« ПредишнаНапред »
must, meanwhile, bę obeyed. A Turkish fleet, composed of eight petition to the Sultan was now got ships of the line, several frigates, up at Smyroa, which prayed that brigs, and transports, unexpectedly Kiatib-Ogloo, for the reasons of his arrived at Smyrna from Constantinojustly acquired popularity and the ple, and anchored close to the shore. wisdom of his government, should be The Captain-Pasha, or High-Admiconfirmed in his office : it was signed ral, who commanded it in person, by every Turk within the city and was (as most frequently happens with its jurisdiction, and supported by the men in power in Turkey) a man of all-powerful Kara-Osman-Ogloo him- small beginnings, and had formerly self. The Sultan, however, remain- been a protege of Kiatib-Oglooy to ed inexorable ; and the Janissaries whose assistance and good offices be of Smyrna, enraged at his obstinacy was, indeed, indebted for the high in refusing to listen to representa- station he now held. The Turks tions in behalf of their favourite are habitually as profuse in their testichief, all rose, and publicly declared monies of gratitude, as they are ready that no one else should be suffered to turn treacherously against their by them to take his place, This benefactors when their own interest turn had not been anticipated in the requires it, or the will of their supe. seraglio ; and as the country was then riors ordains it. This man had, in involved in a disastrous war against the height of his prosperity, so frethe Russians, which necessarily ab- quently evinced his grateful recollecsorbed all the military resources of tion of the services he had formerly the state, it was deemed necessary to received from Kiatib-Ogloo, that the give way. In order to make it ap- latter could not look upon him othpear that this concession had not erwise than as one who was sincerely been extorted by popular clamour, devoted to him through sentiments of and the better to conceal any inten- gratitude and friendship. His sudden tion of future vengeance on the au- arrival, therefore, far from being a thor of it, the governor's confirmation cause of alarm to the unsuspecting was notified to Kiatib-Ogloo by governor, was a subject of congratumeans of a Hattisheriff, or autograph lation, and he hastened on board to letter of the Sultan ; a mode which, welcome the Pasha. He met with in Turkey, implies the highest possi- the friendly reception he had been ble enjoyment of sovereign favour taught to expect, and was invited to that can fall to the lot of a subject. renew his visit at an appointed hour Sultan Mahmood was at that period the next day, in order to accompany young on the throne ; his personal the admiral on his landing. The character, and the principles of his extraordinary authority with which internal policy, were not yet under- the Captain-Pasha is invested, gives stood by his people ; and Kiatib- him the power of absolute sovereigti
. Ogloo, as well as every other Turk ty in every place in the empire to in Smyrna, accounted in various ways which he repairs, and where the Sulfor the sudden change of his septi- tan is not present;
the local goveraments on this occasion, without, how- ment is invariably resigned to him ever, thinking of any detraction from for the time of his stay. Conformathe respect due to the character of a bly to this well-known custom, on Hattisheriff, which contains the sa- the very night of his arrival at Smyr cred word of Mahomet's descendant. na, he landed six thousand men, who A repeated confirmation of Kiatib-Og- scattered themselves in strong and loo for several years after, induced well-armed parties throughout the him to place confidence in the favour town, and also garrisoned the forof his sovereign, which he neglected tress. Kiatib-Ogloo was still far from nothing, consistent with his duty to the suspecting any sinister intentions public, to appear worthy of. One from these preparations of rather an day, during the summer of 1817, a unusual, magnitude, and confidently
returned to the admiral's vessel on his will, had made him (the Pasha) the following day. The instant he answerable for the slightest deviation set his foot upon deck, he was seized, from his instructions. bound, and hurried to the other side Kiatib-Ogloo was unavoidably left to of the vessel, where a boat, which his fate. The frigate took him to an was in readiness, received him, and upinhabited part of the coast of Mi. conveyed him to a frigate anchored tylene, where he was landed and at »some distance from the fleet. strangled on the beach. His head Here he was immediately put in was then severed from its body, and irons, and confined to a solitary ca. sent to figure at the gates of the sebio. Whilst he was left to rominate raglio with the usual inscription af. on the sudden change of his fortunes fixed to those of " disobedient slaves" and condition, and on the fate which and traitors. All his property at seemed to await him, his friend the Smyrna was confiscated on behalf of Pasha landed ja state, convoked the the Porte, his harem exiled, and his municipal authorities and foreign two brothers (also holding public ofconsuls, made known to then that it fices in the place) spoliated, ordered was the will and pleasure of the Sul- to go and reside elsewhere, and fortan that
