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a prodigy. As she was a great travel- at their folly, and said that he preler, her reputation soon became very ferred the neighing of his horse to extensive ; her first journey from the flute of this fine musician. He Athens, the place of her birth, was was sent ambassador into Persia, and into Egypt, whither she was drawn Lucian says, that he gave three talby the fame of the flute-players of ents, or £581 5s. for a flute at Cothat country. Her person and per- rinth. Dorien, the celebrated Auteformance were not long unnoticed, at player, was a great wit and a great the court of Alexandria ; however, in glutton, and was often invited by the conflicts between Ptolemy, Soter, Philip of Macedon, in order to enliand Demetrius, for the island of Cy- ven his parties of pleasure. Having prus, about 312 B. C., Ptolemy, being lost a large shoe at a banquet, which defeated in a sea engagement, his he wore on account of his foot being wives, domestics, and military stores swelled by the gout, “ the only harm fell into the hands of Demetrius. I wish the thief, (said he,) is, that my Plutarch says, the celebrated Lamia shoe may fit him.” How great a dewas among the female captives taken mand there was for flutes in Athens, in this victory. She had been uni- may be conceived from a circumversally admired at first on account stance mentioned by Plutarch, in his of her talents, for she was a wonder- life of Isocrates. This orator, says he, ful performer on the flute ; but after- was the son of Theodorus, a fute-mawards her fortune became more splen- ker, who acquired wealth sufficient did, by the charms of her person by his employment, not only to eduwhich procured her many admirers cate his children in a liberal manner, of great rank. The prince, whose but also to bear one of the heaviest captive she became, and who, though public burdens to which an Athenian a successful warrior, was said to have citizen was liable, that of furnishing vanquished as many hearts as cities, a choir or chorus for his tribe or ward, conceived so violent a passion for at festivals and religious ceremonies. Lamia, that from a sovereign and a Each tribe furnished their distinct conqueror he was instantly transform- chorus ; which consisted of a band of ed into a slave, though her beauty vocal and instrumental performers, was more on the decline, and Deme. and dancers, who were to be hired, trius, the handsomest prince of his maintained, and dressed during the time, was much younger than herself. festival : an expense considerable in At her instigation he conferred such itself, but much increased by emulaextraordinary benefits upon the Athe- tion among the richer citizens, and nians, that they rendered him divine the disgrace consequent to inferior honours, and as an acknowledgment exhibition. The fluctuations of trade of the influence which she hail exer- and public favour have rendered the cised in their favour, they dedicated business of boring flutes far less proa temple to her under the name of fitable at present than it was in the “Venus Lamia.” Ismenias, the The- time of Theodorus. But then (says ban, was one of the most celebrated a modern writer on this subject) we performers on the flute of antiquity. have had an harpsichord maker in Having been taken prisoner by Athe- our own country (Kirkman) who died as, king of the Scythians, he perform- worth £100,000, and who was as ed on the flute before that rude mon- able to maintain a choir as Theodoarch"; but though his attendants were rus, or any dean or chapter of a cacharmed so much that they applaud- thedral. ed him with rapture, the king laughed
ANATOMY OF DRUNKENNESS.*
THIS little book is evidently the Let observation with extensive
production of a man of genius. view survey mankind from China to The style is singularly neat, terse, Peru, and what one single small disconcise and vigorous, far beyond the trict of the habitable globe will be reach of an ordinary mind; the found, even on the Sabbath-day, strain of sentiment is such as does perfectly sober ? The possession of honour to the author's heart; and unclouded reason to the victims of the observation of human life, by sin and sorrow would seem to be felt which every page is characterized, as a curse. Therefore, they extract speaks a bold, active, and philoso insanity from flowers and blossoms, phical intellect. As a medical trea- bright with the blooms and fresh with tise it is excellent-but its merit is as the dews of heaven, and drink down a moral dissertation on the nature, their misery into dreamless sleep. causes and effects of one of the most True, as Mr. Macnish says,
that deplorable and pernicious vices that drunkenness has varied greatly at can degrade and afflict all the ongo. different times and among differeot ings of social life.
