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Jesuitry-apparent moderation, but real duplicity, solicited Jewell to commence an argument, but artfully endeavored to throw on him the burden of proof; thus escaping the very gist of the challenge-an actual test of the whole strength of Popery. Jewell answered the allegations and charges contained in the letter, and showed the unfairness of its proposition, in a reply dated the 20th. The next Sunday, being the second Sunday before Easter, March 24th, 1560, he resumed the argument of the sermon delivered that day week, entered more fully into his discussion, and in conclusion, remarking on the fact that objections had been taken to his former challenge, he recapitulated that offer with the following remarkable addition :- "These words are “the very like, I remember, I spake here openly before ‘you all--and these be the things that some men say I have • spoken, and cannot justify. But I for my part will
not only not call in any thing that I then said, (being • well assured of the truth therein,) but also will lay
more matter to the same; that if they that seek occasion, have any thing to the contrary, they may have • the larger scope to reply against me.
Wherefore, besides all that I have said already, I • will say further-and yet nothing so much as might • be said, If any one of all our adversaries be able • clearly and plainly to prove, by such authority of the
Scriptures, the old doctors, and Councils, as I said be• fore, That it was then lawful for the priest to pro
nounce the words of consecration closely and in silence * to himself; Or that the priest had then authority to see
offer up Christ unto his Father ; Or to communicate •and receive the sacrament for another as they do; Or to apply the virtue of Christ's death and passion * to any man by the means of the mass; Or that it was “then thought a sound doctrine, to teach the people, • that the Mass ex opere operato, that is, even for that • it is said and done, is able to remove any part of our
sins Or that then any Christian man called the sacraóment his LORD and GoD; Or that the people was then taught to believe that the body of CHRIST remaineth in the sacrament as long as the accidents remain there • without corruption ; Or that a mouse, or any other worm or beast, may eat the body of CHRIST, (for so
some of our adversaries have said and taught;) Or that 6 when Christ said Hoc est corpus meum, this word • Hoc pointeth not the bread, but individuum vagum,
as some of them say ; Or that the accidents, or forms, or shows, or bread and wine, be the sacrament of •Christ's body and blood, and not rather the very bread • and wine itself; Or that the sacrament is a sign or • token of the body of Christ that lieth hidden under
neath it ; Or that ignorance is the mother and cause of • true devotion and obedience :—these be the highest
mysteries and greatest keys of their religion, and • without them their doctrine can never be maintained • and stand upright:—if any one of all our adversaries • be able to avouch any one of all these articles, by any • such sufficient authority of Scriptures, doctors, or
Councils, as I have required—as I said before, so say • I now again, I am content to yield unto him, and to • subscribe. But I am well assured that they shall never
be able truly to allege one sentence. And because I • know it, therefore I speak it, lest ye haply should be • deceived." Thus, in the very spirit of Paul, Jewell completed
FAMOUS CHALLENGE,” in twenty-seven articles, and stood forth before the world the pledged defender of the Protestant faith as opposed to the corruptions of Rome.
The correspondence with Dr. COLE, its immediate result, continued. Three letters passed on either side, and after private circulation for some time, were collected by Jewell, and published, toward the close of the year, together with the sermon that occasioned then, written from memory as it was preached the second time.
d Sermon at Paul's Cross, &c.— Works p. 58. ¢ Compare 2 Cor. iv. 13-15.
The work was entitled, True Copies of the Letters between the Rev. Father John, Bishop of Sarum, and D. Cole, upon uccasion of a Sermon preached by the Bishop before the Queen, &c. London, Day, 1560, 8vo. The Sermon was also published separately, in 8vo. without date.
In the letter which closed this correspondence, Jewell adopted the mode, afterwards continued in his controversies with HARDING, of inserting his adversary's piece at length, paragraph by paragraph, and immediately subjoining to each paragraph his own reply. A fairer, surely, never was devised !
But the interest and importance of this opening controversy were absorbed in those of greater magnitude which followed. After an interval of nearly four years, HARDING,& Jewell's former schoolfellow, then a member of the college of Jesuits at Louvain, issued an ela. borate production under the title of An Answer to Mr. Jewell's Challenge, in which he assumed the air of a triumphant defender of Rome's assaulted fortress. The time consumed in preparation indicates the effort made to provide at least a specious show of the evidence required by Jewell. Accordingly, the Answer was cried up as an irrefragable assertion of the faith of Rome, and under the shadow of its wings the minor assailants who had until then hung aloof from combat, ventured to come forth. RASTELL published his Confutation of a Sermon pronounced by Mr. Jewell at Paul's Crossi the same year, and foHowed it up with a Copy of a Challenge taken out of the Confutation, &c. the next. Early in 1565, HESKYNS' issued his Parliament of Christ, &c. concerning the Sacrament, impugned in a Sermon by John Jewell;m and NICHOLAS HARPESFIELD,
& THOMAS (not, as ISAACSON and Middelton erroneously call him, John) HARDING, was like Jewell, a native of Devonshire ; was sometime sa schoolfellow with him; and finally entered the same college. He was admitted fellow of New College in 1536, took his degree of M. A. in 1542, and was soon after appointed the first Regius Professor of Hebrew in the University. While Edward reigned he made much show of zeal for the Reformation, and even, in prospect of the young king's death, exhorted others to prepare for persecution. Yet on Mary's accession, he immediately recanted, and was rewarded with a prebendal stall in Winchester, and, in 1555, with the treasurership of Salisbury Cathedral of the latter post he was dispossessed under Jewell's visitation, being succeeded by John Lancaster, who had lost the bishopric of Kildare, in Ireland, under Mary, because he had a wife. Harding soon after retired to Louvain, and entered the Jesuits' college, where he employed himself in his controversial writings against Jewell-all that he ever published. He died, about the age of 60, at Antwerp, in 1572.
