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tions to attack New York, a mere finesse to deceive first have been so far degarnished, to carry on the the enemy; or whether the real intention was against southern operations, as to render our success in New York, and the siege of Yorktown planned upon the siege of that place, as infallible as any future the unexpected arrival of the French fleet in the military event can ever be made. For I repeat it, bay. The following letter will set the matter in its and dwell upon it again, some splendid advantage true light.]

(Carey's Museum. (whether upon a larger or smaller scale was almost

Mount VERNOX, July 31, 1788. immaterial) was so essentially necessary, to revive Sir-I duly received your letter of the 14th inst. the expiring hopes and languid exertions of the and can only answer you briefly and generally from country, at the crisis in question, that I never memory; that a combined operation of the land would have consented to embark in any enterprize and naval forces of France in America, for the year wherein, from the most rational plan and accurate 1781, was preconcerted the year before; that the calculations, the favorable issue should not have appoint of attack was not absolutely agreed upon", peared to my view as a ray of light. The failure of because it could not be foreknown where the ene. an attempt against the pots of the enemy, could, my would be most susceptible of impression; and in no other possible situation during the war, have because we (having the command of the water with been so fatal to our cause. sufficient means of conveyance) could transport

That much trouble was taken, and finesse used, ourselves to any spot with the greatest celerity, to misguide and bewilder sir Henry Clinton, in that it was determined by me, nearly twelve regard to the real object, by fictitious communicamonths before hand, at all bazards, to give out, tions, as well as by making a deceptive provision and cause it to be believed by the highest military of ovens, forage, and boats in his neighborhood, is as well as civil officers, that New.York was the certain: nor wer less pains taken to deceive our destined place of attack, for the important pur own army; for I had always conceived, where the pose of inducing the eastern and middle states to imposition does not completely take place at home, make greater exertions in furnishing specific sup- it would never sufficiently succeed abroad. plies, than they otherwise would have done, as well as for the interesting purpose of rendering the ene.

Your desire of obtaining truth, is very laudable; my less prepared elsewhere; that, by these means,

I wish I had more leisure to gratify it, as I am and these alone, artillery, boats, stores, and provi. equally solicitous the undisguised verity should sions, were in seasonable preparation to move with be known. Many circumstances will unavoidably the utmost rapidity to any part of the continent;

be misconceived, and misrepresented. Notwithfor the difficulty consisted more in providing, tban standing most of the papers, which may properly be knowing how to apply the military apparatus; that,

deemed officiul, are preserved; yet the knowledge before the arrival of the count de Grasse, it was of innumerable things of a more delicate and secret the fixed determination to strike the enemy, in the nature, is confined to the perishable remembrance mod vulnerable quarter, so as to insure success with of some few of the present generation. moral certainty, as our affairs were then in the

With esteem, I am, sir, your most obedient hum.

ble servant, most ruinous train imaginable; that New-York was

GEORGE WASHINGTON. thought to be beyond our effort, and consequently, that the only hesitation that remained, was between an attack upon the British army in Virginia, and that

Tarring and feathering, origina'ly, a Yunkee trick. in Charleston: and finally, that, by the intervention

This appears from the speech of M'Fingal, the of several communications, and some incidents

tory Sagamore, to the Yankee mob. which cannot be detailed in a letter, the hostile post

“Was there a Yankce trick ye knew, in Virginia, from being a provisional and strongly

They did not play as well as you? expected, became the definitive and certain object of

Did they not lay their heads together, the campaign.

