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labors and privations, he complained on his return of the fatigues he had experienced-fatigues not a little enhanced by the nature of the business in which he was engaged, and by the melancholy state of things which the researches of the visiters brought to light. A great increase of superstition-an astonishing multitude and variety of its preposterous manifestations and implements, votive offerings and relics—a general aversion in the ecclesiastics to every'species of
reform-and gross corruptions practised and encouraged in the cathedrals; are mentioned by Jewell as the predominating characteristics of the scenes in which he had been conversant. He adds an item which must be mentioned with regret, as one of the weaknesses into which even the greatest sometimes fall, as if to show that they are but fallible mortals—the prevalence of witchcraft and incantations, of which he speaks in such terms as plainly show that he firmly believed in their reality : ind d, so deep was the impression made on him by these supposed abominations, that he embraced an early opportunity of mentioning them in a sermon before the queen, and is supposed to have been mainly instrumental in the passage of the law of 1562, which, for the first time in England, made sorcery a penal offence. It is gratifying to turn from this blemish to the record of the diligence with which Jewell exerted himself, in the course of this fatiguing routine of inquisitorial duties, to displace error by imparting truth-literally preaching the word in season and out of season, reproving, rebuking, and exhorting with all long-suffering,' and in meekness instructing those that opposed themselves ;' and to the candor with which, relating the expulsion of some minor dignitaries by the visiters, and mentioning Hard
STRYPE, Annals, I. p. 6. -Jewell's expression in his account of his visitation to P. Martyr is, “magarum et veneficarum numerus ubique in immensum excreverat.” The passage in his sermon before the queen, is to be found in his Works, folio, p. 204.-It must be observed, in extenuation of his weakness, that it was the common belief of his day—so much so, that the prevalence of 'witchcraft, sorvery, incantations, and magical arts,' was a subject of inquiry at the visitations of several of his contemporary bishops; and that after all, the acts specified appear to have worn the aspect rather of a political crime-a species of conspiracy against the existing government--than of a spiritual transgression.
ing as among their number, he characterized that bitter opponent as a constant man, who preferred losing his place to changing his opinion.''
While occupied in these duties, Jewell was elected bishop of Salisbury, on the 21st of August, as stated above. Yet some time elapsed before he assumed the office and its duties, even subsequently to his return to London, which was on the 30th of October. His letters during that interval show that he was by no means satisfied with all the measures of the men in power. He complains of the disposition to humor the Romish clergy, by attaching undue importance to the regulations concerning vestments of the pertinacious adherence of the lower ecclesiastics to their darling rites and superstitions, and the slight efforts made for their subversion and of the miserable condition of the univer-sities. He even dissuaded Peter Martyr from accepting an invitation to return to England, on the ground that his efforts to do good would be thwarted, and himself neglected, if not discountenanced."-But, notwithstanding these subjects of discontent, his usefulness continued, and his reputation grew. On the 26th of November, he preached a second time at St. Paul's cross; when it is expressly mentioned that his fame drew together a very great auditory:'w and again, on the 5th of December, he preached at the funeral of the dutchess of Suffolk ; an appointment which was considered very honourable, and was so fulfilled as to win much commendation from the hearers.'
The royal assent to his election was at length given, on the 27th of December: it was confirmed on the 18th of January 1559–60; and on the 21st he was consecrated, at the same time with Young, bishop of St. David's, Bullingham of Lincoln, Davis of St. Asaph, and Guest, (one of the revisers of the Book of Common Prayer, and a fellow disputant with Jewell in the conference of March, 1559,) of Rochester. Still, although
u “Homo constans locum mutare maluit, quam sententiam.” Ep.' ad. P. Mart. Nov. 2, 1559.
Letters to P. Martyr, of Nov. 21, Ah, and 16th, 1559. W STRYPE, Annals, I. 137.
STRYPE, Annals, I. 193 s. y Parkhurst, Jewell's old tutor, was at that time bishop elect of Vorwich, but was not consecrated until July 14th,
the spiritual grade was thus conferred, the royal recognition, accompanied with what is called the Restitution of the Temporalities, had not yet taken place; and so ill were the due limits of civil power in things spiritual then defined, that Jewell did not yet consider himself certain of the enjoyment of his new dignity. Only a
fortnight after his consecration, he writes to P. Martyr, see
that the retention of a crucifix in the queen's private chapel had given rise to much dispute, and was regarded with alarm by the warmest friends of reformation, as tending to warrant greater abuses ; that a formal dispu
tation was to be held on the subject, in which Parker Aul and Cox (then bishop of Ely) would defend the queen's Spractice, while he and Grindal should oppose it; and
that for this step he expected to lose his bishopric. So precarious did he even then think its tenure ! and so little did the dignity of office weigh with him, in opposition to the love of truth, and a sense of duty !
It is not recorded whether the proposed disputation was ever held. At all events the anticipated result did not take place. Jewell was enthroned at Salisbury on the 6th of March, and had restitution of the temporalities of his see on the 6th of April, 1560.
