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Cæsar. During his reign (27 B.C.-14 A.D.) Latin literature reached its highest point of technical excellence in the works of Horace, Livy, Ovid, and Virgil.

17. The great public schools of England, the best known of which are Eton and Rugby, are not supported by taxation like our public schools, but by endowments and the tuition of pupils. The classes are called "forms," the "sixth " being the highest. Read Tom Brown's School Days, by Thomas Hughes, an interesting story of life at Rugby. English school life has changed but little during the last two or three centuries.

21. The great restorers of learning. One of the chief results of the Crusades was an awakening and broadening of the thought of western Europe. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries many Italian scholars gave themselves up to the enthusiastic study of Greek and Roman literature, which had been practically neglected during the "Dark Ages." This movement is known as the Revival of Learning. Among the prominent restorers of learning were Petrarch, Boccaccio, Poggio, Æneas Sylvius, Pope Nicholas V.; and, outside of Italy, Erasmus, in Flanders; Casaubon and the Scaligers, in France; and Sir Thomas More, in England. Read George Eliot's Romola, a novel whose scene is laid in Florence at the close of the fifteenth century.

23. Petrarch's works. Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) was the greatest scholar of his day, and the first of modern writers to write really classical Latin, besides being one of the first of western Europeans to undertake the study of Greek literature. He left numerous works in Latin prose and verse, but his fame rests on his exquisite sonnets and canzonets in the Italian vernacular, expressing his love for the beautiful Laura

de Sade.

See Symonds's Renaissance in Italy, Italian Litera

ture, Part I., Ch. II., p. 84.

P. 4, 1. 11. At either university. In Johnson's time England had two universities: Oxford, supposed to have been founded by Alfred the Great in the ninth century, but certainly in existence before the Norman Conquest; and Cambridge, which originated in a monastic school established 1110. In the nineteenth century three new universities were founded, London, Durham, and Victoria.

14. Pembroke College. Founded 1620. One of the nineteen colleges which composed the University of Oxford in the eighteenth century. In the nineteenth century two new colleges were added. Read Tom Brown at Oxford, by Thomas Hughes ; and Verdant Green, by Cuthbert Bede.

21. Macrobius. A Latin grammarian of the fifth century A. D. His works contain many valuable historical, mythological, and critical observations, and were much read during the Middle Ages. The Nonnes Preeste" in Chaucer's Canterbury

Tales thus refers to him:


Macrobeus, that writ the avisioun

In Affrick of the worthy Cipioun,

Affermeth dremes, and seith that they been
Warninge of thinges that men after seen."

P. 5, 1. 3. Christ Church. One of the most fashionable of the Oxford colleges. Founded by Cardinal Wolsey in 1526. 9. Gentleman commoner. A student of "gentle" (i.e. aristocratic) birth, who pays for his commons (meals in the college hall), his room, and college fees; as distinguished from a student supported by a "foundation or scholarship. In Johnson's time special privileges were enjoyed by the sons of noblemen.

17. The ringleader. This passage is a good example of Macaulay's tendency to exaggerate for the sake of picturesque effect. It is founded on the following from Boswell's Life of Johnson: "I have heard from some of his contemporaries that he was generally seen lounging at the college gate, with a circle of young students round him whom he was entertaining with wit, and keeping from their studies, if not spiriting them up to rebellion against the College discipline, which in his maturer years he so much extolled." Note how in retelling the story Macaulay, by his choice of words, gives it a much higher color. There is, however, no authority for "every mutiny."

19. Abilities and acquirements. Dr. Adams said, “I was his nominal tutor; but he was above my mark.". Boswell.

20. Pope's "Messiah." Alexander Pope (1688-1744) dominated English verse through nearly all of the eighteenth century. He is deficient in originality and poetic elevation; but has not been surpassed as a polished versifier, satirist, and moralizer in rhyme. Next to Shakespeare he is the most quoted of English writers. His best work is the Essay on Man.

22. Virgilian. The poems of Publius Virgilius Maro (70–19 B.C.), the Eneid, the Eclogues, and the Georgics, are the most polished examples of Latin versification.

P. 6. 1. 1. Bachelor of Arts. "B.A.", the first degree given to a student at his graduation. The next degree is

of Divinity,

"M.A., or Master of Arts. The third is Doctor Laws, or Philosophy; "D.D., L.L.D., Ph.D.” 23. Absolving felons and setting aside wills. Defendants are acquitted and wills are set aside by the law courts upon proof of insanity. Note how Macaulay creates a powerful picture by stating special incidents, and how by the use of the

word "would" (see page 7, line 1), he gives the impression that these were habitual occurrences.

P. 8, 1. 1. His religion. Although Johnson was undoubtedly a confirmed hypochondriac, yet that his religion was a great help and comfort to him is shown by numerous letters and conversations reported by Boswell. The following prayer, composed and offered up by Johnson on undertaking the Rambler, is characteristic:

"Almighty God, the Giver of all good things, without whose help all labor is ineffectual, and without whose grace all wisdom is folly; grant I beseech Thee, that in this my undertaking, thy Holy Spirit may not be withheld from me, but that I may promote thy glory, and the salvation of myself and others: Grant this, O Lord, for the sake of thy son Jesus Christ. Amen."

Boswell's Life of Johnson.

8. Too dim to cheer him.

"Johnson as drawn by Boswell is too awful, melancholy, and venerable.' Hawkins (Life, p. 258) says, that in the talent of humour there hardly ever was Johnson's equal, except perhaps among the old comedians.' Murphy writes (Life, p. 139): 'Johnson was surprised to be told, but it is certainly true, that with great powers of mind, wit and humour were his shining talents.' Mrs. Piozzi confirms this. 'Mr. Murphy,' she writes (Anecdotes, p. 205), 'always said he was incomparable at buffoonery.' She adds (p. 298): 'He would laugh at a stroke of genuine humour, or sudden sally of odd absurdity as heartily and freely as I ever yet saw any man; and, though the jest was often such as few felt besides himself, yet his laugh was irresistible, and was observed immediately to produce that of the company, not merely from the notion that it was proper to laugh when he did, but from


lack of power to forbear it.' Miss Burney records: Dr. Johnson has more fun and comical humour, and love of nonsense about him than almost anybody I ever saw.'"- G. Birkbeck Hill's Boswell, Vol. II., p. 261, note. Boswell himself says: "I passed many hours with him on the 17th [May, 1775] of which I find all my memorial is much laughing.' It should seem that he had that day been in a humour for jocularity and merriment, and upon such occasions I never knew a man laugh more heartily. Johnson's laugh was as remarkable as any circumstance in his manner. It was a kind of good humoured growl. Tom Davies described it drolly enough: 'He laughs like a rhinoceros.'"

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25. Usher of a grammar school. In England " grammar schools are those in which Latin and Greek are "grammatically taught." An "usher" is a subordinate teacher.

P. 9, 1. 7. A Latin book about Abyssinia. Voyage to Abyssinia, by Lobo, a Portuguese Jesuit. For this work Johnson received five guineas (about $25), and he did not consider himself ill paid.

9. Politian. Angelo Poliziano (1454-1494) occupies a foremost place in the "Revival of Learning" in virtue of his vigor and originality. He was a close friend of Lorenzo de' Medici, the greatest ruler of Florence; and his poems, both in Latin and Italian, are of very high merit.

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Leading families of the Brit

23. His Titty. Macaulay has changed the nickname to make it more ridiculous. According to Boswell, Johnson called her Tetty or Tetsey, a provincial nickname for Elizabeth, and similar to Betty or Betsey.

P. 10, 1. 1. As poor as himself. Another of Macaulay's

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