And gain yourwart to tar and feather?” I only add, that it never was in contemplation

Tarring and feathering lawful! to attack New York, unless the garrison should

This appears by the authority of the sentence *Because it would be easy for count de Grasse, which was pronounced on M-Fingal M Fingal, in good time before his departure from the West by John Trumbull, esq. page 60 — 1.) This sen. Indies, to give notice, by express, at what place he could most conveniently first touch to receive ad-tence, be it remembered, though seemingly the vice.

order and decree of a committee, in fact, had its 33.




origin in the brain of a man who was a judge of years I was placed with an officer as his servant, the supreme court, of the state of Connecticut. in which station I continued until I was 16, and Whether appointed judge from this specimen of being a great proficient in horsemansbip, was taken his judicial knowledge, or not, is not now in ques- as an assistant to the riding master of the troop, tion-but let us hear the sentence pronounced on and in the year 1761, was made sergeant of draJl Fingal, king of the tories.

guons; but the peace coming the year following, I

was disbanded. Being bred to no profession, I took “Meanwhile beside the pole, the guard,

up with a woman who kept a gin shop in a blind A bench of justice had prepared,

alley, near the Coal Quay; but the house being Where, sitting round in awful sort,

searched for stolen goods, and my Josy taken to The grand committee hold the court:

Newgate, I thought it most prudent to decamp: While all the crew in silent awe,

accordingly set off for the North, and arrived at Wait from their lips the lore of law.

Drogheda, where, in a few months after, I married Few moments with deliberation,

the duughter of an exciseman, by whom I had three They hold the solemn consultation, When soon in judgment all agree, And clerk declares the dread decree:

“About the year 1772, we removed to Newry, "That squire M'Fingal, having grown were I commenced the profession of a scowbanker, The vilest tory in the town,

which is that of enticing the mechanics and coun. And now on full examination,

try people to ship themselves for America, on pro. Convicted by his own confession,

mises of great advantage, and then artfully getting Finding no token of repentance,

an indenlure upon them; in consequence of which, This court proceed to render sentence: on their arrival in America, they are sold or That first the mob a slip-knot single,

obliged to serve a term of years for their passage. Tie round the neck of said M‘Fingal; ( embarked at Newry in the ship Needham for And in due form do tar bim next,

New-York, and arrived at that port the fourth day And feather, as the LAW DIRECTS:

of August, 1774, with some indented servants I Then thro' the town attendant ride him, kidnapped in Ireland, but were liberated in New. In cart with constable beside him,

York, on account of the bad usage they received And having held bim up to shame,

from me during the passage. In that city I used Bring to the pole from whence he came." the profession of breaking horses, and teaching

ladies and gentlemen to ride, but rendering myself Vision and prediction of M'Fingal, king of the

obnoxious to the citizens in their infant struggles tories, when in his coat of tar and feathers.

for freedom, I was obliged to fly on board the Asia “Tar yet in embryo in pine,

man of war, and from thence to Boston, where my Shall run on tories' backs to shine;

own opposition to the measures pursued by the Trees rooted fair in groves of fallows,

Americans in support of their rights, was the first Are growing for our future gallows;

thing that recommended me to the notice of gen. And geese unhatched, when pluck'd in fray,

Gage; and when the war commenced, I was apShall rue the feath’ring of that day."

pointed provost marshal to the royal army, which M'Fingal, by J. Trumbull, esq. page 60.

placed me in a situation to wreak my vengeance

on the Americans. I shudder to think of the CAPTAIN WILLIAM CUNNINGHAM.

murders I have been accessary to, both with and The following is copied from the American pollo,

without orders from government, especially while in No. 7, Friday, February 17, 1792, vol. 1. printed New York, during which time there were more at Boston, by Belknap and Young, State street, than two thousand prisoners starved in the dif. (a weekly paper in the form of a pamphlet.)

ferent churches by stopping their rations, which I “The life, confession, and last dying words of sold. captain William Cunningham, formerly British provost marshal, in the city of New York, who

“There were also two hundred and seventy-fire was executed in London, the 10th of August, 1791.

