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organs, or senses ; and the boldness part of men are conscious of no such of their unbelief is a guarantee for feelings,--an opinion which the hearts nothing but the misery and debase- of the most ignorant and debased of nuent of their condition.
our kind are powerful 10 refute, But it may be replied, you merely even allowing this, yet are there redelude yourselves with a dream of corded spirits of a loftier nature, and unnatural sentiment. You arrive, by deeds of a purer beneficence, with habit, at hiding from your own apo which we never can sympathise, but prehensions the feelings under which by lifting our minds 10 the concepyou act; and the calculation, wheth- tion of emotions far different from er any benevolent action which you those imputed to the whole species. contemplate will procure enjoyment, When we picture the Swiss patriot is, at length, performed so rapidly, who hurled himself on the spears of that you overlook the steps of the Burgundy for the salvation of his process. Such is a common, and a country, is it possible to imagine that, bold assertion, the refutation of during those moments of brief and which is simply this :-We have no burning excitement, any sentiment evidence as to the state of our minds, can have ihrubbed in bis breast, but under any circumstances, except the passion to redeem a people from froin consciousness ; and there are instant and overwhelming tyranny. innumerable cases in which we are Or stand in the dungeon of the marconscious of no such process as that tyr, and he will be seen looking supposed, but are conscious of sensa- through its shadows, to the prospect tionis directly opposed to, and utterly of a futurity that shall exalt the desincompatible with it. Again, it will tinies of mankind; pot coiling bis be asserted, the desire of performing soul into its own recesses, to medie a beneficent action is a want analo- tate on the reward of his sufferings, gous to hunger, and the gratification but with hopes that embrace all time of it is attended with pleasure, as is and all existence, and with a brow the satisfying our appetite with food. that throbs, and an eye that gleams, But the obvious and direct tendency under the vision of generations yet of appeasing the cravings of hunger to come, who will find in his memois, to give pleasure to no one but ry the prolific seeds of human ameourselves ; the plain and immediate lioration, and will kindle a torch to effect of this supposed moral want is, enlighten the world, at the eternal to give enjoyment to others ; and flame which burns in the tomb of the when the cases differ in so material a persecuted philosopher. circunstance, it is an impudent as It seems to many minds the most sumption of the whole maiter in dis- certain of all the phenomena in the pule, to infer that they are similar in science of moral philosophy,-it.is other respects. Here, as before, it one of the truth of which we have is merely assertion against assertion. not the slightest doubt,—that the en. But the statement of the disciples of joyment, which we are intended to Epicurus and Bentham is sometimes, derive from the practice of virtue, is we may trust, rendered worthless entirely dependent on the motive even by their own conduct; and under which we act. Thus far we
men that maintain this may agree with our opponents-that theory, who, if a case occurred that it is the duty of every man, to build required their exertions, would un- up his own mind into the greatest doubtedly rush forward, without a perfection of which it is susceptible. mumeni's reference to self, in the But as to the character in which that might of that glorious impulse which perfection consists, we should differ they deny in words, but which would on every point. That perfection is best be demonstrated by the nver- dependent far more on the moral powering voices of their own bosoms. excellence, than on the intellectual
Even allowing that the greater power, of the mind, inasmuch as he 32 ATKENEUM, vol. 9, 2d series.
