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America, for the worst of purposes kindied by your does he mean to grant terms upon the irue princiking. Can your excellencies be so wanting to your ples of the constitution. For, if to grant such selves, as, at this time of day, on the part of your terms was bona fide the in:ention of your master, master, seriously to talk to us of a security upon the without doubt you would have been vested with true principles of the constitution! Did it never competent powers. But he plainly means to grant strike you that the Americans would expect to nothing that he can possibly avoid; and therefore see such principles operating in England, before he would have the matter of negociation drawn they could be duped into a belief that America into length under his own eye. Can we place any could possibly feel their effects from the dark confidence in such a prince? His aim is to divide, recess of the royal palace? The lord mayor of not to redress, and your excellencies declaration London has openly charged lord North, and the is but a continuation of lord North's conciliatory lords of the admiralty, with licensing ships to trade plan. to all parts of America, in direct disregard, con- Thus, while we remember that lord North tempt, and defiance of an ac! of parliament to the declared, on the 20th of February, 1775, that his contrary, passed so late as December last. And famous conciliatory plan was rather calculated to yet your excellencies do not scruple to talk to us break a link in the American chain of union, than to of a security upon the true principles of the constilu- give satisfaction to the people: and that the exertion! --Let the fountain be sweet, and then its cise of the right of taxing every part of the British stream may be salutary.
dominions must by no means be given up: that
lord Mansfield, on the third reading of the bill Your excellencies say "the king is most graciously declaring war against the united colonies, affirmed pleased to direct a revision” of instructions and that he did not consider who was originally in the acts. If you really mean to conciliate, why will
wrong, they were now to consider only where they you insult the inhabitants at large. It was "the
were, and the justice of the cause must now give zouy king's" bounden duly to have directed, not only a to their present situation: when we consider the revision, but an amendment of his instructions; en' king of Great Britain's speech to the parliament to have recommended a repeal of the acts wben the lon the last of November, and the commons address people FIRST complained of them. But he, hav. and his answer on the 7th of December, 1774-the ing been criminally deaf to the cries of the injured,
commons address of the 9th of February, 1775, and toterrify them into silence, having burnt their towns the royal answer: and the speech from the throne -restrained their trade-seized and confiscated
at the last opening of the parliament, October the their vessels-driven the n into enormous expenses 26th, 1775—all declaring an unalterable purpose to --sheathed his sword in their bowels—and adorned maintain the supreme authority of that legislature the heads of their aged, women and children, with
over all the dominions of the crown-in other a cincture made by the scalping knife of us ALLY
words, their unalterable purpose, TO BIND US IX the Indian savage--you now tell these injured peo- ALL CASXS WHATSOEVER: when we see your hostile ple, that "the king is graciously pleased to direct a
array and operations, in consequence of those revision!"--His very mercies are insults!
declarations: I say, when we consider these things, And so your excellencies, besides your military we can be at no loss to form a just idea of the intencommands as admiral and general, are also "com- tions of your king; or to conceive what your excel. missioners for restoring peace.” Is there not some lencies mean, by "the true principles of the con. error in this title? Ought we not instead of "peace” stitution.” Nor are we to be caught by any allure. to read tyranny? You seem armed at all points ments your excellencies may throw out-you con. for this purpose; and your very language detects fess, and we know that you, as commissieners, have the latent design. But you are commissioners, not any power to negociate and determine any and for the important purpose of “restoring peace," thing. you are bonored with a power-"10 confer:" And But, unanswerable as the reasons are against you have condescended to be mere machines through America returning to a subjection under the Briwhich, as through speaking trumpets, words are to 'ish crown, now in fact become despotic—and Ame. be sounded from America to Britain! How much rica, after unheard of injuries, infinite toil, hazard LOWER IS IT POSSIBLE FOR YOUR EXCELLENCIES TO and expense, her inhabitants called cowards by DEGRADE YOURSELVES IN THE ETES OF THE WORLD!