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with Martyr's life. He attended all the Professor's lectures, taking full notes— so full,' says HUMPHREY, * that they almost amount to a commentary on the Epistles to the Corinthians and that to the Romans.' On his preaching, also, Jewell was no less diligent in his attention, and endeavours to preserve what he heard. He even acted as Martyr's notary, or shorthand writer, on occasion of the public dispute between him and Chedsey, Tresham, and Morgan, in May, 1549 : thus affording a proof, not only of the confidence placed in him by Martyr, and of his expertness in the business of reporting, or taking notes; but also of his decided attachment to the principles of Reformation, and boldness in avowing them ;—for Martyr had, but a short while previously, been under the necessity of temporary flight from the University to save his life, in the commencement of the very same dispute.
About or before this time, Jewell must have received holy orders, since HUMPHREY has preserved the outline of a sermon which he delivered to the students in the absence of Peter Martyr, some time before he took his degree of Bachelor in Divinity ; and the sermon preached as an exercise for that degree was delivered on the Sunday after Ascension, in 1550. This last sermon is also preserved by HUMPHREY, nearly entire, and furnishes a specimen both of eloquent Latin composition, and of faithful statement of the fundamental principles of Gospel truth, in the highest degree creditable to its author. The text is 1 Peter iv. 11.
Jewell's situation at this period, as to pecuniary matters, was little better than in the earlier stages of his college life. It is recorded that a Dr. Curtop, a fellow of his college, and warmly attached to Peter Martyr, assisted him with an annual stipend of forty shillings; and that he received six pounds per annum for the purchase of theological books from Richard Chambers, a munificent individual, who liberally expended his own time and money, and contributions which he procured from others, in the patronage of learning and the principles of the Reformation in both universities. It was at a lecture supported by this gentleman, that Jewell addressed the scholars in the absence of Peter Martyr, as mentioned above,
The office of Lecturer on the Sentences, a sort of Professorship of Scholastical Divinity, which he received from the University in 1550, and that of preacher and catechist at Sunningwell, a small parish in the neighbourhood of Oxford, while they materially increased Jewell's duties, were probably desirable as aids towards his support. It is, however, expressly stated by his biographers that the stipend of the latter office was very small, and would have been no compensation for his labour, had not higher motives induced him to accept the situation, as an opportunity of doing good, though in an humble sphere. Once a fortnight, notwithstanding his lameness, he walked out to his little cure, and spent a day in assiduous endeavours to spread the knowledge of salvation through Christ alone among both old and young, by faithful sermons, and plain, affectionate catechetical instructions.
Beside these properly parochial labours, Jewell's anxiety to advance his Master's cause by winning souls, suffered him to lose no opportunity of preaching, either privately in his college, or before the university; and he is said to have done both frequently, although, with the exception of the discourses already mentioned, an English oration in commemoration of the founder of his college, and the text (James i. 21) of one other sermon, no relics of his labours are preserved. The accession of Queen Mary, in 1553, brought other times and occupations. The Popish doctrines had never been entirely rooted out from Oxford, however thoroughly the strong hand of power had suppressed their cognate practices. The strenuous exertions of Peter Martyr, Jewell, and the few like-minded with them, had accomplished little more than the dissemination of purer religion among the younger portion of the members of the University. Most of the heads of colleges and fellows were, at heart, attached to the faith which they had imbibed in infancy and inseparably associated with all their acquirements and opinionsalthough not a few had servilely pretended compliance and consent with the prevailing principles. These men-and more especially the latter class—wanted only opportunity to wreak their vengeance upon the individuals who had been so active in subverting their
religion, destroying their influence and hold upon popular opinion, and reducing them to the hard alter. native of silent submission to the adverse current, or mean prevarication. The time was now come. A bigoted favourer of their opinions had succeeded to the throne with hardly a show of opposition. They were sure of countenance in whatever measures they might take to humble and distress their late triumphant adversaries; and might even claim thanks for vengeance done in their personal quarrel, as a meritorious exhibi. tion of their zeal for the true Church.
Jewell, as one of the most zealous and able propagators of the obnoxious doctrines, was among the first who experienced the effects of the altered state of things. Almost immediately on the reception of the news of the queen's accession, before any public measures on the subject of religion had been originated, the head and fellows of his college hastily concerted his expulsion, according to FULLER, on the pretext that he refused to assist in the celebration of mass, which they had already restored; but more probably, on the charges mentioned by his biographers--that he was a follower of Peter Martyr; that he had taught the new doctrines; and that he had been ordained by the new ritual established in the reign of Edward. His public collegiate engagements were thus brought to a close. He resigned them in a pathetic valedictory, of which the conclusion has been preserved, and may serve to give some idea of his feelings at the time, as well as of the ability with which they had been fulfilled.