is more likely to arrive at his object, the habit of governing the mind hy who pursues the right path, at how- calculation and self-interest. The ever great a distarice, ihan he who, basis of her plan is the general prin. appareuly far nearer, and journey-'ciple, that we should associate pleaing more rapidly, yet moves in a sure wiib whatever we wish that our wrong direction. The object of the pupils should pursue, and pain with purest and noblest ambition must whatever we wish that they should ever be, in despite of passion and of avoid. Now, this practice will in. interest, to rear, from ihat holy germ fallibly tend to consecrate, in the
be which is planted in the heart of eve eyes of children, the belief ihat they ry man, the healing and immortal ought to make their own enjoyment herb, the Moly of a purer deity than the object of their actions; and, to Hermes, and of a wiser than Pallas, say nothing of the impossibility of ang which alone can strengthen us against man uniformly calculating rightly,
li temptation, and alone can sooihe us the custom, of constantly regarding in sorrow; than which no other can the result of our actions to ourselves, enable us to be uniformly ministers produces a selfish state of mind, to the happiness of others, and there. whichi necessarily brings with it disby to secure our own. It was in content and misery. Moreover, if cherishing these seeds of love, and we make the motive of conduct to feeding them with the sustenance of be the prospect of the consequences lofty thoughts-it was in this labour which we have experienced 10 follow that Plato lived his life, and So- certain actions, those consequences crates encountered death; it was having sprung from the arrangement T this endeavour which enlightened the and will of the persons around us, blindness, and consecrated the siu we shall speedily learn, when we get abou dies, of Milton ; it is this high exer- beyond the domain of these preparo
blues tion which has poured over the pages ed influences, that the same disei- und of Leighton and .of Pestalozzi its pline and government are no longer flood of tenderness and beauty ; it at work, and we shall cease to let is to such glorious attempts, neglect- our past experience control us, when this ed as they are, by self-styled philoso- we know that we are released from phers, for the miserable triumphs of any sinsilar operation for the future. vanity, and the degrading struggles of It may, undoubtedly, be said, in de avarice and sensuality ; it is to such fence of Miss Edgeworth's principle
, il attempts that we must look for all though not of her application of it, real improvement of our kind: for that, by the ordination of God and is the principle of the soul's perfection the nature of man, suffering is conseis universal love-the principle which quent upon evil duing, and that en de has made the martyrs, the heroes, joyment waits upon the footsteps us to the poets, and the philosophers of virtue. But this is not the suffering the world, the strength of the bum- or the enjoyment wherewith Missc ble, the only consolation of the bro- Edgeworth would pay- or panish. ken spirit.
This system is one which, bring bose The most important influence of founded in the first principles of lid philosophical belief is that which it humanity, must always be independe exerts on the education of the young. ent of times and circumstances; but therTo this purpose Miss Edgeworth has it is one of the gravesi defects of the directed her opinious, and exactly in plan we are considering, that it alproportion as her moral system is most entirely onits to make use
of the false, are her schemes of education the means supplied to
We do not say that it is Creator. Miss Edgeworth founds not an object with her to make men none of her processes upon the feel
. self-denying, benevolent, brave, and ing of the difference between right true; but that the main end which and wrong, upon the innate tendency pas she proposes to herself is, to produce to benevolence, or upon the idea of toep
is by the
g the mind the Divine Nature, of which the seed were inconsistent, the world could jeres!
is sown within us, When the foun- better be without the inventions of generals dation of rock is ready for the hands art, and the discoveries of science,
of the mason, she prefers to build without steam-engines and political
upon the sand, and with all that is economy, than it could want earn. and paint most permanent and precious, the estness and goodness, kindly affec
very essential elements of the uni- tiuns, generosity, piety, and truth. csice's verse, given to us as the grounds and But, thanks be to Heaven ! there is
materials of education, she would no such inconsistency; and the more lief shah
betake herself to a shadow and a freely and completely our best feelanenia sound. But the object she would ings are developed, the stronger will 1015;
attain cannot thus be reached; nor be our motives for pursuing every Esibility
is it possible to sustain a superstruc. inquiry, and undergoing every labour, ting
ture of granite on a base of vapour. which can teud 10 the advantage of mos
If the two, kiuds of improvement mankind.
of the season.
“ Presenting things impossible to view,
They wander through incredible to true.”
