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English language. The first edition of 3000 copies was sold out in ten days. In less than four months 13,000 were disposed of. In America, 40,000 copies were sold almost immediately, and the Harpers wrote Macaulay that in all about 200,000 copies would be disposed of in six months. The next two volumes appeared in 1855 and had a still greater sale. The publishers were able to pay him in a few months $100,000 — " the greatest amount ever paid at one time for one edition of a book.” The fifth volume which brought the History down to the death of William III. was published in 1860, after his death.

There is no space here to discuss adequately the merits and defects of this monumental work. It is sufficient to say that its enormous popularity was due to Macaulay's plan of writing history. And he has given us a clear statement of that plan. It was that history should be a true novel, "interesting the affections, and presenting pictures to the imagination. . . . It should invest with the reality of human flesh and blood beings whom we are too much inclined to consider as personified qualities in an allegory; call up our ancestors before us with all their peculiarities of language, manners, and garb; show us over their houses, seat us at their tables, rummage their old-fashioned wardrobes, explain the uses of their ponderous furniture.” In a letter to Napier he wrote: “I have at last begun my historical labors. The materials for an amusing narrative are immense. I shall not be satisfied unless I produce something which shall for a few days supersede the last fashionable novel on the tables of young ladies.” And no one understood his public better than Macaulay.

His last years were darkened by disease and failing strength. The magnificent machine, worked for a full half century at its extreme capacity, at length broke down. In 1852 he had a severe attack of heart disease followed by asthma and fainting spells from which he never recovered. Yet, in spite of suffering and weakness, he still struggled on with his work. In the same year Edinburgh repented of its former treatment of him, and unasked returned him to Parliament. But though he managed to attend some of the sittings of Parliament, — when his presence was needed, - and made one or two speeches, the effort was too much for him, and he bent his failing powers to the furtherance of his History. “I should be glad to finish William before I go,” he wrote. “ But this is like the old excuses that were made to Charon." Still he found time to write five biographies which he had agreed to do for the Encyclopaedia Britannica : Atterbury (1853), Bunyan (1854), Goldsmith and Johnson (1856), and William Pitt (1859). These are undoubtedly his very best works, having all the merits and but few of the faults of his early essays. The biography of Pitt, the last

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work published in his lifetime, “is, perhaps, the most perfect thing he has left. Nearly all the early faults of his rhetorical manner have disappeared; there is no eloquence, no declamation, but a lofty moral impressiveness which is very touching and noble.” The Life of Johnson, though marred by some of Macaulay's characteristic prejudices and exaggerations, is only second to the Pitt.

The shadows of approaching death were partly illumined by the honors which came too late for their full enjoyment. He was elected Lord Rector of Glasgow University, made a fellow of the Royal Society, elected a foreign member of the Institution of France, and of the academies of Utrecht, Munich, and Turin. He was made a Knight of the Prussian Order of Merit, Oxford gave him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws, and, in 1857, the Queen made him a lord, with the title of Baron Macaulay of Rothley. He was the first literary man to receive the last-named honor in recognition of his literary work. But the year 1859 found his health failing very rapidly - this being hastened by his melancholy anticipations of his sister Hannah's impending departure for India with her husband. Yet he still kept up his cheerfulness, and, on October 25, 1859, he wrote: "My birthday - I am fifty-nine. Well, I have had a happy life. I do not know that any one whom I have seen close has had a happier. Some things I regret; but who is better off ?” He died suddenly and peacefully at his sister's house, the evening of the 28th of December, 1859. He is buried in the Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey.

II. MACAULAY’S WORKS

(1) POETRY

Lines to the Memory of William Pitt, 1813.
Pompeii : Prize poem winning the Chancellor's medal, Cam-

bridge, 1819. A Radical War Song, 1820. Evening: Prize poem winning the Chancellor's medal, Cam

bridge, 1821.
Ivry, 1824.
The Battle of Moncontour, 1824.
The Battle of Naseby, 1824.
The Cavalier's March to London, 1824.

(The last two are known as Songs of the Civil War.)
Sermon in a Churchyard, 1825.
Translation from A. V. Arnault, 1826.
Dies Iræ, 1826.
The Marriage of Tirzah and Ahirad, 1827.
The Country Clergyman's Trip to Cambridge, 1827.
Song : “Oh, stay, Madonna, stay !” 1827.
The Deliverance of Vienna (translated from Filicaja), 1828.

The Armada, 1832.
The Last Buccaneer, 1839.
Horatius.
The Battle of Lake Regillus.
Virginia.
The Prophecy of Capys.

(The last four are known as The Lays of Ancient Rome.
They were published in 1842.)
Epitaph on a Jacobite, 1845.
Lines Written on the Night of the Thirtieth of July, 1847.

(At the close of his unsuccessful contest for Edinburgh.) Valentine : To the Hon. Mary C. Stanhope, 1851. Paraphrase of a Passage in the Chronicle of the Monk of St.

Gall, 1856.

(2) PROSE PAPERS PUBLISHED IN KNIGHT'S

“QUARTERLY MAGAZINE”

66

Fragments of a Roman Tale, June, 1823.
On the Royal Society of Literature, June, 1823.
Slavery in the West Indies, June, 1823.
Scenes from the Athenian Revels, January, 1824.
Criticisms on the Principal Italian Writers: No. 1, Dante,

January, 1824.
Crit sms on the Principal Italian Writers: No. 2, Petrarch,

April, 1824. Some Account of the Great Lawsuit between the Parishes of St.

Denis and St. George in the Water, April, 1824.

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