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or for a partial interest, its operation is surely no possible right to be consulted, in the disposal determinable, where its delegation ends. of his property: when a lordiy, though unlettered
The constitution of England, I revere to a degree British elector, possessed of a turnip garden, with of idolatry; but my attachment is to the common great propriely may appoint a legisl,ture, to assess weal: The magistrate will ever command my
the ample domains of the most sensible, opulent respect, by the integrity and wisdom of bis ad
American planter. ministrations.
But remember, my brethren, when a people have Junius well observes, "when the constitution in once sold their liberties, it is no'act of extraordiopenly invaded, when the first original right of nary generosity, to throw their lives and proper. the people, from wbich all laws derive their au.
ties into the bargain, for they are poor indeed when thority, is directly attacked, inferior grievances
enjoyed at the mercy of a master. naturally lose their force, and are suffered to pass The late conduct of Great Britain, so inconsisby without punishment or observation.”
tent with the practice of former times, so subver. Numberless have been the attacks made upon cient to excite the discontent of the subject: the
sive of the first principles of government, is suffi. our free constitution; numberless the grievances we now resent: but the Hydra mischief, is the
Americans justly and decently urged an exclusive violation of my right, as a BRITISH AMERICAN free. right of taxing themselves; was it indulgent, conciholder, in not being consulted in framing those
liating, or parental conduct in that state, to exagstatutes I am required to obey.
gerate such a claim, as a conceried plan of rebel.
lion in the wanton Americans? and by a rigorous The authority of the British monarch over this and cruel exercise of power to enforce submission, colony was established, and his power derived from excite such animosities, as at some future period, the province CHALTER; by that we are entitled to a
may produce a bitter repentance? distinct legislation. As in every governmert there must exist a power superior to the laws, viz. the
Can such be called a legal tax or free gif? it is the power that makes those laws, and from which
rather levying contributions on grudging enslaved they derive their authority:* therefore the liberty
Americans, by virtue of an act framed and enforced,
not only without, but against their consent; there. of the people is exactly proportioned to the share the body of the people have in the legislature;
by rendering the provincial assemblies an useless and the check placed in the constitution, on the part of the constitution. executive power. That state only is free, where the
Where laws are framed and assessments laid with. people are governed by laws which they have a share out a legal representation, and obedience to such in making; and that country is totally enslaved, acts urged by force, the despairing people robbed where one single law can be made or repealed, of every constitutional means of redress, and that without the interposition or consent of the people. people, brave and virtuous, must become the That the members of the British parliament are
admiration of ages, should they not appeal to those llie representatives of the whole British empire, lent to all mankind. Fear is a slender tie of sub
powers, which the immutable laws of nature have expressly militates with tbeir avowed principles:
jection; we detest those whom we fear, and wish property and residence within the island, alone
destruction to those we detest; but humanily; coostituting the right of election; and surely he is not my delegate in whose nomination or appoint. watchfulness for the welfare of the people, con.
uprightness, and good faith, with an apparant ment I have no choice: but however the futile and absurd claim of a virtual representation, may com
stitute the permanency, and are the firmest sup. port with the idea of a political visionary, he must
port of the sovereign's authority; for when violence (if possible) heighten the indignation, or excite
is opposed to reason and justice, courage never the ridicule of a freeborn American, who by such
wanis an arm for its defence. a fallacious pretext would despoil bim of his pro
What dignity, what respect, wliat authority, can perty.
Britain derive from her obstinate adherence to An American freeholder, according to the just
error? sbe stands convicted of violating her own and Judicious conduct of the present ministry, has
principles, but perseveres with unrelenting severity;
we implore for riglts as a grace-she aggravates •Nothing, comtinued the corporal, can be so sweet, Au please your bonor, as liberty:
our distress, by lopping away another and another Nothing, 'Crian, said my inele Toby, musing
darling privilege; we ask for freedom and she sends Wüilsta man is free cried live corporal, giving a flourish with bis suick those
To the wisdom, to the justice, to the piety of brethren and grinning furies, glotting o'er their his most sacred majesty, I unite in my appeal with carnage, the hostile attitude of the miscreant this unbounded empire; God grant he may attend murderers, redoubles our resentment, and makes 10 ibe reiterated prayer, instead of the murmur of revenge a virtue. discontent, and the frown of louring disaffection;
By hearen they die! thus nature spoke, and the we would universally hail him with those effusions swoln heart leap'd to execute the dreadful pur. of genuine joy, and duteous veneration, which the
pose; dire was the interval of rage, fierce was the proudest DESPOT will vainly look for, from forced conflict of the soul. In that important hour, did respect or ceremonial homage.