“ I see,” he said, that I have incurred the ill-will and malign regards of some. How far I have deserved them, let them answer. Certainly, they who will not suffer me here, would not allow me to live, were it at their option. For my part, I yield to the times : and if those men derive gratification from my calamities, I oppose no obstacle. I adopt the prayer of Aristides, when he went into exile and changed his country, that none may hereafter have cause to remember me : and what more can they desire ? Pardon me, I beseech you, young men, if I am grieved at being torn by force
d Church History, as quoted by Isaacson,
from a place where my early years were spent, where I have passed my life, where I have enjoyed some degree of consideration! But why do I delay the one word which consummates my misery? Wo is that speaking it at last with anguish, I must bid farewell to my studies, to these roofs, to this polished seat of learning, to your loved society ! Farewell, young men ! Farewell, striplings ! Farewell, Fellows; farewell, brothers ; farewell, beloved as mine eyes ! Farewell, all! Farewell !”
There is more of tenderness, and unresisting submission to ill-treatment, in this passage, than of bold determination to suffer in the cause of truth. The same observation applies to the whole of Jewell's subsequent conduct.
His past activity and eminent abilities excluded the hope of being suffered to pass unnoticed in the new order of things, on condition merely of silence and retirement. He was a marked man, and must expect to furnish an example of the treatment destined for his party. Yet he appears to have avoided this unenviable eminence as long, and as carefully, as possible. To his expulsion, as he declares in the passage quoted, he opposed no obstacle, but quietly retired to Broadgates Hall, another university foundation, where, for the time, he was suffered to find an asylum, and busied himself in the instruction of pupils whom his reputation still attracted round him. Even when, almost immediately after his expulsion, he was chosen by the University for its orator, probably with a view to the congratulatory address to be made to Mary on her accession, and, as it seems hardly possible not to suspect, with the very design of ensnaring him into some inconsistency or imprudence in the discharge of that delicate duty ;-even then, he appears to have made no effort to decline the dangerous and insidious honour. Still less did he embrace the opportunity it afforded for a manly, though hazardous, avowal of his principles. On the contrary, his gifted pen was employed in the expression of congratulations and hopes which could hardly have been sincere on the part of the writer; although some palliation is afforded by the fact that he, in common with many others, was at the time deluded by the false promises of the queen,
made at her accession, and sedulously propagated by her emissaries, that she would make no alteration in the state of religion.
This compliance, however humiliating and distressing, did not yet satisfy the enemies of Jewell. They had resolved that he should drink the cup of bitterness to the dregs; and were but too successful. The odious office of Inquisitor was established in the University; and as one of the most suspected, Jewell was among the first subjects of its exercise. A list of the distinguishing articles of the Romish faith was offered him, as a test of
his freedom from heretical pravity,' and his signature required, with the customary alternative-imprisonment, and ultimately death. The trial was too hard for him : he dared not refuse ; but to conceal, if possible, even from himself, the baseness of subscription to articles which he was known to disbelieve, he affected to turn the matter into jest, and exclaiming with a smile · What, must I write? will the sight of my hand-writing give you such pleasure ? have you set it so much to heart to see how well I can write ?--he signed.
Even this was not enough. The very manner of Jewell's subscription gave evidence that he was not sincere ; and it is not unlikely, that his after-thoughts vented themselves in expressions of regret or disgust. Certain it is, that remorse on his part, and renewed persecution by his enemies, speedily followed up the degrading compliance. MARSHALL, then Dean of Christ Church, himself an apostate, was the willing instrument of the machinations now carried on against the life of the intended victim, and despatched a letter of accusation to Bonner-the bloody Bonner,' bishop of London.Jewell providentially learned the fact, just in time to flee for his life. On foot, alone, in every respect unprovided for his journey, he left Oxford in the evening, to travel up to London. He took a by-road, and to that circumstance owed his escape from persons already commissioned to apprehend him. Most probably it was the road to Cleves, for thither he is said to have gone, in search of Parkhurst, whom he found already fled to London, and almost to have perished in the snow. That he did nearly perish on the way from Oxford to London, is certain ; he was found lying on the earth in