally binding upon us:-if they and seek another habitation in a distant clime.-are, is THE NAME OF JOstice let us submit to them, When they came to this new world, which they without one murmuring word. fairly purchased of the Indian natives, the only
First, I would ask whether the members of the rightful proprietors, they cultivated the then bar. British house of commons are the democracy of ren soil, by their incessant labor, and defended this province? if they are, they are either the peotheir dear-bought possessions with the fortitude of
ple of this province, or are elected by the people of the christain, and the bravery of the hero.
this province, to represent them, and have there. After various struggles, which, during the tyran. fore a constitutional right to originate a bill for nic reigns of the house of Stuart, were constantly taxing them: it is most certain they are neither; ' kept up between right and wrong, between liberty and therefore nothing done by them can be said to and slavery, the connection between Great Britain be done by the democratic branch of our constitu. and this colony was settled in the reign of king tion. I would next ask, whether the lords, who William and queen Mary, by a compact, the condi. compose the aristocratic branch of the legislature, tions of which were expressed in a charter; by wbich are peers of America? I never heard it was (even all the liberties and immunities of British subjecis, in those extraordinary times) so much as pretend. were confined to this province, as fully and as ab.ed, and if they are not, certainly no act of theirs