not the stalking ghosts of our stern forefathers, Parties and factions, since the days of the detest point us to bloody deeds of vengeance? did not the ed Andross, have been strangers to this land; no consideration of our expiring LI DERTIES, impel us distinctions of heart felt animosity, disturbed the to remorseless havoc? but hark! the guardian God peace and order of society till the malignant folly of New England issues his awful mandate, "PEACE, of * late rancorous commander in chief, corjured E still;" hush'd was the bursting war, the them from the dead: when shall this unhappy clime louring tempest frowned its rage away. Confidence be purged of its numerous plagues? when will our in that God, beneath whose wing we shelter all troubles, our feuds, our struggles cease? when will our cares, that blessed confidence released the the locusts, leave the land? then, and not till then, dastard, the cowering prey: with haughty scorn peace and plenty sball smile around us; the hus. we refused to become their executioners, and bandman will labor with pleasure; and honest in- nobly gave them to the wrath of heaven: but words dustry reap the reward of its toil.
can poorly paint the horrid scene*-defenceless, But let us not forget the distressing occasion of prostrate, bleeding countrymen-tbe piercing, this anniversary: the sullen ghosts of murdered agonizing groans—the mingled moan of weeping fellow.citizens haunt my imagination and harrow relatives and friends—these best can speak, to up my soul,” methinks the tainted air is hung with rouse the luke-warm into noble zeal; to fire the the dews of death, while Ate, hot from hell, cries zealous into manly rage, against the foul oppression, bavock; and lets slip the dogs of war, Hark! the of quartering troops, in populous cities, in times of van tenants of the grave still sbriek for vengeance
peace. on their remorseless butchers; forgive us heaven! Thou who yun bloody walk shalt traverse, there
Where troops of Britain's king, on Britain's sons, should we mingle involuntary execrations, while Discharg'd the leaden vengeance; pass not on
E'er thou hast blest their memory, and paid hovering in idea over the guiltless dead. Where is Those hallowed tears, which sooth the virtuous dead:
O stranger! stay thee, and the scene around the amiable, the graceful Maverick? the opening
Contemplate well; and if percbance thy home
Salute thee with a father's honor'd name, blossom is now withered in his cheek, the sprightly
Go call thy sons-instruct chern wbat a debt
They owe their ancestors, and make them swear fire that once lightened in his eye is quenched in
To pay it, by transmitting down entire,
Those sacred rights, to which themselves were born. deathit the savage hands of brutal ruffians have crushed the unsuspecting victim, and in an evil
ORATION, DELIVERED AT BOSTON, MANCA 5, 1774, hour snatched away bis gentle soul.
BY THE HON. JOHN HANCOCK, ESQ. Where is the friendly, the industrious Caldwell?
Vendidit hic anro patriam, dominamque potentem he paced innoxious through the theatre of death,
Imposuit: fixit Irges pretio atque refixit.
Non, mibi si linguæ centum sint, oraque centum, inconscious of design or danger, when the winged
Ferren vox, omnes scelerun: comprendere formas,
-possim. fate gored his bosom, and stript bis startled soul for the world of spirits. Where are the residue of
Men, brethren, fathers and fellow.countrymen! - The active citizens that were wont to tread these sacred attentive gravity, the venerable appearance of this floors? fallen by the hands of the vindictive assassins crowded audience; the dignity which I behold in they swell the horrors of the sanguinary scene, the countenances of so many in this great assemLoyalty stands on tiptoe at the shocking recollec- bly; the solemnity of the occasion upon which we tion, while justice, virtue, bonor, patriotism become have met together, joined to a consideration of the suppliants for immoderate vengeance: the whole part I am to take in the important business of this soul clamors for arms, and is on fire to attack day, fill me with an awe hitherto unknown; and the brutal banditti; we Hy agonizing to the horrid heighten the sense which I bave ever had, of my aceldamu; we gaze on the mangled corses of our unworthiness to fill this sacred desk; but, allured
by the call of some of my respected fellow.citizens, * The Netilehso Baronet. + Hic ubi barbarus hostis,
-Multaque rubentia cæde Ut Aera plus valeant legibus arma facit. Ovid de Ponto. Lubrica saxa madent, nulli sua profuit ætas.- Lucan, Lib. 2
with whose request it is always my greatest plea-jare sent to enforce their mad pretensions. The sure to comply, I almost forgot my want of ability town of Boston, ever faithful to the British crown, to perform what they required. In this situation has been invested by a British Aeet: the troops of I find my only support, in assuring myself that a George the III. have crossed the wide Atlantic, not generous people will not severely censure what to engage an enemy, but to assist a band of Traitors they know was well intended, though its want of in trampling on the rights and liberties of his most merit, should prevent their being able to applaud loyal subjects in Americaấthose rights and liber. it. And I pray, that my sincere attachment to the ties which, as a father, he ought ever to regard, interest of my country, and hearty detestation of and as a king, he is bound, in honor, to defend every design formed against her liberties, may be from violations, even at the risque of his own life. admitted as some apology for my appearance in Let not the history of the illustrious house of this place.
