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which 400,133 tons were from the cultivated grasses, being a fraction over a ton and a half per acre. The number of stock of all kinds returned in the beginning of 1863, was 1,184,976, and of sheep 599,938 head. As this amount of hay was not sufficient to winter all this stock, we must see where the necessary quantity of rough feed was obtained. Say but one half of the corn stalks were secured from 1,733,503 acres grown, and one-half of the straw from 1,522,936 acres of wheat, oats and rye, estimating only one ton to the acre to be saved in good condition, would, together be fully equal to the whole hay product and one fourth more, making a gross amount of food of this character equal to 2,324,594 tons. Estimating only 1 tons for each head, would leave 547,130 tons for the 599,938 head of sheep. As each 100 head of sheep require twenty tons of prairie hay to winter them, there would be left over for consumption in 1863, about 450,000 tons, or about an average of four tens to each farmer.

For 1863: As the hay crop of 1863 was cut off by drouth at least one-third, it will doubtless require all of the balance of 1862 to make the hay and fodder crop of 1863 equal to that of 1862. With about the same proportion of animals to feed, or even a few more, owing to a more careful husbanding of the straw and corn fodder, notwithstanding the shortness of the corn crop, our stock will come through the winter, by judicious management, in good condition, and in all probability in many localities where the number of stock is not in proportion to the amount of food grown, with considerable over, equal in the aggregate to that of 1862. As prairie hay can be cut and stacked at a cost of not over from $1 to $1.50 per ton, it is a little singular that more is not saved; and it is more singular that one-half of the excellent fodder produced from corn stalks, is permitted to go to waste, or if gathered it is generally in a condition to lose half of its value. Is it not time that our farmers learn to save as well as produce?

GRASS SEEDS.

The following are the products for the years named, taken from official sources:

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Why it is that the product of 1862 should be 15,000 bushels less than that of 1859, is more than we can account for, when, in all probability, the number of acres in tame grasses has considerably increased. There must be an error somewhere, as there is reported 224,187 acres for mowing, or the farmers have been very negligent in securing seed.

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Totals....

503,943 1,833,651 8,360 306,728 41,738 517,194 901,858 $87,650 NOTE. The returns of the Census does not give the information necessary for ascertaining whether the coal raised was tons or bushels. It is very probable that the returns indicate tons.

ORCHARD PRODUCTS.

The value of the orchard products in the State, taken from official sources, was, in 1849, $8,434-in 1858, $118,306-in 1859,

$131,234. For 1862, the value of orchard products is not given, but as the number of trees bearing fruit was 503,943, it is safe to estimate that the average product was not less than one dollar per tree, making the very pleasant total of $503,943, being an increase of $372,709 within three years. Considering the general attention which has been given to fruit growing within that period, this showing cannot be considered too extravagant, as this attention produced more care and better cultivation of the trees. The gereral success which has been attained for several years past in raising fruit in this State has established the fact that Iowa can be made a great fruit producing State. There is not a State in the Union, or perhaps any portion of the world, that can produce an apple of greater perfection, in every way, than has been grown in Iowa. This claim has been proven in many instances, and is admitted by intelligent, unprejudiced fruit growers everywhere. Our people are convinced of this fact and show it by their acts, as they had, besides the bearing fruit trees in 1863, 1,833,651 in the orchard not bearing. With those that may reasonably be expected to have borne fruit in 1862, and the increased product of the older trees, the orchard crop of 1863 must have been worth not less than $750,000. For 1864, if we have as favorable a season, the orchard products may reasonably be estimated at $1,000,000. It will not be very long before Iowa will have enough for home consumption, and some for exportation. The value of Iowa's orchard products in 1859, was more than either Wisconsin, Texas, Rhode Island, Minnesota, Louisiana, Kansas, Florida, Delaware, and Arkansas, and more than one-fourth the gross value in those States.

TIMBER AND HEDGING.

For the first time in the history of our State we have, by the last State census, the number of acres devoted to the growth of artificial timber, and the number of rods of hedging now in use. The former doubtless embraces all that has been planted in the State and now matured and maturing:

Number of acres planted for timber...

66

rods of hedging...

8,360 .306,728

The greater portion of the timber very probably is the locust and cotton wood, next black walnut, all of which grow very rapidly in our State. Considerable attention has been given for a few years past to setting out timber lots in our prairie counties, and it will be a matter of considerable interest hereafter to note the progress of this important feature in our productions.

Of hedging the same may be said. The very general failure some years past to make a good living hedge of the osage orange deterred many from growing it—but its nature and culture is now better understood, hence we may safely suppose that our hedging

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is principally composed of the osage orange. The hawthorn also has been considerably used and has proved quite successful. will not be many years before we will see a mile of hedging for every rod now standing.

HOPS.

The production of hops, which in 1849 was 8,242 pounds, decreased to 1,797 pounds in 1859, and arose to 41,738 pounds in 1862. The increased use of malt liquors in the State during the past three or four years has doubtless encouraged the growth of hops, Iowa having 39 such establishments in 1859, which made in that year 35,588 barrels of malt liquors, valued at $221,495. Almost every county in the State raises hops from 100 to about 1000 pounds. Harrison, however, runs far above the rest, having produced near 17,000 pounds, in 1862. The whole crop in the Union in 1859 was 11,009,833 lbs., of which New York produced 9,635,542 pounds. The precarious character of this crop will generally deter our farmers from raising any more than may be necessary for home consumption. As a garden product, or to a limited extent in the field, it may be considered one of the best paying and most useful. In making the elements for a light loaf of bread it should always be preferred, where health is considered an object, to that of saleratus.

TOBACCO.

In looking over the United States census for 1859, we were surprised to find that Iowa had produced in that year 312,919 pounds, which was more than California, Delaware, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont, Minnesota and Wisconsin, all together, raised in that year. But Connecticut raised 20 times as much as Iowa. If so, from the evidences presented, we can and will beat her in Iowa, if people will use tobacco at present prices. To prove this, in 1862, our census gives us as the product in that year 517,194 pounds, and if the season had been as favorable as usual, and our farmers had had sufficient experience in its cultivation, the yield for 1863 would have been not less than 2,000,000 pounds, and we would not be surprised to learn that the product was at least one-half of this amount. There was a sufficient quantity of seed sent from this office last spring to have produced more than 2,000,000 lbs. The reports in regard to success, &c., will be found in another part of this report. None are discouraged, but profiting by the past year's experience, and with an ordinary favorable year, as many persons at least will put out crops again, and some more extensively than last year, we will have a large, perhaps very large production to report for 1864. It will be a good paying crop for several years to come.

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