nations ;" but, perhaps, take one It was not likely, that a work of country with another, though the so much spirit and originality should spirit of the age has varied, the not very soon attract notice; and quantum of the vice has been pretty accordingly, we are pleased, but not much the same, drunkard has balat all surprised, to see that it has al- anced drunkard, and earth herself ready reached a second, and a greatly continued to reel and stagger on her extended and improved edition. It axis. is perfectly free from all quackery Drunkenness prevails, we agree and pretension ; the writer does not with the author, more in a rude than belong to the solemn and stupid in a civilized state of society. It Gold-headed-cane School ; he writes seems, too, to prevail to a much with much of the animation and vi- greater extent in northern than in vida vis animi of the late inconipara- southern latitudes. ble John Bell; but the character of Mr. Macnish has a chapter on the his style, of his sentiments, and of causes of drunkenness,—and it is an his opinions, is his own, and his little excellent one—every sentence in it most entertaining, interesting, and being concise and vigorous. instructive Treatise is stamped from He then touches on another topic beginning to end with the best of -and a melancholy one it is-yet all qualities-originality-of itself true. enough to hide a multitude of defects, “Drunkenness," he observes, "apbut which is here found allied with pears to be in some measure herediuniform sound sense, sagacity and tary. We frequently see it descenddiscretion.
ing from parents to their children. 6 Drunkenness,” Dr. Macnish ob- This may undoubtedly often arise serves, is not like some other vices, from bad example and imitation, but peculiar to modern times. It is there can be little question that, in handed down to us from 'hoar anti- many instances at least, it exists as a quity;' and if the records of the an- family predisposition.” tediluvian era were more complete, We
regret that our limits will not we should probably find that it was allow us to copy Mr. Macnish's denot unknown to the father of the scription of the agreeable sensations human race.”
of incipient drunkenness, and of the
* The Anatomy of Drunkenness, by Robert Macnish, Member of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. Glasgow, 1828.
opposite ones which accompany the mere judgment of men, instead of succeeding stages of the fit. We know the doom of the Eternal, whose great not any where a more vivid and law he had violated,-he denied, breathing picture. Justice is done demon-like, the righteousness of the to the subject, both on its fairer and fiat,“ blood for blood ;” and in the darker side, and Truth has guided blackness of his face you read wrath the pen or pencil at every touch. No against wrath, that of a wicked moral is drawn,-but a moral is there, worm against that of the Holy of nevertheless, -and amidst all the airy Holies, wickedness struggling with mirih so well described, it sounds conscience, and crime, fear-stricken like a small, chiming, melancholy and appalled, yet loath to give way knell
, foreboding woe and destruction. to penitence, though preyed on by We once saw a man under sen- remorse, while all his body trembled tence of death, (he was to be, and and shook as at the noise of a dewas, executed next morning) under vouring fire. the influence of an enormous quantity The shame, horror, penitence, and of ardent spirits. He had got it dreadful remorse, that men have felt smuggled into prison by his wife. for words said and deeds done in He had swallowed about two bottles drink, prove that drink can inspire of rum that day,—but though dismal, thoughts into men's hearts most alien he was not drunk. Fear and horror from their nature, and drive them to kept him sober. His senses were in the commission of acts, of which, as some measure dazed, but his soul long as they were in their sober senses, was alive in its agony, and his groans no trial, no temptation, could ever were the ghastliest ever heard out of have made them guilty, or even form or in a condemned cell. Among all to themselves a thought fleeting as a the confusion of the thoughts within shadow. But they had put an enemy him, one thought was ever upper- into their mouths to steal away their most; and he knew in all the dread- brains, and thence sometimes rape, ful distinctness of reality, always so robbery and murder, followed by different from a dream, that he was swift retribution and lamentable to be hanged next morning at eight doom. o'clock, and his body given to dis Drunkard, stand forward, that we section. He staggered up and down may have a look at you, and draw in his chains, and