. Kiatib-Ogloo should suffer bidden ever to return to Smyrna death, and informed them that from without the express permission of that time forward the city should be the court. governed by a Pasha of ibree tails. Having adverted to the sacred
Kiatib-Ogloo, whose intercourse character attached to a Hattisherif, with the Frank society had consider- and the profound veneration in which ably increased since his accession to it has ever been held by the Turks the governorship, had made himself of all ranks, it may not be out of a great favourite among them by the place that I should briefly relate here affability of his manners, divested the particulars of another curious inentirely of Mahometan pomp, gravi- stance of the deceptive purposes for ty, and etiquette. No ball, concert, which the Sultan Mahmood thinks it or assembly, was given by the con- so apt to serve. suls and principal foreign merchants, Remiz-Pasha bad been promoted to which he was not invited ; and in to the eminent post of High-Admiral return, he gave them magnificent during the short reign of Mahmood's fêtes at his country seat, situated not brother and predecessor Sultan Moufar from the Frank quarter. His stapha, and had directed the bomcatastrophe was, therefore, to all the bardment of the Janissar’-Aga's Franks, a subject of such deep regret, palace at Constantinople during the that his more intimate friends, Mr. insurrection of the Janissaries, which, Werry, the British Consul, and Mr. in 1808, led to the accession of the Wilkinson, the Swedish Consul-Ge- present Sultan to the throne. Havneral, were easily prevailed upon to ing thus rendered himself obnoxious wait on the Pasha in the name of the to the then triumphant faction, it bewhole European community, and of. came of course necessary that he fer any terms for his life. The Pa- should be removed from the capital, sha assured these gentlemen that and he was sent to the Grand Vizier's what had been done was as much camp at Shoomla with the title of against his own wish as theirs ; that Lieutenant-general of the army. the Sultan had reserved this punish- Here he distinguished himself in ment to Kiatib-Ogloo until a favour- several skirmishes with the Russians; able opportunity occurred, ever since and his bravery inade him so careless his disobedience in refusing to give of his own safety that he was at last up the government of the place ; that taken prisoner and sent to St. Pethe Sultan was inflexible in this mat- tersburgh. After the conclusion of ter, and in ordering this formidable peace, Remiz-Pasha felt by 00 expedition to insure the execution of means sure of returning with any se49 ATHENEUM, vol. 9, 2d serics.
curity to Constantinople, and he tion, and does not conceal any part wrote to some of his friends there, of the persons sitting in it. The requesting they would lay his case Turks took up a favourable position, before the Sultan and take his opin- stationing themselves in such a manion on it. The answer he received ner as to be certain of not missing was a Hattisherif, in which the their aim, When the coach, with Sultan not only assured him he had the Vizier in it, came abreast of no longer to fear the haired of the them, a volley of no less than a bune Japissaries, but notified to him his dred muskets was fired into it, which appointment to the post of Grand not only pierced the unfortunate Vizier, and desired him to hasten to victim with several balls, but also the capital in order to assume the killed the Hospodar’s Greek master functions of that eminent station. of ceremonies, who attended him in The Pasha obeyed his sovereign's it, the coachman, and several other commands without hesitation, and attendants, as well as horses. The soon appeared at the frontiers of the confusion wbich ensued may easily Ottoman States. For some reason, be imagined. I was among the inhowever, which has never been pro- mense number of spectators, of all perly known, it was by no means ranks and conditions, who had come the Sultan's wish that Remiz-Pasha