Brunswick i form posterity, that a king, descendI have always, from my earliest youth, rejoiceded from that glorious monarch, George the II. once in tlie felicity of my fellow.men; and have ever sent his British subjects to conquer end enslave considered it as the indispensable duty of every bis subjects in America, but be perpetual infamy member of society to promote, as far as in him entailed upon that villain who dared to advise his lies, the prosperity of every individual, but more master to such execrable measures; for it was easy especially of the community to which he belongs; to foresee the consequences which so naturally and also, as a faithful subject of the state, to use his followed upon sending troops into America, to enutmost endeavors to detec', and having detected, force obedience to acts of the British parliament, strenuously to oppose every traitorous plot which which neither God nor man ever empowered them its enemies may devise for its destruction. Security to make. It was reasonable to expect that troops, to the persons and properties of the governed, is who knew the errand they were sent upon, would so obviously the design and end of civil govern. treat the people whom they were to subjugate, ment, that to attempt a logical proof of it, would with a cruelty and haughtiness, which too often be like burning tapers at noonday, to assist the sun buries the honorable character of a soldier, in the dis. in enlightening the world; and it cannot be either graceful name of an unfeeling ruffian. Thetroops, upvirtuous or honorable, to attempt to support a go. on their first arrival, took possession of our senate. vernment, of which this is not the great and princi. house, and pointed their cannon against the judige pal basis; and it is to the last degree vicious and ment-ball
, and even continued them there whilst infamous to attempt to support a government, the supreme court of judicature for this province which manifestly tends to render the persons and was actually sitting to decirle upon the lives and properties of the governed insecure. Some boast fortunes of the king's subjects. Our streets nightly of being friends to government; I am a friend to resounded with the noise of riot and debaucherya righteous government, to a government founded our peaceful citizens were hourly exposed to upon the principles of reason and justice; but I shameful insults, and often felt the effects of their glory in publicly avowing my eternal enmity to violence and outrage.-But this was not all: as tyranny. Is the present system, which the British though they thought it not enough to violate our administration bave adopted for the government civil rights, they endeavored to deprive us of the of the colonies, a righteous government? or is it enjoyment of our religious privileges; to viciate tyranny?-Here suffer me to ask (and would to our morals, and thereby render us deserving of Heaven'there could be an answer) what tenderness, destruction. Hence the rude din of arms which what regard, respect or consideration has Great broke in upon your solemn devotions in your tem. Britain shewn, in their late transactions, for the ples, on that day hallowed by heaven, and set. security of the persons or properties of the in- apart by God himself for liis peculiar worship. babitants of the colonies? or rather, what have Hence, impious oaths and blasphemies so often tbey omitted doing to destroy that security? they tortured your unaccustomed ear. Hence, all the have declared that they have, ever had, and of arts which idleness and luxury could invent, were right ought ever to have, full power to make laws used to betray our youth of one ses into extrava. of sufficient validity to bind the colonies in all gance and effeminacy, and of theothier to infamy ard cases whatever: they have exercised this pretended ruin; and did they not succeed but too well? did right by imposing a tax upon us without our con- not a reverence for religion sensibly decay? did sent; and legt we should shew some reluctance at not our infants almost learn to lisp out curses be. Parting with our property, her fleets and armies fore they knew their horrid import? did not our
youth forget they were Americans, and regardless from ruin, even a guilty villian, forever actuate the of the admonitions of the wise and aged, servilely noble bosoms of Americans! But let not the mis. copy from their tyrants those vices which finally creant host vainly imagine that we feared their must overthrow the empire of Great Britain? and arms. No; tbem we despised; we dread nothing must I be compelled to acknowledge, that even but slavery. Death is the creature of a poltroon's the noblest, fairest part of all the lower creation brains; 'tis immortality to sacrifice ourselves for did not entirely escape the cursed snare? when the salvation of our country. We fear not death. virtue has once erected her throne within the That gloemy night, the pale faced moon, and tlie female breast, it is upon sa solid a basis that noth affrighted stars that hurried through the sky, can ing is able to expel the heavenly inhabitant. But witness that we fear not death. Our hearts which, have there not been some, few indeed, I hope, at the recollection, glow with rage that four revolv. whose youth and inexperience have rendered them ing years have scarcely taught us to restrain, can a prey to wretches, whom, upon the least reflec. witness that we fear not death; and happy it is for tion, they would have despised and hated as foes those who dared to insult us, that their naked bones. to God and their country? I fear there have been are not now piled up an everlasting monument of