. Bright and the beautiful gardens round beautiful, and associated with all about Damascus were assuming every cheerful and delicious thoughıs, is the Chiese bour a nire verdant appearance, infancy of vegetation. Never had
and as the fervent rays fell upon the the celebrated gardens of Alfadhel moist earth, the Spring seemed ready Alderamy, the great merchant, worn
to leapalive out of the ground. Every a niore glorious appearance of proa rol or thing altested the vivifying influence mise : and yet they retained bin not
You could almost see in the noble mansion which they dethe vegetation bursting into green corated; they scarcely even occulife: it became manifest that univer- pied a place in his thoughts. As he
sal Nature was awaking as if from passed pensively through them, he Papiros sleep, opening her eyes in the shape heard not the splashing of the nu
of innumerable flowers, and prepar merous fountains with which they ing for a great and joynus change. were adorned; he noticed not the A poetical fancy might have imagin- alcoves and arbours; the fragrance ed that the yet undereloped germs wafied upon the breeze passed by of future- beauty and enjoyinent anti- him unheeded ; his ear was deaf to cipated the vernal delights in store the songs of the birds, some of which fur them;-hat the flowers in thc were already warbling amid the blossom were dreaming of sunshine palms and acacias, while others were and rich odours; that the leaves in twittering in their dreams,-før as the bud, thrilling with pleasure as yet the sun had hardly lighted up the they waved to and fro in the soft towers and mosques and minarets of breeze, longed to leap out of their Danasçıs, or thrown his golden close prisons into the sparkling air ; bloom upon the numerous streams that the roots in the ground yearned that surround it with perpetual muand stretched themselves upwards, sic and fertility. For Alfadhel Alproud beforehand of the superb col- deramy the splendours of nature posours, and graceful or stately furnis sessed no charms, the beauties of the which would arrest: the eye of the most romantic city in the world were passenger when they rose up out of, utterly lost to his eye. His thoughts, their temporary graves in all their I might almost have said his seoses,
were with the great caravan which the caravan still faster than his barb, had departed a few hours before for no sooner perceived her distress than Aleppo, carrying with it no small he reined in the generous' animal, portion of his fortune in the shape of and for the sake of the grateful shade, diamonds and other precious stones. drew up in a lane overhung with These he had entrusted to the care wild figs and tamarinds, interspersed of his only son Yezid, who had re- with kopals and guin trees. It was ceived ample instructions how and customary with the Arabs at this where to dispose of them, and had period, as it had been with the ani sworn implicit obedience to his fath- cieut Hebrews, 10 manufacture a er's orders. He loved his son with species of sackcloth from the hair of no comaon affection; but Yezid was camels, which they wore at fuperals young and giddy, and as it now seem- and upon other occasions of sorrow. ed to his anxious father, scarcely The numerous camels of the caracompetent to undertake so import- van that had lately passed through ant a charge. This misgiving thought this narrow defile, having left a par had prevented his closing his eyes tion of their hair on the hedges, the during the whole night : not a mo- neighbouring peasants had sent their ment's peace had he known since the liule children to gather it, and a caravan had departed, and after tak- troop of these half-naked gleaners, ing two or three disconsolate turns with black eyes and corly polls, were in his gardens, he determined 10 pur. busily employed in collecting the sue it instantly, that he might accom- spoil. Sun-burnt and tawny, their pany Yezid, and assume the care and scanty discoloured rags harmonised management of his own precious well with the red-ochreons bank of jewels.
earth up which they were climbing, Alfadhel possessed a fleet mare, while their glee, their clamours, and called in the language of Oriental their agility, found a marked contrast exaggeration, the Outstripper of the in the person of a venerable austere wind. Perhaps there was little hy- looking Dervise, who, having seated perbole in the name, for many an himself cross-legged ai ihe bottom of Arabian horse-dealer would serious- the bank, retained his immovable ly maintain that when she ihrew the position, blowing his horn whenever foam from her mouth, she had been a traveller passed, and pointing to known to gallop out of sight before his turban upou the ground by way it could reach the ground. It is of soliciting charity. Alfadhel, have not impossible, however, if these ing throwu a trifle into it, renained men were like their European breih- gazing upon the scene before him re'n, ihat they miglit occasionally while his horse took breath, when he deviate in some trilling degree from was stariled by a tiltering over-head, the extreme rigour of truth. At all and upou looking up he beheld with events, the mare was one of surpass- amazement a group of Jong-bearded ing fleetness, and Alfadhel having brats, perched upon the bough of a thrown himself upon her back, doubt tree, gibbering and mocking and ed vot that he should soon overtake mowing at him. His aniazement at the caravan, His own auxiety be. this inexplicable apparition was, proing not less urgent than the fiery im- bably, visible in bis, countenance; patience of his barb, he suffered her for the urchins beneath, and the juto gallop forward for some hours with venile grey-beards above, set up a unchecked velocity, until by her ex- simultaneous shout of laughter ; haustion and panting the outstripper whereat the bewilderment of Alfad. of the wind seemed indeed to have hel was beginning to kindle into earned her name, and to have left wrath, when the Dervise, propitiatbehind her the very air which was ed by the alms he had received, idrequired for her respiration. The formed him that the frolicsome ur rider, whose thoughts had gone after chins, after having satiated their sp
petites with some wild honey which plain. At its 'extremity, upon the they had discovered, had smeared very verge of the horizon, he could their chins with it, and by applying distinguish a great cloud of dust, to them the camels’ bair they had which, interposing between the sun's been sent to collect, bad presently rays and bimself, rolled up to heaven provided themselves with most re- like the red snioke of a couflagraVorend-looking beards.