out of the city to witness the cereshould ever reach again his capital; mony of the Grand Vizier's ap; and the Hattisheriff, as well as the proach ; and, seated on horseback, I nomination it announced, was ex was conversing with a very beautiful pressly employed as a snare for him. Greek young lady, betrothed to the Instructions had been at the same master of ceremonies who had gone time despatched to the Hospodars of on to meet the Pasha in the Hospor Moldavia and Wallachia ; and a dar's coach. We were in sight of company of a hundred Turks sent to the scene of this horrid butchery : each of them, with orders that they and perceiving the confusion and should act exactly as the princes cries which followed the unexpected should find it advisable from circum- firing, it was impossible for us not to stances to direct. The commission guess at once the cause. entrusted to the late humane and ex- girl instantly leaped out of her lancellent Prince Callimachi of Molda- dau, and, with frantic screams, ran via,* was one in which he felt by no' towards the spot, to learn the fatal means disposed to act, and he art, truth of what had taken place. fully contrived to let the execution Several persons went after her, and of it fall into the hands of bis less could not stop her without using scrupulous colleague of Wallachia. force. She was, with great difficulty
, Remiz-Pasha, therefore, after having conveyed back to her carriage, where met at Yassi with the reception due she fell into a swoon, and in that to his rank, passed on to Buckarest. condition she was hurried home, A numerous guard of honour, in When her fears, on the next day, which the hundred Turks were in- received the dreaded confirmation, cluded, with secret instructions to she shut herself up in her room, and put the Pasha to death, went a few remained there for two years,
receiv miles out of town to meet him, and ing no visits but those of her nearest the state carriage of the Hospodar relatives, and hardly taking food was also sent to receive him. This Remiz-Pasha's body was taken to carriage is one of peculiar construc- Roosstchivok, a Turkish town on the
* He was beheaded with the immense number of his countrymen who perished by the Turks ish sabre at the breaking out of the Greek insurrection, accused of no other crime than that of being Greeks!
+ This beautiful girl, who had from her infancy felt an attachment for the Greek killed on this occasion, was the sister of Michael Sutzo, who, subsequently appointed Hospodar of Moldavia, joined the Prince Alexander Ypsilanti in the early part of the Greek Revolution.
right bank of the Danube, to receive of Turkish laws and local authoriburial ; but his head was not, as is ties, they are exempted from all customary, sent to Constantinople to kinds of taxes and contributions ; figure at the gates of the seraglio ; and even their landed property is from this peculiar circumstance it is allowed to partake of these as well inferred that the Sultan's hatred of as other privileges. Amenable to him arose from some personal cause no other judicial tribunals than those to which the sanction of political of the consuls of their respective naexpediency could not be publicly tions, through their official channel given.
alone bave they to answer the claims There are other instances without of the native subjects, and the griev
number which occur in Mahmood's ances of the Turkish magistrates. Ex reign, of Hattisheriffs written with Their children, and farther descend
no other view than to disguise real ants born in Turkey, are not on that 1 intentions, and to convert well. account considered as subjects of the
grounded suspicion into confidence, Sultan; and unless they have once in order to strike unawares, and with consented to pay the haratsh, or camore certainty of success. A histo- pitation-tax, they are acknowledged
ry of them would certainly fill up a and respected as subjects of their is good-sized quarto, and might prove fathers' sovereign. A great number
a great curiosity in literature, and in of English, French, Dutch, and Italthe annals of Mahometan barbarism.* jap merchants, and others, have long That the Sultan should continue to been established residents at Smyr
have recourse to such a system of na.t They have constituted themha perfidy, is not so much to be won- selves into factories, under the sanc
dered at, as the infatuation and wil- tion of their respective governments, iful blindness of many of his subjects, presided by their consuls, having
who still suffer themselves to be the their own public notaries, treasurers, o dupes of an artifice so often ex- chaplains, churches, bospitals, and e ploded.
