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word “would” (see page 7, line 1), he gives the impression that these were habitual occurrences.

P. 8, 1. 1. His religion. Although Johnson was undoubtedly a confirmed hypochondriac, yet that his religion was a great help and comfort to him is shown by numerous letters and conversations reported by Boswell. The following prayer, composed and offered up by Johnson on undertaking the Rambler, is characteristic: —

“ Almighty God, the Giver of all good things, without whose help all labor is ineffectual, and without whose grace all wisdom is folly ; grant I beseech Thee, that in this my undertaking, thy Holy Spirit may not be withheld from me, but that I may promote thy glory, and the salvation of myself and others : Grant this, O Lord, for the sake of thy son Jesus Christ. Amen." - Boswell's Life of Johnson.


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8. Too dim to cheer him. “ Johnson as drawn by Boswell is too “awful, melancholy, and venerable.' Hawkins (Life, p. 258) says, that in the talent of humour there hardly ever was Johnson's equal, except perhaps among the old comedians.' Murphy writes (Life, p. 139): “Johnson was surprised to be told, but it is certainly true, that with great powers of mind, wit and humour were his shining talents.' Mrs. Piozzi confirms this. “Mr. Murphy,' she writes (Anecdotes, p. 205), always said he was incomparable at buffoonery.' She adds (p. 298): • He would laugh at a stroke of genuine humour, or sudden sally of odd absurdity as heartily and freely as I ever yet saw any man ; and, though the jest was often such as few felt besides himself, yet his laugh was irresistible, and was observed immediately to produce that of the company, not merely from the notion that it was proper to laugh when he did, but from

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lack of power to forbear it.' Miss Burney records: Dr. Johnson has more fun and comical humour, and love of nonsense about him than almost anybody I ever saw.'" - G. Birkbeck Hill's Boswell, Vol. II., p. 261, note. Boswell himself says: "I passed many hours with him on the 17th [May, 1775] of which I find all my memorial is much laughing.' It should seem that he had that day been in a humour for jocularity and merriment, and upon such occasions I never knew a man laugh more heartily. Johnson's laugh was as remarkable as any circumstance in his manner. It was a kind of good humoured growl. Tom Davies described it drolly enough: 'He laughs like a rhinoceros.'"' 25. Usher of a grammar school. In England 66 grammar schools " are those in which Latin and Greek are "grammatically taught." An "usher" is a subordinate teacher. P. 9, 1. 7. A Latin book about Abyssinia. Voyage to Abyssinia, by Lobo, a Portuguese Jesuit. For this work Johnson received five guineas (about $25), and he did not consider himself ill paid.

9. Politian. Angelo Poliziano (1454-1494) occupies a foremost place in the "Revival of Learning" in virtue of his vigor and originality. He was a close friend of Lorenzo de' Medici, the greatest ruler of Florence; and his poems, both in Latin and Italian, are of very high merit.


Queensberrys and Lepels. Leading families of the Brit

ish nobility.

23. His Titty. Macaulay has changed the nickname to make it more ridiculous. According to Boswell, Johnson called her Tetty or Tetsey, a provincial nickname for Elizabeth, and similar to Betty or Betsey.

P. 10, 1. 1. As poor as himself. Another of Macaulay's

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exaggerations. 6. The author of the Life and Memoirs of Dr. Johnson says: “Mrs. Porter's husband died insolvent, but her settlement was secured. She brought her second husband seven or eight hundred pounds, a great part of which was expended in fitting up a house for a boarding school.' ... After nearly twenty months of married life, when he went to London, 'he had,' Boswell says, “a little money.' It was not till a year later that he began to write for The Gentleman's Magazine. If Mrs. Johnson had not money, how did she and her husband live from July, 1735, to the spring of 1738 ? It could scarcely have been on the profits made from their school." —Hill's Boswell, Vol. I., p. 95, note 3.

