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varieties. We were informed by the Trustees that upon a careful exainination they have found upwards of fifty different varieties of timber, bushes and shrubbery growing on the Farm, and from the examination we were able to make, we are satisfied that their estimate is not too high. There is another fine stream of pure water called "Clear Creek," running through the north-west corner of the Farm, the banks of which are high and broken bluffs, covered with a large and magnificent growth of white oak, black walnut, red oak, white walnut and sugar maple timber. From the best information we could obtain from our own estimates and other reliable sources, we are satisfied that there is on the College Farm not less than one hundred and fifty acres of valuable heavy timber,` embracing nearly every variety growing natural in the State. Near the centre of the Farm and about twenty rods east of the barn yard, are several fine springs, affording a good supply of stock water, which we were informed by old settlers in the vicinity, never froze over. Near the south-west corner of the Farm is a fine pond of water, which affords a good supply ten months out of the twelve in the dryest seasons.
After a careful examination, we are enabled to present to the General Assembly the following
DESCRIPTION OF THE FARM.
The farm contains six hundred and forty-eight acres lying in a body, being about 400 rods long from east to west and about 259 rods wide from north to south. After deducting the one hundred and fifty acres of timber above described, there remain 498 acres of prairie land suitable for grass and grain. There is probably not far from 180 acres of low bottom land, about one hundred of which is covered with timber; the remainder is about equally divided between wet and dry bottom.
The low land in the timber is a rich, deep black sandy loam, with clay subsoil, but not inclined to hold water on the surface. Next west adjoining the timber is a fine, smooth, level tract of low land, remarkably well adapted for grass, but could by a judicious system of drainage be converted into the most productive corn land, not excelled in the West. Beyond this to the north-west is a large tract known in this State as second bottom land, being level,
dry and very rich and remarkably productive for almost every crop grown in this latitude. The soil is a mixture of black sand, fine gravel and rich black alluvian and prairie soil proper; comprising perhaps the most desirable soil known to the agriculturalist. A part of this land was sowed with wheat last season and produced, as we are informed, about 20 bushels to the acre of first quality, as we ascertained by examination. West of this is a large tract of level prairie, the soil being dry, slightly intermixed with fine gravel in places, with clay subsoil, being a fair representative of the prevailing prairie soil in the State. On the north-west corner of the farm is a tract of perhaps 40 acres of clay soil, most of which is covered with a heavy growth of oak, walnut and hickory timber. Though called clay soil, this land is a fair specimen of what is known in this State as "barrens" and "timber land." The soil is a mixture of prairie and clay, with heavy clay subsoil, and is considered the best wheat and fruit land in the western States. On the south side of the farm is about 90 acres of high rolling prairie, intermixed with gravel, and well adapted for almost any grain crop raised in the West, being warm and dry, the ravines which intersect it carrying off all surplus water in the wetest seasons. The gravel contained in the soil is mostly on the surface, and is turned under by the first plowing-nearly disappearing after cultivation. We found fine sand and gravel banks on the farm, furnishing an inexhaustible supply for building purposes and for grading roads, walks and yards.
There is also on the farm good clay for brick making, convenient to where the College will probably be erected.
Consist of a good, substantial brick farm house, with a basement of stone, making a cellar under the whole building. The house is nearly completed, the mortar being mixed ready for plastering the inside walls and partitions, in the Spring; and when finished will cost about three thousand dollars. The bricks were manufactured on the farm. There is also a good barn on the place, well finished and painted, of good highth and is 42 feet by 60 in size, capable of providing storage room for the grain, and shelter for the necessary teams and stock connected with the farm. There is a good stone
basement under the barn, and a large yard inclosed by a substantial fence.
A great portion of the material and work used in the erection of these buildings, was furnished in payment of voluntary subscriptions, by citizens in the vicinity.
There is about 220 acres of the farm inclosed by a substantial fence, a part of which is built of boards and posts, five boards high, and the remainder of rails, staked and ridered, eight rails high. The fences are built of good material, and are put up in a very substantial manner. Of the land inclosed about 148 acres are under cultivation, and had crops on, the past season.
There is a fine young orchard of about 400 thrifty trees, near the house, inclosed by a good fence, which has protected it from damage by cattle; and this little experiment has satisfied the people in the vicinity that the prevalent opinion that fruit cannot be raised upon our open prairies is entirely erroneous. They witnessed fine apples growing upon many of these trees which had been planted out but three years before, on the level, open prairie. They see that to be successful only requires ordinary care; such as they would bestow upon a corn crop, and they are profiting by this demonstration placed before their eyes, as we observed that nearly every farmer in the vicinity has began to plant an orchard. These trees on the farm were donated to the Trustees by Mr. Smith, the well known nurseryman of Des Moines.