American prisoners and obnoxious persons execut

ed, out of all which number there were only about "J, William Cunningham, was born in Dublin one dozen public executions, whics chiefly con. barracks, in the year 1738. My father was trum sisted of British and Hessian deserters. The mode peter to the Blue dragoons, and at the age of 8 'for private executions was thus conducted:-A

guard was dispatched from the provost, about half When the van of the troops arrive in the rear after 12 at night, to the Barrack-street, and the of the bill, col. Fabager will form his regiment in neighborhood of the upper barracks, to order the a solid column of half platoons, in front, as fast people to sbut their window shutters and put out as they come up; col. Meigs will form next in their lights, forbidding them, at the same time to Falager's rear, and major Hull in the rear of presume to look out of their windows and doors, Meigs, which will be the right column; col. But. on pain of death; after which, the unfortunate pri- ler will form a column on the left of Fabager, and soners were conducted, gagged, just behind the major Murphy in his rear-every officer and soldier upper barracks, and hung without ceremony, and will then fis a piece of white paper in bis bat or there buried by the black pioneer of the provost. cap, to distinguish him from the enemy. “At the end of the war I returned to England

At the word march, col. Flury will take charge with the army, and settled in Wales, as being a of 100 determined and picked men, properly cheaper place of living than in any of the populous officered, with their guns unloaded, their whole cities, but being at length persuaded to go to Londependence to be on their bayonets, will move 20 don, I entered so warmly into the dissipations of paces in front of the right column by the rout No. that capital, that I soon found my circumstances 1, enter the sally.port C.; he is to detach an officer much embarrassed. To relieve which, I mortgaged and 20 men a little in front of him, whose business my half pay to an army agent, but that being soon it will be to secure the sentries, and remove the expended, I forged a draft for three hundred abbatees, and other obstructions, for the column pounds sterling on the board of ordaance, but to pass through. The column will follow close in being detected in presenting it for acceptance, 1 the rear, with shouldered arms, under the comwas apprehended, tried and convicted, and for that mand of col. Fabager, with gen. Wayne in person; offence am here to suffer an ignominous death.

when the works are forced, (and not before) the

victorious troops will as they enter give the watch. “I beg the prayers of all good Christians, and word, the Fore's our own, with repeated and loud also pardon and forgiveness of God for the many voice, driving the enemy from their works and borrid murders I have been accessary to.

guns, which will favor the pass of the whole; “WILLIAM CUNNINGHAM."

should the enemy refuse to surrender, or attempt to.

make their escape by water or otherwise, vigorous MILITARY ORDERS IN 1779.

means must be used to compel them to the former, Copy of general Wayne's orders, issued on the evening and prevent their accomplishing the latter. Col. previous to the attack on Stony Point.

Butler will move by the rout No. 2, preceded by HEAD-QUARTERS, For: Montgomery, 100 men with fixed bayonets and unloaded muskets, Light infantry- July 15, 1779.

under the command of major Stewart, who will The troops will parade on beating the assemble. observe a distance of 20 paces in front of the Taking it from the right, they will march, on beat. column, whicb will immediately follow under the ing the troop, and move by the right. Proper command of col. Butler, with shouldered muskets, halting places will be fixed and every officer and and will enter the sally-port C. or D. non-commissioned officer will remain with and be

The officer commanding the above 100 men will accountable for every man of their platoons. No also detach a proper officer, with 20 men, a little soldier to be permitted to quit the ranks on any in front, to remove the obstructions—as soon as pretence whatever, until a general halt is made, they gain the work, they will also give and continue and then to be attended by one of the officers of the watch-word, which will prevent confusion and the platoon. As soon as the troops assemble, this mistakes, order to be read at the head of each:

Major Murpby will follow colonel Butler to the T'he troops will march from Clement's to Stony first figure, No. 3, where be will divide a little to Point, at 11 o'clock, and move by the right. Every the right and left and wait the attack on the right, officer and non-commissioned officer will remain which will be a signal to begia and keep up a perwith and be accountable for every man in his petual and galling fire, and endeavor 10 enter be. platoon. No soldier to be permitted to quit the tween, and pass the work A. A. If any soldier ranks on any pretence whatever, until a general presumes to take his musket from his sboulder, walt is made, and then to be attended by one of attempts to fire or begin the battle till ordered by the officers of the platoon.

