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He was occupied in this interval with a thorough visitation of his diocese, in which he personally examined all his officiating clergy, gave them directions for their studies and conduct, and even in some cases prescribed portions of Scripture, and religious tracts, to be committed to memory by the more ignorant. The Reply to HARDING's Answer to his Challenge was the fruit of his leisure moments, during these avocations.
The visit to London in 1565 appears to have been made for the purpose of committing the Reply to the press. It was followed by an excursion to Oxford, where Jewell enjoyed the distinguished honor of presiding in the Divinity Schools in the exercises on occasion of the Queen's visit, August 31 ; and was at the same time created Doctor of Divinity.
His attention appears, from his letters, to have been much occupied about this time with the increasing differences relative to the vestments. He continued in his opinion of the worthlessness of the subject of dispute, and freely expressed his own wish that every, even the. smallest, vestige of Popery were removed from the churches, and much more from men's minds.'c Yet he could not but regard the clamorous discontent of the Puritans with disapprobation : 'some brethren,' says he, "contend about it, as if the whole of their religion consisted in that one point;' and adds, that such persons rather desert their functions, and leave churches empty, than depart in the least from their opinions, and refuse to be moved by the learned writings of the foreign divines.' Consistently
(just the time which had elapsed since the Convocation) since he had seen either of his old associates and intimates, Parkhurst, Hooper, Sampson, Sandys, Lever, or Chambers.
The Preface is dated the 6th of August. The sermon in which Jewell announced its publication, and recapitulated its arguments, was preached on the 8th of July preceding.
• Letter to Bullinger, Feb. 8, 1566.
d Letter to Bullinger, Feb. 24, 1567.—The Swiss divines had been consulted by both parties on this matter. P. Martyr and Bucer, consulted by the bishops, expressed themselves decidedly in favour of the garments. Bullinger and Walter-appealed to, with much importunity, by Sampson and Humphrey, leaders of the Puritans, in behalf of the whole body-expressed themselves almost with contempt for the controversy ; seeming no to like the vestments, but declaring, repeatedly, without hesitation, that they were things indifferent-no cause for schism.
with these views, we find him, in a letter to Archbishop Parker, dated Dec. 22, 1565, refusing to admit Humphrey, (who, although one of the steadiest, if not the most zealous, among the Puritans, was Jewell's warm personal friend, and afterward his biographer,) to a living in the diocese of Salisbury which had been given him by their mutual friend Horne, bishop of Winchester
-on the ground of his conduct relative to the vestments, which Jewell calls .a vain contention,' and adds that • long sufferance of such as- · Humphrey •bred great offence.'e
In these sentiments the good bishop was rather confirmed than shaken by reflection and experience. One of the latest of his public acts was a sermon preached at Paul's Cross during the Convocation in 1571, from Rom. xii. 16, 17, 18, in which he warmly reproved the Puritans in what spirit, let the reader judge from its closing paragraphs.
‘O, ye that sometime were brethren, but now mortal • enemies—ye that sometime ware this badge, this cognizance of Christ's peace,
have cast from you: O how long will you dwell in dissension? I have • done my part; I have called you to peace, I have called “you to love, I have called you to unity: do you now 'your parts; do you ensue after peace, love you each
other, continue ye in unity together. I have not the keys of your hearts ; I am not able to loose and open · those stony hearts of yours: God make you all one,
which now ye
e STRYPE, Annals, I. 421.-GRINDAL, then bishop of London, explains the seeming inconsistency between his own and Jewell's occasional expressions of dislike to the vestments, and their conduct toward the Puritans, in a letter to Bullinger, Aug. 27, 1566. “We," he says, "who are now bishops, on our first return, before we assumed our ministerial office, contended earnestly for a long time to have these matters now in contention entirely abolished. But as we could not carry our point with the Queen and Parliament, we judged it better, on consultation, not to desert the churches for the sake of a few rites, and those not in themselves ungodly; especially as the pure doctrine of the Gospel was left us entire and free.- And as yet we have not repented of our determination.-But these unseasonable contentions relative to things in themselves indifferent, (as far as I am able to judge,) tend not to edification, but to the division of the Church, and to sow discord among brethren.” Cited by BURNET, Hist. of Ref. Vol. III. P. ii. B, VI. p. 362,
'God mollify your hearts, God make you friends, God grant you to love as brethren together!
• Let us lay aside this pride of our hearts ; let us not be *wise in our own opinions; let us not requite evil with • evil; let us as much as may be, have peace with all
men. Alas, it is no great thing that I require of you ! “I require only your love; I require your friendship
one towards another; I ask no more but that your • hearts be joined in mutual love and unity together. • Alas! it is a thing that soon may be granted of such 'as pray together, of such as have one Heavenly Father,
of such as are partakers of Christ's holy sacraments, of • such as profess CHRIST, and will be called Christians !