Massachusetts' bravery. But they retired, they some such unhappy instances; or why have I seen an honest father cloathed with shame; or why a
Ard, and in that flight they found their only safety. virtuous mother drowned in tears?
We then expected that the hand of public justice
would soon inflict that punishment upon the mur. But I forbear, and come reluctantly to the trans derers, which, by the laws of God and man, they had actions of tbat dismal night, when in such quick incurred. But let the unbiassed pen of a Robert. succession we felt the extremes of grief, astonish - son, or perhaps of some equally famed American, ment and rage; when Heaven in anger, for a dread. conduct this trial before the great tribunal of sucful moment suffered hell to take the reins; when ceeding generations. And though the murderers Satan with his chosen band opened the sluices of may escape the just resentment of an enraged peoNew E gland's blood, and sacrilegiously polluted ple; though drowsy justice, intoxicated by the our land with the dead bodies of her guiltless poisonous draught prepared for her cup, still nods
Let this sad tale of death never be told upon her rotten seat, yet be assured, such compli. without a tear: let not the heaving bosom cease cated crimes will meet their due reward. Tell to burn with a manly indignation at the barbarous me, ye bloody butchers! ye villians bigh and low! story, through the long tracts of future time: let ye wretches who contrived, as well as you who ex. every parent tell the shameful story to his listening ecuted the inhuman deed! do you not feel the children 'til tears of pity glisten in their eyes, goads and stings of conscious guilt pierce through and boiling passions shakes their tender frames; your savage bosoms? though some of you may think and whilst the anniversary of that ill-fated night is yourselves exalted to a height that bids defiance kept a jubilee in the grim court of pandæmonium, to humun justice, and others shroud yourselves be. let ali America join in one common prayer to hea neath the mask of hypocrisy, and build your hopes ven, that the inhuman, unprovoked murders of the of safety on the low arts of cunning, chicanery and Afih of March, 1770, planned by Hillsborough, and falsehood; yet do you not sometimes feel the knawa knot of treacherous knaves in Boston, and execu-ings of that worm which never dies? do not the inted by the cruel hand of Preston and his sangui jured shades of Maverick, Gray, Caldwell, Attucks nary coadjutors, may ever stand on history with and Carr, attend you in your solitary walks, arrest out a parallel. But what, my countrymen, with you even in the midst of your debaucheries, and fill held the ready arm of vengeance from executing even your dreams with terror? but if the unappeas. instant justice on the vile assassins? perhaps you ed manes of the dead should not disturb their mur. feared promiscuous carnage mignt ensue, and that derers, yet surely even your obdurate hearts must the innocent might share the fate of those who had shrink, and your guilty blood must chill within performed the infernal deed. But were not all your rigid veins, when you bebold the miserable guilly? where you not too tender of the lives of Monk, the wretched victim of your savage cruelty. those who came to fix a yoke on your necks? but I Observe his tottering knees, which scarce sustain must not too severely blame a fault, which great his wasted body; look on his haggard eyes; mark souls only can commit. May that magnificence as well the death-like paleness on his fallen cheek, spirit which scorns the low pursuits of malice, may and tell me, does not the sight plant daggers in that generous compassion which often preserves your souls: unhappy Monk! cut off in the gay morn of manhood, from all the joys which sweeten life, means say generally, much less universally) com. doomed to drag on a pitiful existence, without even posed of persons who bave rendered themselves a hope to taste the pleasures of returning bealth! unfit to live in civil society; who have no other yet Monk, thou livest not in vain; thou livest a motives of conduct than those which a desire of warning to thy country, which sympathizes with the present gratification of their passions suggests: the in thy sufferings; thou livest an affecting, an who have no property in any country; men who alarming instance of the unbounded violence which have given up their own liberties, and envy those lust of power, assisted by a standing army, can lead who enjoy liberty; who are equally indifferent to the a traitor to commit.
