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The ancient hare and the rancid meat pie are single instances which Macaulay magnifies into habitual occurrences by the use of the word " whenever." There are many authentic anecdotes, reported by Boswell and others, to show that Johnson, though a voracious eater, fully appreciated good cooking. Boswell, who dined with him, found the meal excellent though plain ; and Hawkins speaks of “his not inelegant dinners."

P. 14, 1. 8. Rude even to ferocity. 6. Once Johnson is said to have taken up a chair at the theatre, upon which a man had seated himself during his temporary absence, and to have tossed it and its occupant bodily into the pit.” – Leslie Stephen's Life of Johnson. 12. Societies where he was treated with courtesy and kind

“ To obviate all the reflections which have gone round the world to Johnson's prejudice, by applying to him the epithet of a bear, let me impress upon my readers a just and happy saying of my friend Goldsmith, who knew him well, “Johnson, to be sure, has a roughness in his manner ; but no man alive has a more tender heart. He has nothing of the bear but his skin.' - Boswell's Life of Johnson. “Reynolds said : “Johnson had one virtue which I hold one of the most difficult to practise. After the heat of contest was over, if he had been informed that his antagonist resented his rudeness; he was the first to seek after a reconciliation.' Johnson wrote to Dr. Taylor in 1756 : •When I am musing alone, I feel a pang for every moment that any human being has by my peevishness or obstinacy spent in uneasiness.' ""— Hill's Boswell, Vol. II., p. 256, note.

ness.

15. Osborne. “It has been confidently related, with many embellishments, that Johnson one day knocked Osborne down in his shop, with a folio, and put his foot upon his neck. The

simple truth I had from Johnson himself. "Sir, he was impertinent to me, and I beat him. But it was not in his shop: it was in my own chamber."" Boswell.

“There is nothing to tell, dearest lady, but that he was insolent and I beat him, and that he was a blockhead and told of it, which I should never have done. I have beat many a fellow, but the rest had the wit to hold their tongues." — Mrs. Piozzi's Anecdotes of Johnson, p. 233.

19. Harleian Library. The famous library collected by Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford, which had been purchased by Osborne. Johnson wrote the introduction to the catalogue, and the Latin accounts of the books.

24. The Gentleman's Magazine, originated by Edward Cave in January, 1731, is still in existence. Cave used the nom de plume “ Sylvanus Urban as editor; and the title is the first application of the word “ magazine to a periodical. Johnson had a high opinion of Cave, whose life he afterward wrote. The story is told, that, at some of the dinners Cave gave his contributors, a plate was passed to Johnson, who was seated behind a screen, as his clothes were too ragged to permit his appearing at table.

P. 15, 1. 8. Senate of Lilliput. Every one should read Gulliver's Voyages to Lilliput and Brobdingnag, by Swift. The stories are so well told that they remain deeply interesting to this day though the objects of Swift's merciless satire are well-nigh forgotten. “ Blefuscu,” “Mildendo," "sprugs,” and “ Nardac" are terms taken from the Voyages. Johnson wrote the debates from November, 1740, to February, 1743. He told Boswell that " as soon as he found they were thought genuine he determined he would write no more of them, ‘for he would not be accessory to the propagation of a falsehood.'” It is likely that this tenderness of conscience cost Cave a good deal. Hawkins writes that, while Johnson composed the Debates, the sale of the Magazine increased from ten to fifteen thousand copies a month.

11. Lord Hardwicke. Philip Yorke (1690–1764) was one of the strongest supporters of Sir Robert Walpole, who made him Lord Chancellor in 1733. See Green's History of the English People, Ch. IX., Sec. X. Hickrad is a caricature of Lord Hardwicke's name.

12. William Pulteney, Earl of Bath (1684–1764), was for some time the chief opponent of Sir Robert Walpole. He was the leader of a faction that called itself - The Patriots." The Speaker of the House of Commons described him as “ having the most popular parts for public speaking of any great man he ever knew.” A contemporary epigram says of him, —

Billy, of all Bob's foes,
The wittiest in verse and prose."

22. Capulets and Montagues were the two families whose feud forms the background of Shakespeare's tragedy Romeo and Juliet.

23. The Blues of the Roman circus against the Greens. In the later days of the Roman Empire, the chariot races in the hippodrome at Constantinople were the chief amusement of the degenerate populace, which divided into factions named from the colors worn by the drivers. The animosities of these factions sometimes led to serious riots, and even to incendiarism and massacre. An interesting account is in Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Ch. XL., Sec. II.

P. 16, 1. 2. Sacheverell was a “ High Church," Tory clergy

G

man, of mediocre ability, who gained a place in the history of England by two sermons delivered in 1709. In these he attacked the principles of the revolution of 1688, asserted the doctrine of non-resistance to kings, and decried the “ Act of Toleration.” The ministry foolishly prosecuted him, and the public excitement which this aroused led to the overthrow of the Whig party, and the fall of the Duke of Marlborough. Read Green's History of the English People, Ch. IX., Sec. IX.

13. Tom Tempest is a character in No. 10 of the Idler. Johnson describes him as a man“ of integrity, where no factious interest is to be promoted ;” and a “ lover of truth,” when not “heated with political debate." And then continues :

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Tom Tempest is a steady friend of the house of Stuart. He can recount the prodigies that have appeared in the sky, and the calamities that have afflicted the nation every year from the Revolution ; and is of opinion, that, if the exiled family had continued to reign, there would have been neither worms in our ships nor caterpillars in our trees. He wonders that the nation was not awakened by the hard frost to a revocation of the true king, and is hourly afraid that the whole island may be lost in the sea. He believes that King William burned Whitehall that he might steal the furniture; and that Tillotson died an Atheist. Of Queen Anne he speaks with more tenderness ; owns that she meant well, and can tell by whom and why she was poisoned. In the succeeding reigns all has been corruption, malice, and design. He believes that nothing ill has ever happened for these forty years by chance or errour; he holds that the battle of Dettingen was won by mistake and that of Fontenoy lost by contract; that the Victory was sunk by a private order; that Cornhill was fired by emissaries of the Council ; and that the arch of Westminster-bridge was so contrived as to sink on purpose, that the Nation might be put to charge. He considers the new road to Islington as an encroachment on liberty, and often asserts that broad wheels will be the ruin of England.

A man who can jest in this comical fashion about the extremists of his own party, can hardly be the bigot that Macaulay portrays so vividly.

Charles II. (1660-1685) and James II. (1685–1688). The last two reigning sovereigns of the male line of the Stuarts ; the former noted for his profligacy, the latter for his bigotry. Read Green's History, Ch. IX., Sec. III., and Sec. VI.

14. Laud, William, Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I., and leader in the oppression of the Puritans. He was executed by ordinance of Parliament, January 10, 1644–1645. Macaulay, whose Whig prejudices were as strong as Johnson's Tory prepossessions, is unjust to Laud, who was a man of great mental attainments. Green, in his History, Ch. VIII., Sec. IV., gives an impartial view of the great prelate.

18. Hampden, John (1594–1643). One of the chief opponents of the arbitrary measures by which Charles I. endeavored to make the English monarchy absolute. See Green's History, Ch. VIII., Secs. III. and V.

20. Ship money. One of the means by which Charles tried to raise money in 1634, without calling a parliament. Hampden was foremost in the opposition to this measure. See Green's History, Ch. VIII., Sec. V.

21. Falkland. Lucius Cary, Viscount of (1610-1643). In the beginning of his career he was distinguished by his zeal for Parliament and the constitution of his country; but, later, offended by what he considered the excesses of the popular party, he took sides with Charles I. He was killed in the

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