This proper officer, he shall be immediately put 10

death by the officer next to him; for the cowardicefmade a shift to carry the worthy captain Gates : and misconduct of one man is not to put the whole (he was then a captain) off the field. He has in danger and disorder with impunity. After the often told me since, that he owed his life to me, troops begin to advance to the works, the strictest and charged meat parting, that whenever I thought silence must be observed and the greatest atten. he could in any instance serve me, to write to him tion paid to the command of the officers; as soon without reserye; so, please your bonor, (this is a 28 the lines are secured, the officers of the artillery, soldier's dialect to all officers) I am now grown with their commands, will take possession of the old, and worn out in the service, and expect to be cannon, to the end that the shipping may be secured invalided and sent home, but have been long in and the Fort at Verplank's Point annoyed, so as to America, and I like America, please your honor; I facilitate the attack upon that quarter. The gene accordingly took the liberty to write to major ral las the fullest confidence in the bravery and Gates for his advice, and this is his answer. He fortitude of the corps he has the happiness to com. has also wrote to major Hay, to give me every mand. The distinguished bonor conferred on every indulgence the service will admit of. I hope your officer and soldier who has been drafted into this honor will give me your opinion what is best to corps, by his excellency general Washington, the be done. I read the letter; but had not read far, credit of the states they respectively belong to, before I was sensibly touched with the sentiments and their own reputation, will be such powerful of the writer. After re.capitulating the service motives for each man to distinguish himself, that the veteran had rendered him at Braddock's field, the general cannot have the least doubt of a glori he says, "do as you please, respecting your

small ous victory: And further, he solemnly engages to pittance of pension. Thou bast served long, but reward the first man who enters the works with thy service has not brought thee rest for thy $500 and immediate preferment, to the second wounds and infirmities. I find by your letter that 400, to the third 300, to the fourth 200, to the fifth you wish to continue in America, therefore make 100, and will report the conduct of every officer yourself easy; when you receive your discharge, and soldier who distinguishes himself on this oc- repair to my plantation on Potomac river. I have casion, in the most favorable point of view, to his got a fine tract of land there, which not only excellency, who always takes the greatest pleasure furnishes me with all the necessaries, but all the in rewarding merit. But should there be any comforts of life; come and rest your firelock in my soldier so lost to every feeling, every sense of chimney corner, and partake with me; while I have, honor, as to attempt to retreat one single foot, or my savior Penfold shall not want; and it is my wish, shrink from the places of danger, the officer next as well as Mrs. Gates's, to see you spend the even. to him is to put bim immediately to death, that ing of your life comfortably. Mrs. Gates desires he may no longer disgrace the name of a soldier, to be affectionately remembered to you.” the corps or the state to which he belongs,

IXDIGNANT LANGUAGE. As the general is determined to share the dan

Mr. Pitt's speech in 1777, in opposition to lord gers of the night, so be wishes to participate the

Suffolk, who proposed to parliament to employ the glory of the day, in common with bis brother

Indians against the Americans, and said, in the soldiers. (Signed)


course of the debate, that "they had a righe to use

all the means that God and niture hud put into their GRATITUDE OF GENERAL GATES. hands to conquer America."

From the genuine letter of an officer.
An old goldier of the royal regiment of artillery,

"MY LORDB-I am astonished to bear such prin. who served me while the 18th regiment was at

ciples confessed! I am shocked to hear them Fort Pitt and the Minois, on our return from that avowed in this house, or in this country! Princi. country to Philadelphia, in 1772, came to me with ples, equally unconstitutional, inhuman, and un

christian! a happy smile on his countenance, and told me he had the honor to receive a letter from major Gates, My lords, I did not intend to bave encroached and begged me to read i:. I asked him how he again on your attention; but I cannot repress my came to correspond with major Gates. Please indignation. I feel myself impelled by every duty. your honor, said the old man, major Gates was My lords we are called upon as members of this dangerously wounded at Braddock's defeat, and house, as men, as Christian Mén, to protest against was left among the slain, I was wounded also, but such notions standing near the throne, polluting

the ear of majesty. “Tha God and nature pu' Prove on the inhuman example even of Spanish into our hands!" I know not what ideas that lord cruelty. We turn loose these savage hell.hounds may entertain of God and nature; but I know, that against our brethren and countrymen in America, such abominable principles are equally abhorrent of the same language, laws, liberties, and religion, to religion and humanity.