- your masters servants, civil and military, having By this, it is most evident, the British king has declared herself independent-did not your excelnot one generous thought respecting America. Nor Jencies feel a little for our honor, when you at the head of your armies, held out to us, subjection and but I love the memory of the men, and it is my pence!... Did not you feel the dignity of your charac-hope, that the affection wbich I feel, will be to me ters affected when you, under the guise of a security instead of genius, and give me warm words to ad. upon the true principles of the constitution, recom vance their praises. mend to "the inhabitants at large” to rescind their I conceive it as the first honor of these men decree, and BY THEIR OWN MOUTAS DECLARE them. tbat, before they engaged in the war, they saw it to selves the most contemptible people in history, which be just and necessary. They were not the vassals gives no example of such baseness--RENDER their of a proud chieftain rousing them, in barbarous name a term of reproach among all nations.--and times, by the blind impulse of attachment to his TORBID each other from placing any, the least degree family, or engaging them to espouse his quarrel, of confidence in, and all foreign states from paying by the music and entertainment of bis hall. Tbey the least degree of credit to, their most solemn were themselves the chieftains of their own cause, declarations! In short, to submit to a government highly instructed in the nature of it, and from the abandoned to corruption, lost to a sense of justice, best principles of patriotism, resolute in defence. and aiready but a step behind absolute despotism They had heard the declaration of the court and ood government that has long been and ever must parliament of Great Britain, claiming the authority be jealous of our rise, and studious to depress our of binding them in all cases whatsoever. They natural growth!-- Did not your excellencies blush had examined this claim, and found it to be, es and shrink within yourselves, when you asked men, to its foundation, groundless; as to its nature, who had been almost ruined by your gracious mas. tyrannical, and in its consequences, ruinous to the ter, to abandon the honorable and natural station peace and happiness of both countries. On this of independence, and stoop to kiss his hand, now clear apprehension and decided judgment of the daily bathed in, and wbich ever must continue cause, ascertained by their own reason, and col. stained by the blood of a friend! a brother! a son! a lected from the best writers, it was the noble pur. father!
pose of their minds to stand forth and assert it, That your excellencies may "reflect seriously” at the expense of fortune, and the hazard of their upon "he unjust cause in wbicb you are engaged;" | lives. and that the name of Howe may be enrolled with These brave men were not soldiers by profes. the names of MAULBOROUGH and EFFINGHAM, are the sion, bred to arms, and from a habit of military wishes of,
life attached to it. They were men in the easy A CAROLINIAN.' South Carolina,
walks of life; mechanics of the city, merchants of Charleston, October 22, 1776.
the counting house, youths engaged in the literary
studies, and husbandmen, peaceful cultivators of An Eulogiuin
the soil. Happy in the sociability and conversa
tion of the town, the simplicity and innocencee of of the brave men who have fallen in the contest
the country village, or the philosophic ease of with Great Britain: Delivered by judge BRAC
academic leisure, and the sweets of rural life, they KENRIDGE, on Monday, July 5, 1779, before a
wished not a change of these scenes of pleasure, numerous and respectable assembly of citizens
for the dangers and calamities of war. It was the and foreigners, in the German Calvinist church,
pure love of virtue and of freedom, burning bright Philadelphin.
within their minds, that alone could engage them Who, seorning coward self, for others liv'd,
to embark in an undertaking of so bold and perilous Tuild for their ease, and for their safety bled.
THOMSOX. It is the high reward of those who have risked These brave men were not unacquainted with their lives in a just and necessary war,f that their the circumstances of their situation, and their un. names are sweet in the mouths of men, and every prepared state of war. Not a bayonet was anvilled age shall know their actions. I am happy in hav. out, not a fire-arm was in their possession. No ing it in my power, before a polite assenbly, to redoubt was cast up to secure the city, no fort was express what I think of those who have risked erected to resist invasion, no gun mounted on the their lives in the war of America. I know my battery, and no vessel launched upon the stream. abilities rise not to a level with so great a subject,
The power of Britain, on the other hand, was "Judge Druyton."...EDITOR.
