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out sense enough to know found his way from Boswell's when he was hurting the feel- environment to Johnson's: if ings of others, or when he was such worship for real Godexposing himself to derision; made superiors showed itself and because he was all this, he also as worship for apparent has, in an important depart- | Tailor-made superiors, even as ment of literature, immeasur- hollow interested mouth-worably surpassed such writers ship for such,-the case, in as Tacitus, Clarendon, Alfieri, this composite human nature and his own idol Johnson."

of ours, was not miraculous, -Macgulay.

the more was the pity! But for ourselves, let every one of us cling to this last article of Faith, and know it as the beginning of all knowledge worth the name : That neither James Boswell's good Book, nor any other good thing, in any time or in any place, was, is, or can be performed by any man in virtue of his badness, but always and solely in spite thereof." Carlyle.

P. 46, 1. 6. Wilkes, John (1727-1797). A prominent English politician of the latter half of the eighteenth century. " Wilkes was a worthless profligate, but he had a remarkable faculty of enlisting popular sympathy on his side, and, by a singular irony of fortune, he became the chief instrument in bringing about three of the greatest advances which our Constitution has ever made. He woke nation to the need of Parliamentary reform by his defence of the rights of constituencies against the despotism of the House of Commons. He took the lead in the struggle which put an end to the secrecy

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of Parliamentary proceedings. He was the first to establish the right of the Press to discuss public affairs."— Green's History, Ch. X., Sec. II.

8. Whitfield or Whitefield, George (1714-1770). The founder of the sect of Calvinistic Methodists, who separated from the Wesleyan Methodists in 1741. “Whitefield's preaching was such as England had never heard before, theatrical, extravagant, often commonplace; but hushing all criticism by its intense reality, its earnestness of belief, its deep, tremulous sympathy with the sin and sorrow of mankind. It was no common enthusiast who could wring gold from the close-fisted Franklin, and admiration from the fastidious Horace Walpole ; or, who could look down from the top of a green knoll at Kingswood on twenty thousand colliers, grimy from the Bristol coal pits; and see, as he preached, the tears making white channels down their blackened cheeks."— Green's History, Ch. X., Sec. I.

20. Johnson was a water drinker. Boswell reports : “Talking of drinking wine, he [Johnson) said, “I did not leave off wine because I could not bear it; I have drunk three bottles of port without being the worse for it. University College has witnessed this.' BOSWELL. • Why then, Sir, did you leave it off ?' Johnson. Why, Sir, because it is so much better for a man to be sure that he is never to be intoxicated, never to lose power over himself.

There is more happiness in being rational. ... [And elsewhere] . . . Sir, I have no objection to a man's drinking wine if he can do it in moderation. I found myself apt to go to excess in it, and therefore, after having been for some time without it, on account of illness, I thought it better not to return to it.'"

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P. 48, 1. 2. The Thrales. Mrs. Thrale (Piozzi's Anecdotes, p. 125) says they first met in 1764. Mr. Thrale sought an excuse for inviting him. Johnson dined with them every Thursday through the winter of 1764-1765, and in the autumn of 1765 followed them to Brighton. The correspondence between Johnson and Mrs. Thrale is published in part in Scoone's Four Centuries of English Letters.

21. Southwark. A district of London south of the Thames. Thrale's brewery was sold by Johnson, as executor of the estate, to Barclay, Perkins & Co., whose successors still carry on the business under the same firm name. It is one of the largest breweries in London. The buildings, which occupy twelve acres, are situated on Park Street near the famous St. Saviour's Church and not far from London Bridge.

22. Streatham Common. A suburban district a few miles south of London.

P. 49, 1. 20. Bath and Brighton were in the eighteenth century the two most fashionable watering-places in England. Brighton, on the south coast, is still flourishing ; but Bath, in Somersetshire, has lost much of its former vogue. A delightful account of Bath in the fulness of its glory is given in Goldsmith's interesting Life of Richard Nash, commonly known as “ Beau Nash,” who was master of ceremonies there. Read Monsieur Beaucaire, by Booth Tarkington.

23. Fleet Street is one of the busiest streets in the centre of London, and runs from Ludgate Circus to the Strand and then westward.

P. 50, 1. 8. An old lady named Williams. Of her Johnson wrote : 66

Thirty years and more she had been my companion, and her death has left me very desolate.” Hawkins (Life of Johnson, p. 558) says that “she had not only cheered him in his solitude, and helped him to pass with comfort those hours which otherwise would have been irksome to him, but had relieved him from domestic cares, regulated and watched over the expenses of his house."

“Had she had," wrote Johnson, “good humor and prompt elocution, her universal curiosity and comprehensive knowledge would have made her the delight of all that knew her.". - Piozzi Letters, Vol. II., p. 311. “ When she grew peevish in her old age and last sickness, he was forced to bribe the maid to stay with her by a secret stipulation of half-a-crown a week over her wages.”. - Boswell.

P. 51, 1. 3. The Mitre Tavern was in Mitre Court, just off Fleet Street, and there Johnson and many other literary men were wont to gather.

13. To torment him and live upon him. And it may be added, to furnish objects for his overflowing charity and affection. Johnson once said: “If I did not assist them no one else would, and they must be lost from want." Mrs. Thrale writes:

• If, however, I ventured to blame their ingratitude, and condemn their conduct, he would instantly set about softening the one and justifying the other; and finished commonly by telling me, that I knew not how to make allowances for situations I never experienced.” She also states that he loved the poor as she never saw any one else love them, with an earnest desire to make them happy. He proposed to allow himself a hundred pounds a year out of the three hundred of his pension; but she could never discover that he really spent upon himself more than seventy or at most eighty pounds. In contrast to Macaulay's clever but rather superficial picture, compare what Carlyle says on the same subject. See Appendix, pp. 179–181.

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P. 52, l. 6. The Celtic region. That part of Scotland where a Celtic language, the Erse, was spoken. Celtic languages are still spoken also in parts of Wales, Ireland, and Brittany.

Johnson made a profound impression on the natives. “He was long remembered amongst the lower orders of Hebrideans by the title of Sassenach More, the big Englishman.' Walter Scott. From the Isle of Skye Johnson wrote :

66 The hospitality of this remote region is like that of the Golden Age. We have found ourselves treated at every house as if we came to confer a benefit." Piozzi Letters, Vol. I.,

p. 155.

P. 53, 1. 3. Presbyterian polity and ritual. The Reformation in Scotland had mainly taken the Calvinistic form, owing to the work of the great John Knox, and the Presbyterian Church was established. From the accession of James I. to the throne of England, down to the expulsion of James II., the Stuart kings had constantly endeavored to force the Episcopalian polity upon the Scotch Calvinists. In this they were met by the " Covenanters," as the adherents of the Presbytery were called, and the struggle went on with varying fortunes till the Covenanters, by taking the side of William and Mary, secured the reëstablishment of the Presbytery. At the Union of England and Scotland (1707) Presbyterianism was definitely recognized as the established religion of the northern kingdom. Read Old Mortality, by Walter Scott.

6. Berwickshire and East Lothian are districts in the south of Scotland.

8. Lord Mansfield, William Murray (1705–1793). A great British jurist. He became Lord Chief Justice and Baron Mans

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