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latter, those into French, Italian, Spanish, and Dutch, appeared before the publication of the Defence, and another in Germany was in all probability at least as early.*
It has been already mentioned that a translation of the “Apologia' into English almost immediately followed the work itself. This, which was printed in 4to., in 1562, was anonymous. It has been lately republished, in the seventh volume of the collection entitled The Fathers of the English Church, London, 1811. It is bald and spiritless, but generally faithful, though somewhat paraphrastic. Its rugged English, and uncouth phraseology, present a sad contrast with the smooth and flowing Latin of the original, and are greatly inferior to the style of JEWELL’s writings in his mother tongue.
These defects, it seems, were soon discovered : for in 1564, it was succeeded, and greatly surpassed, by the version now republished—the production of a lady!
1818: Amberg, 1606, 12mo, : Amsterdam, 1606: (so ISAACSON ; but qu? is it not an error for the Amberg edition, which he does not mention ?) Frankfort, 1617.
The 'Apologia' is also reprinted in Mocket's Doctrina et Politia Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ, 1618; and in the first volume of Bishop RANDOLPH's Enchiridion Theologicum, or Manual for the use of Students in Divinity.- In all of these editions which I have seen, not excepting the last, the references in the margin are exceedingly incorrect, and the division into paragraphs (there are no chapters or sections in the Latin work) is very faulty.
2 Collyer Eccles. Hist. II. 479. a Featly's Life of Jewell
, marg. note.—A Greek translation (of which Mr. ISAACSON names J. SMITH as the author,) was published at Oxford, in 8vo., in 1614; and again, together with the Latin, in 1639 : and another, in Welch, by MAURICE KYFfis at the same place, in 1571, and again, London, 1595.
b Mr. Isaacson attributes it to REINER WOLF, observing that Archbishop Parker had a considerable share in the work : (Life of Jewell,
But REYNOLD Wolf was the printer, not only of this transsation, but also of the original, on its first appearance. - Watts gives the earliest translation of the Apology to Archbishop PARKER; but as he describes it as printed both in 1562, and in 1564, the last of which dates can only apply to Lady Bacow's translation; it is altogether probable that the Archbishop's concern was the same in both, viz. a recommendatory letter prefixed to each, and signed 'M. Cant.'
Lady ANNE Bacon, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, and wife of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper of the Queen's Great Seal, had already displayed her learning and her zeal for the advancement of religious knowledge and the principles of the reformation, by a
- This lady was of a family truly illustrious, in the fullest import of the expression. Her father renowned for piety, learning, and every social virtue—her three sisters, Lady Burleigħ, Lady Russel, and Lady Catharine Killigrew, equalled only by herself in the combination of feminine accomplishments with masculine talents and endowments to an extent which procured for them the undivided homage of the learned and good, not only in their own, but in foreign countries—her husband a consummate statesman, firm in his country's confidence and high in his sovereign's esteem-her son the immortal leader in the paths of inductive philosophy :could mortal aspire to be more happy in the ties of consanguinity?
Lady Anne was the second daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, and born about the year 1528. The liberal education which her excellent father bestowed upon his children met with the most kindly reception, and early displayed extraordinary fruits. The translation of OCHIN'S Sermons from the Italian must have been executed before she had attained her twenty-second year, as it was published in 1550.
She became the second wife of Sir Nicholas Bacon, certainly before the year 1560, as Sir Francis Bacon, born in 1561, was her second son; yet probably not before the accession of Elizabeth, (1558,) since BALLARD, who is generally accurate, speaks of her translation of the Apology as made “soon after her marriage.” Her married life is described as having been remarkably domestic
, and crowned with almost perfect happiness, in the society of her husband and the education of her children. To her sedulous attention to this latter object, for which she was so eminently qualified, much of the success of her celebrated son has been attributed, and not without probability. The maternal anxiety, conjoined with masculine understanding and talent for business, with which she watched over her children's welfare, even after they had grown to man's estate, appears conspicuously in some letters to Anthony, her eldest son, while on his travels, after his father's death, which happened in 1579. It is true, the complaining tone of these letters, written under the apprehension of injurious consequences of her son's proceedings, has given occasion to the charge of querulousness, if not ill-temper. But the asperity of their style will be found to be common in similar writings of that age—the earnestness which produced it, is only to be regarded as evidence of the strength of a mother's affection.
Lady Bacon is supposed to have died about the commencement of the reign of James the First, at Gorhambury, in Kent, formerly her husband's residence.