4. A suitor who might have been her son, Contrast with Macaulay's picture the following from Carlyle's Essay on Boswell's Life of Johnson:

“ Finally, the choicest terrestrial good: a Friend, who will be Wife to him! Johnson's marriage with the good Widow Porter has been treated with ridicule by many mortals, who apparently had no understanding thereof. That the purblind, seamyfaced Wild-man, stalking lonely, woe-stricken, like some Irish Gallowglass with peeled club, whose speech' no man knew, whose look all men both laughed at and shuddered at, should find any brave female heart to acknowledge, at first sight and hearing of him, “This is the most sensible man I ever met with ;' and then, with generous courage, to take him to itself, and say, “Be thou mine ; be thou warmed here, and thawed to life!'-in all this, in the kind Widow's love and pity for him, in Johnson's love and gratitude, there is actually no matter for ridicule. Their wedded life, as is the common lot, was made up of drizzle and dry weather ; but innocence and worth dwelt in it; and, when death had ended it, a certain sacredness : Johnson's deathless affection for his Tetty was always venerable and noble."


13. “Pretty creature !Mrs. Thrale says : “ The picture I found of her at Lichfield was very pretty, and her daughter said it was like. Mr. Johnson has told me that her hair was enimently beautiful, quite blonde like that of a baby." — Piozzi's Anecdotes, p. 148. In Johnson's private memoranda of his tour in France, fourteen years after his wife's death, is the following: The sight of palaces, and other great buildings, leaves no very distinct images unless to those who talk of them. As I entered, my wife was in my mind ; she would have been pleased. Having now nobody to please, I am little pleased."!

24. David Garrick (1716–1779) was the greatest of all English actors. He did more than any one else to restore Shakespeare's plays to the English stage. As an actor, he was equally at home in the highest poetry of tragedy and the lowest jests of farce. Read Goldsmith's poem Retaliation for a capital sketch of his character. In it occurs these often quoted lines,

“On the stage he was natural, simple, affecting,

'Twas only that, when he was off, he was acting.” Garrick was the source of all the ridicule heaped upon Mrs. Johnson. Percy says, "As Johnson kept Garrick much in awe when present, David, when his back was turned, repaid his restraint with ridicule of him and his Dulcinea, which should be read with much abatement."

P. 11, 1. 6. Irene. The story of the play deals with the love of Mahomet the Great, the Turkish conqueror of Constantinople, for a beautiful Greek captive. Read The Prince of India, by Lew Wallace, for this tale.

18. Secretary of state. See Appendix, p. 126 and p. 157.

P. 12, 1. 8. Thomson, James (1700–1748). The first English poet to take nature for his subject. Besides the Seasons,

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his best-known works are the Castle of Indolence and the song Rule Brittania.

9. Fielding, Henry (1707-1754). The greatest English novelist of the eighteenth century; also a playwright of no mean ability. Two of his novels, Tom Jones and Joseph Andrews, although disfigured by the coarseness common to his age, are among the masterpieces of English fiction.

10. The Beggar's Opera, by John Gay (1685–1732), was the most successful dramatic piece produced in England during the first half of the eighteenth century. The characters are all taken from low life, and the hero is a highwayman; but it is a scathing satire on the fashionable society of the day. It appeared in 1726, and is still occasionally represented. The best part is the songs. From one of these come the often quoted lines,

How happy could I be with either,

Were t’other dear charmer away.

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20. Porter's knot. " A kind of double shoulder-pad, with a loop passing round the forehead; the whole roughly resembling a horse-collar, used by London market porters for carrying their burdens.” — Cassell's Encyclopedic Dictionary.

" Perhaps originally a rope tied or knotted into a loop.” – Murray's Dictionary.

P. 13, 1. 12. Drury Lane. A street in the heart of London. In the seventeenth century it had been a fashionable residence district ; but in Johnson's time it was ceasing to be respectable.

25. Subterranean ordinaries. Cheap eating-houses situated in cellars. Alamode beef was "scraps and remainders of beef boiled down into a thick soup or stew." -Murray's Dictionary.

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