well known, and by the lightning of her orators, Tacitus
in a thousand writings and harangues, had been
Heroes then arose;
thrown, in full force, upon their minds. They were,vanced with a slow and suspicious step upon the taught to believe her, (what indeed she was) old | hostile territory. War is again arisen, and it has ia arts and in arms, and enriched with the spoils been fought from spring to autumn, and from of a thousand victories. Embraced with the ocean autumn to spring, through the heat of summer and as her favorite, her commerce was extensive, and the inclemencies of winter, with unabated ardor, she sent her ships to every sea. Abounding in and unshaken perseverance. What tract of coun men, her armies were in full force, her fleets were try has not been marked with the ypyiiges of war? completely manned, her discipline was regular, and what ground has not been cut with trenches?the spirit of her enterprize, by sea and land, had, what hill has not been covered with redoubts? in most cases, insured her successes.
Wbat plain has not been made the scene of the The idea of resistance to the power of Britain engagement? What soil of our whole earth has was indeed great-but the mighty soul of the not been sowed with ball? patriot drank it in, and, like the eagle on the moun.
These have been the toils of the heroes of our tain top, collected magnanimity from the very pros- army; but the brave men whom we this day celepect of the height from which he meant to soar:
brate, have added to their toils the loss of life. Like the steed who swallows the distant ground They have fallen in the contest: Those of them with his fierceness," he attempts the career, and in the long and laborious march: These by the poured himself upon the race.
fever of the camp: These have fallen when, ad.
vancing on the enemy, they have received the The patriot quits his easy independent walk of life, his shop, his farm, his office and his counting of victory, they have dropt by the cannon or the
beyonet in their breast; or high in hope, and anxious house, and with every hope and every anxious
musket ball. thought, prepares himself for war. The materials
For what cause did these brave men sacrifice of gun powder are extracted from the earth; the
their lives? For that cause wbich, in all ages, bayonet is anvilled out; the fire-arm is manufactur.
has engaged the hopes, the wishes, and endeavors ed in the shop; the manual exercise is taught; the company is formed in battalion; the battalion is thou art indeed valuable; the source of all that is
of the breast of men--the cause of liberty. LIBERTI! instructed to manæuvre on the field; the brigade is
good and great upon the earth! --For thee, the drawn forth; and the standard of defiance is planted
patriot of America has drawn bis sword, and has on the soil.
fought and has fallen. Shall I mention the circumstances of the day What was in our power we have done with re. when the sword was drawn, and the first blood was gard to the bodies of these men; we have paid shed; and shall I trace the progress of the war in them military honors; we have placed them in their the course of five campaigns? The narration would native earth; and it is with veneration that we yet require the space of an entire day: I can mention view their tombs upon the furzy glade, or on the but the sum of things; and only tell you, that the distant bill. Ask me not the names of these. The inroad of the foe has been sustained upon the plain, muses sball tell you of them, and the bards shall and the forward and impetuous bands have been woo* them to their sons. The verse which shall driven over the disdaining ground which they had be so happy as to embrace the name of one of these measured in advance. The bill has been defended, shall be immortal. The names of these shall be and the repulsed and rallying foe has been taught read with those of Pelopidas, Epaminondas, and to understand, that the valor of America was worthy the worthies of the world. Posterity shall quote of the cause which her freemen have espoused. The them for parallels, and for examples. When they wilderness has been surmounted in the march. I mean to dress the hero with the fairest praises, has been fought, foot to foot, and point to poini, they shall say he was gallant and distingui shed in in skirmishes, and night surprises, and in pitched his early fall, as Warren; prudent and intrepid as battles, with alternate hope and dubious success. Montgomery, faithful and generous as Macpherson; The enemy, beaten in one state has retired to a he fell in the bold and resolute advance, like Haslet second, and beaten in the second, he has returned and like Mercer; he saw the honor which his valer to the first; beaten in every state he has sought the had acquired, and fainted in the arms of victory, water, and like a sea monster rolling to the deep, like Herkimer: having gallantly repulsed the foe, has washed his wounds in the brine of ocean. Rising he fell covered with wounds, in his old age, like from the ocean he has sought the land, and ad. Wooster. *Book of Job.