then, ever and your picture. There he stands ! anon, sat down on the edge of his The mouth of the drunkard, you iron bed, and stared on vacancy with may observe, contracts a singularly blood-shot eyes, as if he saw the sensitive appearance-seemingly red hangman or Satan. The liquor had and rawish; and he is perpetually lost its power over the “ heart of the licking or smacking his lips, as if his man oppressed with care," and all palate were dry and adust. His is a that it did seemed to be, to bring the thirst that water will not quench. He gallows nearer to him in the gloom, might as well drink air. His whole --to dangle the rope nearer to his being burns for a dram. The whole throat and eyes,—and to show him, world is contracted into a calker. like a reality on the stone-floor, his He would sell his soul, in such exown shell or coffin. His prayers tremity, were the black bottle denied were muttered angrily, like curses ; him, for a gulp of Glenlivet. Not to no deluding hope of reprieve or res save his soul from eternal fire, would pite rose from the rum fumes sicken- he, or rather could he, if left alone ing his stomach and .clouding his with it, refrain from pulling out the brain,-no minister of religion, much plug, and sucking away at destrucneeded as he was, would then have tion. What a snout he turns up to been welcome. There was an ob- the morning air, inflamed, pimpled, scure and dim mistaking in his tor- snubby, and snorty, and with a nob tured spirit, of his sentence as the at the end on't, like one carved out
of a stick by the knife of a school- covey whirrs off, unharmed in a sinboy_rough and hot to the very eye, gle feather-and poor Ponto, rememLa nose which, rather than pull, bering better days, cannot conceal you would submit even to be in some his melancholy, falls in at his masdegree insulted. A perpetual cough ter's heel, and will hunt no more. harasses and exhausts him, and a Out, às usual, comes the brandy botperpetual expectoration. How histle-he is still a good shot when his hand trembles! It is an effort even mouth is the mark -and having empto sign his nane; one of his sides is tied the fatal flask, he staggers homecertainly not by any means as sound wards, with the muzzle of his douas the other ; there has been a touch ble-barrel frequently pointed to his of palsy there; and the next hint ear, both being on full cock, and his will draw down his chin to his collar brains not blown out only by a mirabone, and convert him, a month be- cle. He tries to read the newspafore dissolution, into a slavering idiot. per-just arrived—but cannot find There is no occupation, small or his spectacles. Then, by way of vagreat, insignificant or important, to riety, he attempts a tune on the fidwhich he can turn, for any length of dle—but the bridge is broken, and time, his hand, his heart, or his head. her side cracked, and the bass-string He cannot angle-for his fingers re- snapped—and she is restored to her fuse to tie a knot, much more to busk peg among the cobwebs. a fly. The glimmer and the glow of clude the day worthily and consistthe stream would make his brain ently, he squelches himself down dizzy—to wet his feet now would, among the reprobate crew, takes his he fears, be death. Yet he thinks turn at smutty jest and smuttier song, that he will go out—during that sun- — falls back insensible, exposed to ny blink of a showery day—and try gross and indecent practical jokes the well-known pool in which he from the vilest of the uphanged used to bathe in boyhood, with the and finally is carried to bed on a long, matted, green, trailing water- hand-barrow, with hanging head and plants depending on the slippery heels, and, with glazed eyes and rocks, and the water-ouzel gliding lolling tongue, is tumbled upon the from beneath the arch that hides her quilt-if ever to awake it is extreme“procreant cradle," and then sinking ly doubtful ;—but if awake he do, it like a stone suddenly in the limpid is to the same wretched round of stream. He sits down on the bank, brutal degradation-a career,
of and fumbling in his pouch for his which the inevitable close is an unpocket-book, brings out, instead, a friended deathbed and a pauper's pocket-pistol. Turning his fiery grave. O hero! six feet high, and face towards the mild, blue, vernal with a brawn once like Hercules sky, he pours the gurgling brandy in the prime of life, too-well born down his throat-first one dose, and and well bred-once bearing with then another-till, in an hour, stu- honour the king's commission; and pified and dazed, he sees not the sil- on that glorious morn, now forgotten, very crimson-spotted trouts, shooting, or bitterly remembered, undaunted and leaping, and tumbling, and plung- leader of the forlorn-hope that mounting in deep and shallow. Or, if it ed the breach at Badajos—is that a be autumn or winter, he calls, per