" Printed at Louvain, in 4to., in 1564. | Antwerp, 1564.
Antwerp, 1565, 8vo. 1 He had been Chancellor of the diocese of Salisbury a few months in the close of 1558, but was displaced at the accession of Elizabeth. He then went beyond seas. Wood, Fasti. p. 64.
m Printed, like the foregoing, at Antwerp. Vol. III.-F
under the borrowed name of ALAN COPE ;1 MARTIAL; SAUNDERS; and STAPLETON, indirectly answered Jewell's challenge in works on other subjects. The intrepid challenger, in the meanwhile, was very far from idle : leaving the lesser assailants to other hands, he promptly met the most formidable antagonist, in his Reply unto M. Harding's Answer, by perusing whereof the discreet and diligent reader may easily see the weak and unstable grounds of the Roman Religion, which of late hath been accounted Catholic, folio, 1565;9 having previously laid
open his intended plan, in a sermon at Paul's Cross, on the 8th of July." In this work he followed the method previously adopted in his correspondence with COLE-republishing all his adversary's remarks, and subjoining to each his own reply. Seldom has a single work united in itself more learning, close argu. ment, and keen wit, than were displayed in this voluminous production; it is a complete and most masterly
This COPE was of Magdalen College, Oxford, and Proctor of the University in 1558. He left England in 1560, and going to Rome, became a Canon of St. Peter's Church. The book referred to under his name by JEWELL and HUMPHREY, was no doubt Dialogi Sex contra Summi Pontificatus, Monasticæ Vitæ, Sanctorum, Sacrarum Imaginum, Oppugnatores et Pseudo-Martyres, Antw. 4to., 1566, which was written by HARPESFIELD, then in England, but published under the name of COPE, that the obloquy might fall on the latter, then abroad and out of harm's way.--.Wood.
• So HUMPHREY and Wood spell the name.-JOHN MARTIAL, B.C.L. published A Treatise of the Cross, gathered out of the Seriptures, Councils, and ancient Fathers of the Primitive Church, London, 1564, 8vo. It was answered by JOHN CALFhill, an eminent Oxford scholar, and prominent member of the Convocation of 1562-3.Martial defended himself in a Reply to M. Calfhill's blasphemous Answer, &c. 1566.
P STAPLETON, indeed seems to have had Jewell alone in view, in his Return of Untruths against M. Jewell, published at Antwerp in 1566.-Wood says that he settled himself at Louvain purposely to answer Jewell.
SAUNDERS' reply was contained in his Treatise of the Images of Christ and his Saints, being a Confutation of Mr. Jewell's Reply upon that subject.-Louvain, 1567, 8vo.
9 The 'Reply' was translated into Latin by the celebrated WHITAKER, and printed at Oxford in 1578, in 4to., and again in folio, at Cambridge, in 1585.
r On which HARDING published some remarks under the titleAnswer touching certain 'Untruths Mr. Jewell charged him with in his late Sermon at Paul's Cross, 8th July, 1565. Antwerp, 1565, 410.
demolition of every thing brought by HARDING to meet the bold challenge of the author. The Romish champion, however, was not to be thus silenced. Many passages of his writings show that personal feeling intermingled itself in large proportion with attachment to his cause, and that jealousy of the junior schoolfel. low who had so far outstripped him in the lists of fame and dignity, with ill-will to the Visiter who had joined in his deposition from his prebend, were not the least among his inducements to zeal and perseverance in controversy. With these feelings, he could not brook the manifest superiority in argument, and severely galling tone of calm and undisturbed confidence in the goodness of his cause, which appeared in Jewell's Reply.' No time was lost in the preparation of a
Rejoinder,' the very title of which contains a sufficient indication of its bitterness of spirit :-A Rejoinder to M. Jewell's Reply: by perusing whereof the discreet and diligent reader may easily see the answer to part of his insolent Challenge justified, and his Objections against the Mass, whereat the priest sometimes receiveth the holy mysteries without present company to receive with him, for that cause by Luther's School called Private Mass, clearly confuted, Antwerp, 1566, 4to. This was followed up in 1567 by another Rejoinder to Mr. Jewell's Reply against the Sacrifice of the Mass, printed in 4to, at Louvain. I do not find that Jewell took any notice of either of these works. Probably their tone prevented him : following the rule afterwards laid down by his illustrious beneficiary, HOOKER, he would have found it impossible to answer books composed not of argument and railing,' but of railing for argument.'—Besides, he had found full employment in another and even more important controversy.
The history of his Apology has been already given in the Preface : it is sufficient, therefore, here to remark that the composition and publication of that work filled the interval between the termination of the correspon. dence with Cole and the appearance of HARDING'S Answer to the challenge; and that the appearance of HARDING's Confutation of the Apology, in 1565, furnished full occupation for Jewell's whole leisure and abilities, until within about a year of his decease.