glory of a George or a Louis; who for the addition For us he bled, and now languishes. The wounds of one penny a day to their wages, would desert
from the Christian cross, and fight under the cre. by which he is tortured to a lingering death, were aimed at our country! surely the meek-eyed cbari. scent of the Turkish sultan; from such men as these, ty can never behold such sufferings with indiffer. what has not a state to fear? with such as these, ence. Nor can her lenient hand forbear to pour usurping Cæsar passed the Rubicon; with such as oil and wine into these wounds, and to assuage at these he bumbled mighty Rome, and forced the
mistress of the world to own a master in a traitor. least, what it cannot heal.
These are the men whom sceptered robbers now Patriotism is ever united with humanity and
employ to frustrate the designs of God, and render compassion. This noble affection which impels us
vain the bounties which his gracious hand pours into sacrifice every thing dear, even life itself, to
discriminately upon his createres. By these the our country, involves in it a common sympathy and
miserable slaves in Turkey, Persia, and many other tenderness for every citizen, and must ever have a
extensive countries, are rendered truly wretched, particular feeling for one who suffers in a public
though their air is salubrious, and their soil lusucause. Thoroughly persuaded of this, I need not
riously fertile. By these, France and Spain, thongta add a word to engage your compassion and bounty blessed by nature with all that administers to the towards a fellow citizen, who, with long protracted convenience of life, have been reduced to that conanguish, falls a victim to the relentless rage of our
temptible state in which they now appear; and by common enemies.
but if I was possessed Ye dark designing knaves, ye murderers, parri. for the gift of prophecy, I dare not, except by divine cides! how dare you tread upon the earth, which command, unfold the leaves on which the desting has drank in the blood of slaughtered innocents, of that once powerful kingdom is inscribed. shed by your wicked hands? how Jare you breathe
But since standing armies are so hurtful to a that air which wafted to the ear of heaven, the
state, perhaps my countrymen may demand some groans of those who fell a sacrifice to your accurseil
substitute, some other means of rendering us seambition? but if the laboring earth doth not ex
cure against the incursions of a foreign enemy. But pand her jaws; if the air you breathe is not com
can you be one moment at a loss? will not a well disa missioned to be the minister of death; yet, hear it, ciplined mildio afford you ample security against and tremble! the eye of heaven penetrates the dark. foreign foes? we want not courage; it is discipline est chambers of the soul, traces the leading clue alone in which we are exceeded by the most formida through all the labyrinths which your industrious able troops that ever trod the earth. Surely our folly has devised; and you, however you may bave hearts Autter no more at the sound of war, than screened yourselves from human eyes, must be ar did tbose of the immortal band of Persia, the Ma. raigned, must lift your hands, red with the blood cedonian phalanx, the invincible Roman legions, of those wbose death you have procured, at the tre. the Turkish Janissaries, the Gens des Armes of mendous bar of God.
France, or the well known grenadiers of Britain. A But I gladly quit the gloomy theme of death, well disciplined militia is a safe, an honorable and leave you to improve the thought of that im- guard to a community like this, whose inhabitants portant day, when our naked souls must stand be. are by nature brave, and are laudably tenacious of fore that being, from whom nothing can be hid. If that freedom in which they were born. From a would not dwell too long upon the horrid effects well regulated militia we have nothing to fear; their which have already followed from quartering regu. interest is the same with that of the state. When lar troops in this town: let our misfortunes teach : country is invaded, the militia are ready to ap. posterity to guard against such evils for the future. pear in its def:nce; they march into the field wisi . Standing armies are sometimes (I would by nollhat fortitude which a consciousness of the ji lice