burial-places; and many individuals It is a fact not less positive than it among them possess freehold estates It may seem incredible to those who in lands, houses, and other buildings. i have had no ocular demonstration of The means of education afforded by
it, that the existence of the most per- the place not being such as to incul20fect model of a Republic is to be cate in their children those national
traced in the very country where predilections which it is proper they despotism reigns with most unbound- should entertain for the mothered sway, and in the very midst of the country, they are invariably sent most hideous abuses of arbitrary there for a certain number of years ; power. Such, however, is to be des most of them return to the place of nominated the political condition of their parents' residence, and devote the European subjects of different themselves to the profession of comstates, who have colonised a portion merce. The close intimacy and iuof the city of Smyrna, where they tercourse this state of things has naare found occupying a town almost turally occasioned among the Franks, entirely their own, in which the flags has given rise to international marof all the maritime powers of Eu- riages, which have, in the course of rope daily flow over foreign consu- time, almost formed one extensive lates, as if to assert a jurisdiction family of them; and if new residents distinct from that of the legal pos- did not outnumber the deceased, sessors of the land. Independent, there would be few persons who by by ancient treaties with the Porte, this time were not closely related to
* Such a work might serve as an answer to the many advocates that “our ancient ally” has lately met with in England.
# The Datch Consulship at Smyrna has been made hereditary in the family of Count de Hochepied more than a hundred years since.
each other. The language univer. I owe it to truth not to overlook the sally adopted in this society is the fact, that there are among them perFrench, and it is spoken with extra- sons who, long invested with the ordinary correctness; but all the consular authority, and many years Frank children are brought up in the accustomed to the trust more extenhabit of speaking Greek Turkish, sively reposed in them in Turkey and Italian besides, and many, of than in other countries, from peculiar course, are taught English. Their circumstances already mentioned, manners and customs have become a bave acquired habits of arrogance mixture of those of every European and command very inconsistent with country; and their spacious and the limited nature of their official commodious houses are fitted up on attributes. But if this propensity of the same principle. During the some consuls for an encroachment of winter season, dioners, musical soi- power receive not that check to rées, card-parties, balls, and private which it is legally liable from the theatricals, are the principal amuse- very persons whom it is most calcuments. There is a casino, or splen- 'lated to affect, it must be confessed did club-house, where its members, that the fault fies chiefly with the composed of the most respectable latter. Whilst I was at Smyrna in Franks of the place, resort of an eve- 1824, a remarkable occurrence took ning to read the daily and periodical place, the curious particulars of journals of every part of Europe, to which will perhaps tend to give play at whist or billiards, or to pass strength to the above remarks :the time in conversation. Balls are A Greek Rayah merchant, long given here once a week throughout persecuted by the Pasha (as bad The carnival at the expense of the been almost all the Greeks of the members, each of whom is at liberty place after the breaking out of the to introduce as many strangers as he insurrection in Greece) received inpleases. The number of persons formation one day that he was to be who attend them often exceeds six immediately seized and beheaded. hundred.
He lost no time in putting his person Without seeming aware of the po- in safety by repairing on board his litical form which a society so con- Majesty's ship the Hind, at that mostituted has gradually assumed, the ment the only British ship of war in Franks have unconsciously acquired port, commanded by Captain Lord the habits of republicans; and their John Churchill. Some days after, love of freedom, so far from having an Ionian vessel lying close to the been affected by the manifestation of Hind, being on the point of sailing, those excesses of despotism which Lord John sent the Greek refugee they are every day doomed to wit- 'on board, with directions that he ness, on the contrary, gathers new should be landed at the nearest place force from the hatred that so fre- of safety in the Archipelago. A quent a display of it is calculated to Turkish guard accompanied by an inspire.
officer attached to the British consuSuch are the peaceable and wor- late, soon after came to the Ionian thy members of the Frank common vessel for the purpose of examining wealth at Smyrna, whose kind hos- the list of her passengers, and their pitality I have frequently experienc- written permits io leave the port.* ed, and among whom I have spent The refugee, not having taken the the happiest days of my life. In precaution of concealing himself durthus expressing the affectionate re- ing this visit, and, having no permit collection I shall ever be bound to to exhibit, was seized by the Turks entertain for the generality of them, and thrust into their boat. Whilst
* This regulation has only been established since the Greek insurrection, for the purpose, I suppose, of preventing the unfortunate persecuted Greeks from making their escape.