A well has been dug near the house, affording a good supply of pure water, at a depth of about 30 feet.
About 75 grape vines have been planted near the orchard, of several different varieties, among which are the Concord, Clinton, Isabella and Catawba. They appeared to flourish well, making a fine growth and producing some fruit.
for the erection of a College can be found in abundance on the farm and in the immediate vicinity. All of the necessary timber for frame-work can be taken from the farm without injury to the place. The necessary wood to burn the brick can be procured from down timber which is fast going to waste, and the best kind of clay and sand for the manufacture of the brick, are found in abundance on the farm. Stone for the basement can be had within
three and one-half miles, and lime within six miles of the place. Pine lumber and shingles can be obtained by means of the railroad, which is being now built directly through the farm.
There are several saw-mills in the immediate vicinity of the timber lands, both steam and water mills, capable of supplying any reasonable demand for lumber.
THE LANDS DONATED IN STORY COUNTY
lie on an average within two miles of the College Farm, and within one and one-half miles of the railroad. They consist of two 80acre tracts, five of 40 acres, and four of 20 acres each, of good prairie land; three 10-acre lots of timber, and one lot of 32 acres of timber; making 440 acres of prairie and 62 acres of timber. There are also 200 acres of land in Boone county, consisting of five lots, varying in size from 20 to 80 acres each, and lying on an average, within two and one-half miles of the line of railroad, and within about seven miles of the farm. The lands thus donated to the college amount to 640 acres of prairie, estimated to be worth $4,00 per acre, making $2,560. The timber lands, 620 acres, are estimated to be worth $14,00 per acre, making $868,00-total, $3,428,00. There is also one acre of land, donated to the farm, and within one mile of it, containing a good stone quarry, besides about 20 lots in New Philadelphia, a new town on the line of the railroad, and about two miles from the farm, which will probably be the nearest railroad station.
Sections 9 and 10 of the organic act providing for the purchase of the College Farm, require that the trustees shall purchase suitable lands, not less than 640 acres, for the use of the College and Experimental Farm; and that they shall take into consideration the price, location, quality and variety of soil, advantages of water, timber, stone, &c.
Your committee, after a thorough examination, are of the opinion that it would have been difficult for the trustees to have made a selection more fully complying with the requirements of the law, than the one purchased. It has upon it at least six different varieties of soil, representing the prevailing kinds in the State; it has more than 50 varieties of timber, bushes and shrubs, and running water, spring and well water in abundance; a plenty of gravel, sand, stone, and material for brick; high dry land, level dry land,
rolling clay, second bottom, sloughs, flat wet bottom, and timber bottom, besides the genuine prairie land.
We know of no other farm of the size in the State combining so many leading characteristics of Iowa land, and though we went to the farm with some feelings of prejudice against the location, we came away fully impressed with the belief that it answers the requirements of the law, as completely as any selection that could have been made. We are satisfied that the main object had in view by the framers of the organic law was, that the experimental farm should combine as many leading characteristics of the lands of our State as possible to be found in one farm, that all of the 'different varieties might be thoroughly tested, with the various grains and grasses, vegetables and fruits, and the final results might add to the experimental knowledge of the cultivators of the soil. We deem it our duty to make a brief review of the
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE AND FARM,
and of what has been done by the Legislature and Trustees to carry into effect the requirements of the organic law.
At the session of the Legislature of 1858 an act was passed, providing for the establishment of a State Agricultural College and Farm, with a Board of Trustees, which shall be connected with the entire agricultural interests of the State."
Section 2 of the act provides that the College and Farm shall be under the management of a Board of eleven Trustees, and the Goveruor and President of the State Agricultural Society shall be exofficio members. It also provides that one trustee shall be chosen from each judicial district in the State from persons nominated by the county agricultural societies, thus securing men for this high position who are identified with the great interest they are to represent, and wisely guarding against the danger of allowing this important institution, intended for the benefit of the industrial interests of the State, from being diverted from its noble purpose to build up some favored city or village, and convert what was designed for the benefit of the great agricultural and mechanical interests of the entire State, into a mere local school for the benefit of only those who are fortunate enough to live in the immediate vicinity.
The trustees, wisely foreseeing that an institution of this kind to