The estimation in which she was held even in foreign countries, may be inferred from the fact that the celebrated Beza dedicated to her his Meditations on the Psalms,
translation from the Italian of the Sermons of BERNARD Ochin, published about the year 1550. As well skilled in the learned languages as in the Italian, she was fully able to enjoy the flowing eloquence of the Apology in its original form, and to appreciate the degree in which it lost by being exhibited in its first imperfect version. A desire to give the work its full efficacy in an English dress, by clothing its solid matter with an elegance of style corresponding in some measure with that of the original, was doubtless Lady. Bacon's motive for undertaking the labour of a new translation.
That accuracy, as well as elegance, was a principal object of her care, appears from the measures which she took on the completion of the work. A copy was submitted to Archbishop Parker, as the principal guardian of the doctrine of the Church, with a request for his revision; and another was sent to JEWELL, accompanied by an epistle in Greek, in which the learned authoress expressed her anxiety to have the
d The work was executed in conjunction with some other person, (probably her father,) as appears from the title : Certayne Sermons of the ryghte famous and excellent clerk, Master BARNARDINE OCHINE, born within the famous university of Siena in Italy, now also an example in thys life, for the faithful testimony of JESUS CHRISTE. Twenty-five Sermons translated into English from the Italian by a gentleman, and the last twenty-five by a young lady.' 8vo.
OCHIN, one of the most eloquent preachers of his day, was born at Sienna in Italy, in 1487. He entered the order of Capuchin friars, of which some have even considered him the founder, and became General of the Order in 1538. Eight years afterwards he embraced the principles of the reformation, and was under the necessity of going into voluntary exile, first to Geneva, afterwards to Strasburg: řhence he accompanied PETER MARTYR into England, and subsequently to Zurich, where he was appointed pastor of the Italian congregation in 1555. Here he soon fell into grievous errors on the subject of marriage, which brought on his expulsion in 1563. From Zurich he returned to Basle, and thence to Poland, where he either imbibed, or, as some contend, openly avowed what he had previously believed, the tenets of Socinianism. He died, miserably poor and neglected, aged 77, at Slaucow in Moravia, in the year 1564.
author's own approval of her work, that she might be certified of having in no point mistaken his meaning.
Both the prelates acceded to her request; and, it is said, on reading the translation, found it so correct that " they mended nothing, no not the least word:"_it must, however, be confessed that they might have found some occasion for the exercise of their critical abilities, had not a conviction of the general faithfulness of the version, or the press of other occupations, prevented a thoroughly accurate inspection; a few, though but a few, instances of mistranslation have been discovered, and are pointed out in the notes to this edition.
The Archbishop testified his approbation of the work, by committing it immediately to the press, and accompanied the present of a printed copy with the following letter, too interesting, both as the opinion of a competent judge respecting the merits of the translation, and as a tribute to the accomplished authoress, to be omitted.e
After a superscription to the Right Honourable, learned, and virtuous lady Anne Bacon, Matthew Cantuariensis [Archbishop of Canterbury] wisheth from God grace, honour, and felicity;' he told her, that According to her request, he had perused her
studious labour of translation, profitably employed in a "right commendable work. Whereof, for that it liked her to make him a judge, and for that the thing itself
had singularly pleased his judgment, and delighted his mind in reading it, he had right heartily to thank her • ladyship, both for her well thinking of him, and for the 4 comfort that it wrought in him. But far above these
• The copy in the text, it will be perceived, is in the form of an abstract. It is derived from BALLARD, (Memoirs of British Ladies &c. p. 133,) who borrowed it from STRYPE.
private respects, he was by greater causes enforced, not only to shew his rejoice of this her doing, but also to testify the same by this his writing prefixed before the work, to the commodity of others, and good encouragement of herself. That she had used her accustomed modesty, in submitting it to judgment; but therein her praise doubled, sith it had passed judgment without reproach. And whereas both the chief author of the Latin work, and he, severally perusing and conferring her whole translation, had without • alteration allowed of it, he was both to desire her • ladyship, and advertise the readers, to think that they had not therein given any thing to any dissembling affection towards her, as being contented to wink at • faults to please her, or to make her without cause 'to please herself. For that there were sundry respects to draw them from so doing, although they • had been so ill minded, as there was no cause why
they should be so thought of. That her own judgment in discerning flattery, her modesty in misliking it, the • laying open of their opinion to the world, the truth of
their friendship towards her, the unwillingness of them • both, in respect to their vocations, to have that public • work not truly and well translated, were good causes 'to persuade, that their allowance was of sincere truth • and understanding. That by her travail she expressed
an acceptable duty to the glory of God, deserved well of this Church of CHRIST, honourably defended the good • fame and estimation of her own native tongue, shewing • it so able to contend with a work originally written in • the most praised speech. That besides the honour done to her sex, and to the degree of ladies, she had • done pleasure to the author of the Latin book, in
delivering him by her clear translation, from the perils of ambiguous and doubtful constructions; and in