In the interval between these formalities occurred one of the most important events of Jewell's life-certainly that which more than any other contributed to bring him before the nation as the boldest and most uncompromising of the foes of Rome—his challenge at Paul's cross. On the 17th of March, 1559-60, he
2 These dates are derived from RYMER's Acta, as quoted by Mr. ISAACSON.
* There is a very curious difficulty attending the date of this celebrated sermon. HUMPHREY, Jewell's earliest biographer-STRYPEand the printed copy of the sermon itself, agree in asserting that it was preached on the second Sunday before Easter, in the year 1560. The published correspondence between Dr. Cole and Jewell
, to which it gave occasion, bears evidence that it was preached on Sunday the 17th of March, before the court; since in Cole's first letter, dated the 18th, he speaks of it as 'preached yesterday in the court.'—In themselves, these dates do not appear necessarily inconsistent. But, 1) Strype mentions Jewell's sermon on the 17th of March before the court, and that on the second Sunday before Easter at Paul's cross, as distinct performances :-) all authorities represent the challenge at Paul's cross, as given in the year 1560; now the computation of time used in Jewell's day, and followed by STRYPE and HUMPHREY, com
preached at that place, before the court; in his episcopal robes. The sermon was directed against the master error of the Church of Rome, its perversion of the sacrament of the Eueharist; and in particular, against its celebration in the Latin tongue, its administration in one kind, its proposition for adoration by the people, 1822. and its use by the priest alone, or in the form of private
These points discussed, the preacher concluded with the following offer : “If any learned man
of all our adversaries, or if all the learned men that
may be clearly proved, that there was any Private • Mass in the whole world at that time, for the space of
six hundred years after Christ; Or that there was then any communion ministered unto the people under one • kind; Or that the people had their Common Prayers " then in a strange tongue, that they understood not; Or • that the bishop of Rome was then called an Universal Bishop, or the Head of the universal Church ; Or that the people was then taught to believe that Christ's body is really, substantially, carnally or naturally, in the sacrament; Or that his body is, or may be, in a thousand places or more at one time; Or that the
menced the year with the 22d of March; which would make a sermon preached on the 17th fall in 1559, not 1560 :-and, 3) Easter day, in the year 1560, came on the 7th of April; which would make the 17th of March the third, not the second Sunday before Easter.— The account given in the printed sermon itself, and closely followed in the text, though, as far as I know, never before observed, reconciles these seeming contradictions. It plainly shows that the challenge was made at two several times, in sermons of similar purport and construction ; that when first made, it contained only fifteen articles; that clamors were immediately raised against it; and that Jewell then repeated it, adding twelve more articles, thus completing the number usually mentioned. The controversy with Cole was begun on occasion of the first sermon; but the superior celebrity of the second, delivered on a public occasion ; and the fact that Jewell chose it, as the most complete, for publication; have always kept the other out of sight,
Mr. Isaacson, (Life, p. xliv.) followed by MiddelTON, (Memoirs of the Reformers, III. 363,) has committed the double error of placing the sermon at Paul's cross on the Sunday before Easter, and dating that Sunday March 30th-the very day on which Jewell wrote his answer to Dr. Cole's second letter, and withal, a Saturday,
priest did then hold up t] the sacrament over his head Or that the people did then fall down and worship.it • with godly honour ; Or that the sacrament was then, or
now ought to be, hanged up under a canopy; Or that • in the sacrament after the words of consecration there • remaineth only the accidents and shows, without the substance, of bread and wine; Or that the priest then divided the sacrament in three parts, and afterward * received himself all alone; or that whosoever had said • the sacrament is a figure, a pledge, a token, or a remembrance, of Christ's body, had therefore been judged for a heretic; Or that it was lawful then to have • 30, 20, 15, 10, or 5 masses said in one chureh, in one day; Or that images was then set up in the churches,
to the intent the people might worship them; Or that • the lay people was then forbidden to read the word of • God in their own tongue :—if any man alive be able to prové any of these articles by any one clear or plain clause or sentence, either of the Scriptures, or of the • old doctors, or of any old General Council, or by any • example of the primitive Church ; I promise that I will "give over and subscribe unto him."
The very next day brought an answer to this bold challenge, and thus commenced the series of controversies in which Jewell continued involved, almost to his dying day. Dr. HENRY COLE,« a zealous and distinguished papist, in a letter breathing the very spirit of
• Thus the first challenge is recapitulated in the second sermon, as printed in his Works, p. 58.
· COLE had already made himself infamously eminent by the part he took in the disgraceful scene called a disputation, between himself and
his fellow judges, and Cranmer and Ridley, in the divinity school at Oxford; and by preaching the sermon at the martyrdom of the archbishop. He had also been the prominent man in the conference in March 1558–9, where, however, neither his abilities nor his learning appeared to much advantage.
He was admitted fellow of New College, Oxford, in 1523; studied civil law; and subsequently travelled several years in Italy. In 1542, he was chosen Warden of his college. During the reign of Edward he professed much attachment to the Reformation, attended the lectures of Peter Martyr, and even preached the reformed doctrine. In 1544, (the 2d of Mary,) he was made Provost of Eton College, and D. D.; and was soon after appointed one of the commissioners to visit Cambridge with inquisitorial powers and office. The Deanery of St. Paul's was conferred on him in 1556, but taken from him again soon after the conference in 1558-9. He died a prisoner on parole in 1579,