a man-a soldierhaps, with a voice at once gruff and and a Christian? A dram-drinker! feeble, on old Ponto, and will take a Faugh! faugh! Look over-lean pluff at the partridges. In former over that stile, where a pig lies waldays, down they used to go, right lowing in mire—and a voice, faint, and left, in potatoe or turnip.field, and feeble, and far off, as if it came broomy brae or stubble-but now from some dim and 'remote world his sight is dim and wavering, and his within your lost soul, will cry, that of touch trembles on the trigger. The the two beasts, that bristly one,
agrunt in sensual sleep, with its snout the temples, the lyart haffets, snoring across the husk-trough, is, as wearing thin and bare," of a Scottish a physical, moral, and intellectual peasant. What eye beheld the many being, superior to you, late Major in hundred steps, that, one by one, with his Majesty's regiment of foot, imperceptible' gradation, led him now dram-drinker, drunkard, and down-down-down to the lowest dotard, and self-doomed to a dis- depths of shame, suffering, and ruin? graceful and disgusting death ere you For years before it was bruited abroad shall have completed your thirtieth through the parish, that Gabriel Mayear. What a changed thing since son was addicted to drink, his wife that day when you carried the colors, used to sit weeping alone in the and were found, the bravest of the spence, when her sons and daughters brave, and the most beautiful of the were out at their work in the fields, beautiful, with the glorious tatters and the infatuated man, fierce in the wrapped round your body all drench- excitement of raw ardent spirits, kept ed in blood, your hand grasping the causelessly raging and storming broken sabre, and two' grim French- through every nook of that once so men lying hacked and hewed at your peaceful tenement, which for many feet! Your father and your mother happy years had never been disturbsaw your name in the “Great Lord's" ed by the loud voice of anger or reDespatch; and it was as much as he proach. His eyes were seldom turncould do to keep her from falling on ed on his unhappy wife, except with the floor, for “her joy was like a a sullen scowl, or fiery wrath ; but deep affright !” Both are dead now; when they did look on her with and better so, for the sight of that kindness, there was also a rueful blotched face and those glazed eyes, self-upbraiding in the expression of now and then glittering in fitful fren- his eyes, on account of his cruelty ; zy, would have killed them both, nor, and at sight of such transitory tenafter such a spectacle, could their derness, her heart overflowed with old bones have rested in the grave. forgiving affection, and her sunk eyes
Let any one who has had much with unendurable tears. But neither experience of life, look back upon domestic sin nor domestic sorrow the ranks of his friends, companions, will conceal from the eyes and the acquaintances, and persons whom he ears of men; and at last Gabriel knew but by name-or not even by Mason's name was a byword in the name-although he had become in- mouth of the scoffer. One Sabbath formed of something of their habits he entered the kirk, in a state of and history.
many drunkards miserable abandonment, and from among them have drunk themselves that day he was no longer an elder. to death, and, before their natural To regain his character seemed to term, disappeared first into dis. him, in his desperation, beyond the graceful retirement in some far-off power of man, and against the decree hut, and then into some church-yard of God. So, he delivered himself apart from the bones of kindred ! up, like a slave, to that one appetite,
But these are not, bad as they are, and in a few years his whole houseby any means the worst cases. Scot- hold had gone to destruction. His land—ay, well-educated, moral, reli- wife was a matron, almost in the gious Scotland, can show, in the bo- prime of life, when she died; but as som of her bonny banks and braes, she kept wearing away to the other cases worse than these ; at which, if world, her face told that she felt her there be tears in heaven, “ the angels years had been too many in this. weep." Look at that grey-headed Her eldest son, unable, in pride and man, of threescore and upwards, sit- shame, to lift up his eyes at kirk or ting by the way-side! He was once market, went away to the city, and an Elder of the Kirk, and a pious enlisted into a reginient about to emman he was, if ever piety adorned bark on foreign service.
His two 25 ATHENEUM, VOL. 9, 2d series.