endeared to us by every tie that should sanctify

humanity. What! to attribute the sacred sanction of God

My lords, this awful subject, so important to and nature to the massacres of the Indian scalping

our honor, our constitution, and our religion, knife! to the cannibal savage, torturing, murder.

demands the most solemn and effectual enquiry.ing, roasting, and ealing; literally, my lords, eating the mangled victims of his barbarous battles! Such

And I again call upon your lordships and the unit. horrible notions shock every precept

of religion, and decisively, and to stamp upon it an indelible

ed powers of the state, to examine it thoroughly, divine or natural, and every generous feeling of humanity. And, my lords, they shock every senti- stigma of the public abhorrence. And I again ment of honor; they shock me as a lover of honora. Implore those holy prelates of our religion, to do

away these iniquities from among us. Let them ble war, and a detester of murderous barbarity.

perform a lustration; let them purify this house, These abominable principles, and this more and this country from this sin, abominable avowal of them, demand the most

My lords, I am old and weak, and at present decisive indignation. I call upon that right reve

unable to say more; but my feelings and indigna. rend bench, those holy ministers of the gospel

, tion were too strong to have said less. I could and pious pastors of our church: I conjure them

not have slept this night in my bed, nor reposed to join in the holy work, and vindicate the religion

my head on my pillow, without giving this vent of their God. I appeal to the wisdom and the

to my eternal abhorence of such preposterous and law of this learned bench, to defend and support the

enormous principles." justice of their country. I call upon the bishop's to interpose the unsullied sanctity of their lawn;

SURRENDER OF LORD CORNWALLIS. upon the learned judges, to interpose the purity From sir N. W. Wraxall's memoirs of his own time. of their ermine, to save us from this pollution. I NOVEMBER, 1781.- During the whole month of call upon the honor of your lordships, to reverence November, the concurring accounts transmiited to the dignity of your ancestors, and to maintain your government, enumerating lord Cornwallis's emown. I call upon the spirit and humanity of my barrassments, and the positions taken by the ene. country, to vindicate the national character. I in- my, augmented the anxiety of the cabinet. Lord. voke the genius of the constitution.

George Germain, in particular, conscious that on From the tapestry that adorns these walls, the the prosperous or adverse termination of that immortal ancestor of this noble lord frowns with expedition, must hinge the fate of the American indignation at the disgrace of his country. In vain contest, his own stay in office, as well as probably

the duration of the ministry itself, felt, and even be led your victorious fleets against the boasted armada of Spain, in vain be defended and estab. expressed to his friends, the strongest uneasiness lished the bonor, the liberties, the religion, the on the subject. The meeting of parliament mean.

while stood fixed for the 27th of November. On protestant religion of this country, against the

Sunday the 25th, about noon, official intelligence arbitrary cruelties of popery and the inquisition, if

of the surrender of the British forces at Yorktown, these more than popish cruelties and inquisitorial

arrived from Falmouth, at lord Germain's house practices are let loose among us; to turn forth into

in Pall.mall. Lord Walsingham, who, previous to our settlements, among our ancient connections,

his father sir William de Grey's elevation to the friends, and relations, the merciless cannibal, thirst ing for the blood of man, woman and child! to send peerage, had been under secretary of state in that

department, and who was selected to second the forth the infidel savage-against whom? against

address in the house of peers, on the subsequent your protestant brethren; to lay waste their coun.

Tuesday, happened to be there when the messenger try; to desolate their dwellings, and extirpate their

brought the news. Without communicating it to race and name, with these horrible hell-hounds of

any other person, lord George, for the purpose of

despatch, immediately got with him into a hackney. Spain armed herself with blood-bounds, to extir. coach and drove to lord Siórmount's residence pale the wretched natives of America; and we im.'in Portland.place. Having imparted to him the

savage war!

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