The names of these brave men shall be read; ancestral honor; but we love the youth, and trans. and the earth shall be sensible of praise where fer to him the reputation of his father, who, when their bodies are deposited. Hill of Boston,* where the rich and haughty citizen sball frown upon him the God of arms gave uncommon valor to the as ignobly descended, shall say, "I had a father who patriot! Here the muses shall observe the night, has fallen in the service of his country.” and hymn heroic acts, and trim their lighted lamps
When after times shall speak of those who have to the dawn of morning. The litile babbling mystic risen to renown, I will charge it to the golden brook, sball bear the melody, and stealing with a winged and silver tongued bards, that they recol. silver foot, shall tell it to the ocean. Hills within lect and set in order every circumstance; the prospect of the York city, where the enemy, rejoic. causes of the war; early and just exertions, the ing at his early strength, adventured and fought, toils, hazardous achievements, noble resolution, or where, refusing the engagement he fled, with unshaken perseverance unabated ardor; hopes in precipitation to his ship On you the tomb of the the worst of times, triumphs of victory; humanity hero is beheld, and fancy walking round covers it to an enemy: All these will I charge it, that they with shades. Grounds in the neighborhood of this recollect and set in order, and give them bright city,f where the foreigner shall enquire the field and unsullied to the coming ages. The bards I of battle, and the citizen shall say with conscious know will hear me, and you, my gallant country. pride, as if the honor was his own, this is the tomb men, shall go down to posterity with exceeding of Witherspoon; that is the ground where Nash honor. Your fame shall ascend on the current of fel!! Plains washed by the Ashley and Cooper, and the stream of time: It shall play with the breezes before the walls of Charlestown!-Here has the hero of the morning. Men at rest, in the cool age of fallen, or rather he has risen to eterual honor, and life, from the fury of a thousand wars finished by his birth place shall be immortal. His fame, like their fathers, shall observe the spreading ensign. a vestal lamp, is lighted up: It shall burn, with They shall bail it, as it waves with variegated the world for its temple and the fair assemblies of glories; and feeling all the warm rapture of the the earth shall trim it with their praise.
beart, shall give their plaudit from the shores. Having paid that respect to the memory of these men, which the annual return of this day demanded, George Mason, of Virginia. it remains that we soothe the grief of those who MR. NILES, have been deprived of a father, bereaved of a son, Sir: The emancipation of the states of North Ame. or who have lost a brother, a husband or a lover rica, nust ever be regarded as one of the most noia in the contest. Fathers, whose heroic sons have morable events recorded in the annals of the buman offered up their lives in the contest; it is yours to race. The revolutions, which have embroiled and recollect, that their lives were given them for the desolated thegreat nations from which they sprang, service of their country. Faihers! dismiss every are acknowledged to have received their first im. shade of grief; you are happy in having been the pulse from the principles and events of the Ameriprogenitor of him who is written with the beroes of can struggle. The grave bas closed upon a great his country.
majority of the leaders in the American revolution; Sons! whose heroic fathers have early left you,
and the characters of the founders of our indepenand in the conflict of the war, have mixed with dence and freedom are beginning to be contem. departed heroes; be congratulated on the fair plated with the severe impartiality of a distant pos. inheritance of fame which you are entitled to terity. The passions which buoyed, annoyed, or possess. If it is at all lawful to array ourselves infested their individual fame have subsided. Each in borrowed honor, surely it is best drawn from is receiving a settled and mellow lustre; and a just those who have acted a distinguished part in the judgment is already busily engaged in assigning service of their country. If it is at all consistent the degree of estimation and respect which a grate. with the feelings of philosophy and reason to boast ful posterity should continue to render to the me of lineal glory, surely it is most allowable in those mory of each of those whose efforts have obtained who boast of it as Aowing from such source. We so many blessings and such everlasting glory for this despise the uninstructed mind of that man who nation. shall obtrude upon our ears the ideas of a vain Among the conductors of those important events, *Bunker's hill.
the name of George Mason, must always hold & Philadelphia.
