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PAGE 1, line 4. Lichfield. An ancient Episcopal city of Stafiordshire, one of the west midland counties of England. It is situated 115 miles northwest of London.
9. Worcestershire. The county lying directly south of Staffordshire.
13. Churchman. A member of the Established Church of England, — the American branch of which is the Protestant Episcopal Church. Members of other religious bodies — Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Baptists, etc. were styled Nonconformists or Dissenters. As the sovereign appoints through his ministers the bishops of the Church of England, who have seats in the House of Lords, churchmanship” in former times went hand in hand with the support of the royal authority. At present, however, as the House of Commons has control of all royal appointments, and the bishops may belong to either party, this distinction has passed away.
15. Sovereigns in possession. William III. and Mary, acknowledged sovereigns by the “ Declaration of Rights,” after the expulsion of James II., the preceding year; Anne, who succeeded them in 1702, by virtue of the same ordinance ; and the monarchs of the House of Brunswick, who took the throne through the “ Act of Settlement” of 1701. These acts established the power of the English people to decide, through their representatives, which branch of the royal family should rule.
15. Jacobite. From “ Jacobus,” the Latin form of “James." A supporter of the exiled James II, and afterwards of his son James, and grandson, Charles, who were respectively styled by the opposing party, the “Old Pretender” and the “ Young
Pretender." A Jacobite believed in strict hereditary succession ; in the divine right of kings ; and that no king, whatever his misconduct, could forfeit his throne.
P. 2, 1. 10. The royal touch. The vulgar English name for scrofula, “ the king's evil,” is derived from the long-cherished belief that it could be healed by the royal touch. In this was supposed to inhere some of the “Grace of God” which gave the right of sovereignty to true kings. Old historians assert that multitudes of patients were cured by this treatment. Queen Anne was the last English sovereign who touched for the king's evil. Henry VII. introduced the practice of presenting the patient with a small gold coin.
17. Her hand was applied in vain. Perhaps the Jacobitism of Johnson's parents prevented the usual cure. • The old Jacobites considered that this power did not descend to Mary, William, or Anne, as they did not possess a full hereditary title ; or, in other words, did not rule by divine right. The kings of the house of Brunswick have, we believe, never put this power to the proof; and the office for the ceremony which appeared in our liturgy as late as 1719, has been silently omitted. The exiled princes of the house of Stuart are supposed to have inherited this virtue. When Prince Charles Edward was at Holyroodhouse in Oct., 1745, he, although only claiming to be Prince of Wales and regent, touched a female child for the king's evil, who in twenty-one days is said to have been perfectly cured.' The English Cyclopædia.
P. 3, 1. 11. Attic poetry and eloquence refers to the masterpieces of the great orators and dramatists of Athens, the chief city of ancient Greece.
15. Augustan refers to the Roman emperor, Augustus
Cæsar. During his reign (27 B.C.-14 A.D.) Latin literature reached its highest point of technical excellence in the works of Horace, Livy, Ovid, and Virgil.
17. The great public schools of England, the best known of which are Eton and Rugby, are not supported by taxation like our public schools, but by endowments and the tuition of pupils. The classes are called “forms,” the “sixth” being the highest. Read Tom Brown's School Days, by Thomas Hughes, an interesting story of life at Rugby. English school life has changed but little during the last two or three centuries.
21. The great restorers of learning. One of the chief results of the Crusades was an awakening and broadening of the thought of western Europe. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries many Italian scholars gave themselves up to the enthusiastic study of Greek and Roman literature, which had been practically neglected during the “Dark Ages." This movement is known as the Revival of Learning.
ng the prominent restorers of learning were Petrarch, Boccaccio, Poggio, Æneas Sylvius, Pope Nicholas V.; and, outside of Italy, Erasmus, in Flanders ; Casaubon and the Scaligers, in France; and Sir Thomas More, in England. Read George Eliot’s Romola, a novel whose scene is laid in Florence at the close of the fifteenth century.
23. Petrarch's works. Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) was the greatest scholar of his day, and the first of modern writers to write really classical Latin, besides being one of the first of western Europeans to undertake the study of Greek literature. He left numerous works in Latin prose and verse, but his fame rests on his exquisite sonnets and canzonets in the Italian vernacular, expressing his love for the beautiful Laura de Sade. See Symonds’s Renaissance in Italy, Italian Literature, Part I., Ch. II., p. 84.
P. 4, 1. 11. At either university. In Johnson's time Eng. land had two universities: Oxford, supposed to have been founded by Alfred the Great in the ninth century, but certainly in existence before the Norman Conquest; and Cambridge, which originated in a monastic school established 1110. In the nineteenth century three new universities were founded, London, Durham, and Victoria.
14. Pembroke College. Founded 1620. One of the nineteen colleges which composed the University of Oxford in the eighteenth century. In the nineteenth century two new colleges were added. Read Tom Brown at Oxford, by Thomas Hughes ; and Verdant Green, by Cuthbert Bede. 21. Macrobius. A Latin grammarian of the fifth century
His works contain many valuable historical, mythological, and critical observations, and were much read during the Middle Ages. The “Nonnes Preeste" in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales thus refers to him :
“Macrobeus, that writ the avisioun
In Affrick of the worthy Cipioun,
P. 5, 1. 3. Christ Church. One of the most fashionable of the Oxford colleges. Founded by Cardinal Wolsey in 1526.
9. Gentleman commoner. A student of “gentle” (i.e. aristocratic) birth, who pays for his commons (meals in the college hall), his room, and college fees; as distinguished from a student supported by a “foundation” or scholarship. In Johnson's time special privileges were enjoyed by the sons of noblemen.
17. The ringleader. This passage is a good example of Macaulay's tendency to exaggerate for the sake of picturesque effect. It is founded on the following from Boswell's Life of Johnson : “I have heard from some of his contemporaries that he was generally seen lounging at the college gate, with a circle of young students round him whom he was entertaining with wit, and keeping from their studies, if not spiriting them up to rebellion against the College discipline, which in his maturer years he so much extolled." Note how in retelling the story Macaulay, by his choice of words, gives it a much higher color. There is, however, no authority for every mutiny."
19. Abilities and acquirements. Dr. Adams said, “I was his nominal tutor; but he was above my mark." — Boswell.
20. Pope's “Messiah.” Alexander Pope (1688–1744) dominated English verse through nearly all of the eighteenth century. He is deficient in originality and poetic elevation; but has not
l been surpassed as a polished versifier, satirist, and moralizer in rhyme. Next to Shakespeare he is the most quoted of English writers. His best work is the Essay on Man. 22.
Virgilian. The poems of Publius Virgilius Maro (70–19 B.C.), the Æneid, the Eclogues, and the Georgics, are the most polished examples of Latin versification.
P. 6. 1. 1. Bachelor of Arts. “ B.A.”, the first degree given to a student at his graduation. The next degree is “M.A.,
or Master of Arts. The third is Doctor — of Divinity, Laws, or Philosophy ; “D.D., L.L.D., Ph.D."
23. Absolving felons and setting aside wills. Defendants are acquitted and wills are set aside by the law courts upon proof of insanity. Note how Macaulay creates a powerful picture by stating special incidents, and how by the use of the