Oh, how can we pray our heavenly Father to forgive us, if we will not forgive our brother wherein he trespasseth against us? How can we with clear conscience come unto the holy Communion, and be partakers of • Christ's most holy body and blood, if we are not in
charity with our own neighbour? Let us therefore lay • aside all discord, without hypocrisy; let us lay aside * all malice, without dissimulation ; let us all join to"gether in brotherly love; let us be of like affection one • towards another : but let us not be high-minded; let us
make ourselves equal to them of the lower sort. So • shall we make our bodies a quick and lively sacrifice. · So shall we make them acceptable unto God. So shall
we be reconciled unto God, and God reconciled unto • us. And finally, so shall we, which are called Christians, • be known to be God's servants and such as profess the .name of CHRIST, if we shall be found to have this peace
and brotherly love, which is the badge and cognizance • of CHRIST : and so shall God be ours and remain with for ever.
Amen.' About the time of the composition of this sermon, Jewell also drew up a paper of remarks on CARTWRIGHT's objections to the ecclesiastical offices of Archbishop and Archdeacon, designed for the use of WHITGIFT, and published in his Answer to the Admonition. Both the sermon and the remarks were bitterly reflected on by
i They are also preserved by STRYPE, Life of Whitgift, App. Book I.
CARTWRIGHT, after the writer's death; and as warmly defended by Whitgift.5
In 1567, Jewell was again in London, probably on occasion of the publication of his Defence of the Apology.' As usual he preached at Paul's Cross during his stay; and, as was almost equally a matter of course, his sermon was the occasion of a fresh attack by his old adversaries. h
In 1571, he attended the Convocation held in April, and took a decided part in the resistance made to the encroachments of the Puritans. His motion for the publication of the Articles, which was connected with the archbishop's requisition of a general subscription; and his sermon at Paul's Cross, have been already mentioned.
Little more is known of the closing years of Jewell's life. Passed in a constant round of duty and close occupation, his days presented little interesting matier for the pen of the biographer. He had gathered a noble library of theological authors of every age and class. In this he spent almost all the time not employed in preaching or in episcopal visitations. He rose early, and after his devotions, was accustomed to shut himself in his library, where he was not easily to be seen until eight o'clock, when a bowl of broth, or an egg, was brought him for his breakfast. His dinner was plain, but plentifully set, and hospitably served to the guests and inmates of his family. For himself, his delicate
"They (the Puritans) will not stick in commending themselves to deface all others; yea, even that notable JEWELL, whose both labour and learning they do envy, and amongst themselves deprave; as I have heard with mine own ears, and a number more besides.
“For further proof whereof I do refer you to the report that this faction spread of him after his last sermon at St. Paul's Cross : because he did confirin the doctrine before preached by a famous and learned man touching obedience to the prince and the laws. It was strange to me to hear so notable a bishop, so learned a man, so stout a champion of true religion, so painful a prelate, so ungratefully and spitefully used by a sort of wavering, wicked, and wretched tongues :- but it is their manner, be ye never so well learned, never so painful, so zealous, so virtuous, all is nothing with them, but they will deprave you and spread false rumours, as though you were the vilest person upon earth.” Whitgift, as quoted by Isaacson, Life of Jewell, p. lxvi. Ixvii.
b In a work by DORMAN, entitled A Request to M. Jewell that he keep his promise made by sciemn protestation in his late Sermon at St. Paul's Cross, 15th June 1567, Louvain, 1567, 8vo.
health confined him to an extremely low and abstemious diet. The Bible in English was always read during the early part of this meal; the remainder was seasoned with the master's cheerful conversation and urbane attentions to his guests and dependents; or, not unfrequently, diversified by the literary exercises of his beneficiaries. Dinner ended, he devoted a stated portion of time to hearing causes, or arbitrating differences, if any offered. Study succeeded this employment. At nine in the evening, the whole family was assembled, and after · joint prayer he examined its members on the
in which they had passed the day, and reproved, rebuked, exhorted, or instructed them, singly or collectively, according to their need. His private devotions then closed the day, and he retired to bed, where he heard some favorite author read until he fell asleep.
Such was the even tenor of Jewell's course of unremitting toil. Under such continual wear, his body, never strong in constitution, fell into premature decay, and his useful life was terminated when he had hardly reached the borders of old age.
The end was befitting such a life. It would be injustice to give the account of it in any other than the quaint simplicity of his first English biographer.
“By his restless labours and watchful cares he brought his feeble body so low, that as he rode to preach at Lacock in Wiltshire, a gentleman friendly admonished him to return home for his health's sake, saying, that such straining his body in riding and preaching, being so exceeding weak and ill affected, might bring him in dan ger of his life ;' assuring him, "That it was better the people should want one sermon, than be altogether deprived of such a preacher. To whom he replieth, • It becometh best a bishop to die preaching in the pulpit:' alluding peradventure to the apopthegm of Vespasian, Oportet imperatorem stantem mori; (It behoveth an emperor to die standing ;) and seriously thinking upon the comfortable eulogy of his Master, Happy art thou, my servant, if when I come, I find thee so doing. Wherefore, that he might not deceive the people's expectation, he ascendeth the pulpit, and, now nothing but spirit (his flesh being pined away and exhausted,)