tion. Not doubting that it was oc“How merry !” exclaimed Alfad- casioned by the caravan of which he hel, who perhaps thought it necessa was in pursuit, he struck out of the ry to moralise in talking to a Der- high road into the wilderness on his vise—“how merry are These little right, trusting that the well-known thoughtless varlets, never dreaming speed and vigoor of his horse would that what they are now gathering in enable bim to reach his object much joy and laughter shall be worn in sor sooner than if he followed the beaten row, and steeped in tears, perhaps track, which described a considerable eveu by themselves."
circuit. Swifily and gallanily did “If we may call the man a sorry his noble steed bear him onwards, baker,” replied the Dervise, “ who making way through the tangled overshould dislike sweet honey because growih or the sterile champaign of it makes sour bread, so I hold him to the wilderness, as if she gathered up be a sour philosopher who sighs at strength from ihe ground as she galthe sight of present happiness, lest it loped over it; but Alfadhel soon dismay become future bitterness and covered that he had widely miscal
Grown up children with long culated ihe distance, for though the beards sometimes employ themselves dust that he was following still reexactly like these youngsters, and mained in sight, he plunged deeper gather and heap up in glee that which and deeper into the waste without they shall wear in lammutation." appearing to gain upon it, and his
“ Nay, did not our holy Prophet,"' own strength, for in the burry of his resumed Alfadhel, “pass his whole departure he had neglected to prolife in collecting the materials of vide bimself with sustenance of any sackcloth, when he declared upon kind, began to prove inadequate to his death-bed that all his days had the vehemence of his exertions. To been sorrow and vexation ?”
add to his distress, the fierce rays of " Let us not the less enjoy our a Syrian sun darted incessantly upon happiness when it comes," resumed his bead, and he was fornenied with the Dervise, “but receive it as the an almost intolerable thirst. Still he earth does the refreshing showers, pressed on, seeing no human being, when she instantly sparkles in nor even a single beast or bird in his brighter colours, throws up a thou- progress, until, to his infinite amazesand grateful odours to heaven, and ment, he beheld, at some distance wears a countenance of gladness, as before him, what appeared to be an if trought and wintry weather were old man washing his scythe in å pool never to visit her again.”
of water. The prospect of appeas“It is pleasanter to hear the words ing his thirst was so delightful that of truth from the mouth of the wise," he scarcely bestowed a second glance said Alfadhel, “ than to catch the at the figure, who, having thrown his sound of the rivulet when crossing scyihe over his shoulder, bad now rethe parched wilderness.”---But pleido sumed his way across the wildervess. samt as it was, he seened to think On reaching the brink of the pool it still more delightful to overtake Alfadhel dismounted, when he ob his jewels ; wherefore, observing served that the water was turbid and that his mare had in some degree re- of a sanguine bue, and that his mare, covered her breath, he resumed his after snelling it for a second, turned journey, and passing through the do- away and refused to taste it. His bile, presently emerged into a vast owu sufferiors, however, would not