distinguished place. An exhibition of character,
in a public station, may be calculated to give an to tell him of bis political opinions and principles impression of the profoundest respect; but, the gir. and to speak of the sentiments, feelings, and procerest, and best affections of the heart can only be bable fortunes of his country. This leiter, which won by those traits, which are developed when the is so highly honorable to its author, furnishes conindividual has been divested of the imposing forms clusive proof, that all the chiefs, as well mililury as and cirumstances of place and office. It is for civil, were guided and controuled by the people, these reasons, as well as for the rays of light which and bears ample testimony to their virtue and their they shed upon the most interesting portion of the glory. history of our country, that I send you the follow.
He was a member of the convention which forming papers.
ed the present constitution of the United States, George Mason, their author, was an independent and appears to have been deeply, and sincerely im. planter, resident in Fairfax county, Virginia, his pressed with the magnitude of the undertaking. na:ive state, when the revolution commenced. Ile was afterwards a member of the convention of Ile was a man endowed by nature with a vigor. Virginia by which it was ratified, which he actively ous understanding, wbich had been well culti- and firmly opposed, without previous amendments. vated by a liberal education. He was a sound / He was a most decided enemy to all constructite constitutional lawyer, although he had not prac.
and implied powers. And it is remarkable, that he tised or been bred to the profession. His mind was the author of some, and the warm advocate of had, evidently, been well stored from the best po- every amendment since made to it. His friend litical writers of his time. In temperament he was,
and coadjutor, the illustrious Henry, poor -] forth like the younger Cato, constitutionally stern, firm, the boundless wealth of bis impassioned eloquence and honest; and in all the affairs of life, in which in opposition; he charmed, enchanted, or won over he was engaged, as well private as public, he was many of his auditors to withhold their assent from habitually, minutely, and critically clear, punctual, the proposed plan of government. But, when Naexact, and particular. He was a member of the son spoke, he seemed to cite his hearers severally first conventions and assemblies elected by the peo-to the bar of reason and truth, and imperatively to ple independently of the colonial authorities. We demand of them to produce the reasons and grounds chose and valued most, the station of a representa. upon which they proposed to tolerate the pernicious tive of the people; because he thought it most ho. principles le denounced. Henry delighted, asto. norable, and one where he could be most useful; nished, and captivated. Mason stirred the house, nor did he ever consent to accept of any other, but and challenged every friend of the new constitu. once, when he acted as a commissioner to adjust tion to stand forth; at the same time, that he made the navigation and boundary, between Maryland them feel, they would have to meet an antagonist and Virginia. He was a man of the people in spi whom it was difficult to vanquish, and impossible rit and in truth; and every act of his life incontes. to put to flighe; such was the clear, condensed, and tibly evinces, that in their cause he never once, or dauntless vigor he displayed. for a single moment, trembled, hesitated or wa
George Mason was a member of that convention vered.
of Virginia, which, on the fifteenth day of May Many intelligent foreigners, and some of our own 1776, declared that staie independent and formed countrymen, whose judgments have been confused or the constitution by which it is still governed. And perverted by aristocratic principles, entertain a be. to him belongs the honor of having draughted the lief, and propagate the opinion, that our liberties first declaration of rights ever adopted in Ame. were principally established by the integrity, wis rica, of which the following is a copy. The few dom, and forbearance of our military leaders. To alterations made by the convention, which adopted such it will be particularly instructive 10 attend it unanimously on the twelfth day of June, 1776, to the first of the following letters from this vene- and made it a part of the constitution of Virginia, rable patriot; written at a time, and under circum- where it yet remains, are noied. This declaration stances singularly impressive and affccting. In a
contains principles more extensive, and much more ripe old age, chastened by experience, when the perspicuously expressed than any then to be found bar.d of Providence had visited his household with in the supposed analogous instruments of any other such an affliction as to induce him to desire no more age or country. the return of hilarity to his heart, he seats him- The English magna charta was, strictly speak. self in his closer to unbosom himself to his friend;!ing, a contract between an assemblage of feudal