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in very deed eat the body of CHRIST ;h others again there be that steadfastly deny it. There be others that say, that the very accidentsi of bread and wine may nourish ; others again there be, which say that the substance of the bread returneth again by a miracle.k What need I say more? It were over long and tedious to reckon up all.'
So uncertain, and full of doubts, is yet the whole form of these men's religion and doctrine, even amongst themselves, from whom it sprang, and grew up first. For hardly at any time do they well agree between themselves: except it be peradventure as in times past the Pharisees and Sadducees ; or as Herod and Pilate accorded together against Christ.
Sect. 7. They were best, therefore, to go and set peace at home rather among themselves. Of a truth, unity and concord doth best become religion :" yet is not unity the sure and certain mark, whereby to know the Church of God. For there was the greatest unity
h GARDINER. [See Note 9 page 56.]
k [This long catalogue of absurd—in some cases, almost blasphemous discussions of questions neither profitable, nor capable of solution ; though made out by JEWELL for another purpose, furnishes of itself
, if not a proof, yet an exceeding strong presumption, against that doctrine (of transubstantiation), from which they all arise.]
| [To this list of disputes existing in the body of the Romish Church -which so falsely boasts of its unity as contrasted with the dissensions of Protestants—others even more fierce and important, which have arisen since the time of JEWELL, may be added.
The famous controversy between the Jesuits and Jansenists, for example, was as deep and deadly as any division existing among Protestants. The former maintained the free agency of man: the latter (called after JANSENIUS, a Flemish bishop, whose writings gave occasion to the dispute,) denied man's ability to work at all in his own salvation. Keen controversial writings-decrees of universities and faculties of theology-edicts of princes-solemn decisions of congregations of Cardinals—and pretended miracles-were mustered on either side. Finally the Pope and the king of France were ranged on the side of the Jesuits, and persecution and oppression, in their severest forms, put down the obnoxious Jansenism: although it is still more or less openly professed in many parts of Papist Europe.)
m (" The true and Christian unity is this : that the whole flock of Christ hear the voice of the only shepherd, and follow him. (John x. 4.) The band of unity is simple verity." —Defence, p. 330.]
that might be, amongst them that worshipped the golden calf, and among them which with one voice jointly cried against our Saviour Jesus Christ, “ Crucify him.”'u Neither, because the Corinthians were unquieted with private dissensions; or because Paul did square• with Peter, or Barnabas with Paul; or because the Christians, upon the very beginning of the gospel, were at mutual discord touching some one matter or other ; may we therefore think there was no Church of God amongst them. Aad for those persons whom they upon spite call Zuinglians and Lutherans, in very deed they of both sides be Christians, good friends and brethren. They vary not betwixt themselves upon the principles and foundations of our religion, nor as touching God, or CHRIST, or the Holy Ghost, or the means of justification, or of everlasting life ; but upon one only question, which is neither weighty nor great :neither mistrust we, or make doubt at all, but they will shortly be agreed. And if there be any of them which have other opinion than is meet, we doubt not but ere it be long they will put apart all affections, and names of parties ; and that God will reveal the truth unto them: so that by better considering and searching out of the matter, as once it came to pass in the Council of Chalcedon, all causes and seeds of dissension shall be thoroughly plucked up by the root, and be buried, and quite forgotten for ever, which God grant ! n Luke xxiii. 18.
[This word is here used in an obsolete sense; meaning 'to disagree-take opposite sides.')
p [That respecting the nature of the Sacrament of the Eucharistinvolving the manner of the presence of Christ in that rite, and the manner of the residence of his glorified body in heaven.]
9 [JEWELL's charitable hopes have been long unfulfilled. The dissensions between the Lutherans and the Reformed raged more fiercely than ever within fifty years after this was written; and even now, though they slumber, can hardly be said to be extinguished.)
(Jewell's hopes were—not that they would agree to disagree, not that they should amicably consent to encourage each other in what they reciprocally accounted error-but that they should be united in the truth. “Our trust in God," he says, "is, that they that are deceived shall find their own error, and alter their terms, and correct their judgments, and submit themselves unto the truth, and so join together all
So St. AUGUSTINE saith : ‘Recte dicitur, Glacialem nivem calidam esse non posse. Nullo enim pacto, quamdiu nix est, calida esse potest.'
Sect. 8. But this is the heaviest and most grievous part of their slanders—that they call us wicked and ungodly men, and say we have thrown away all care of religion. Though this ought not to trouble us much, whilst they themselves that thus have charged us, know full well how spiteful and untrue their slander is. JUSTIN the Martyr is a witness that all Christians were called äteol, that is, a godless people,s as soon as the gospel first began to be published, and the name of Christ to be openly declared. And when POLYCARP stood to be judged, the people stirred up the president to slay and inurder all them
which professed the gospel, with these words : Aipɛ toùs åéovs, that is to say, Rid out of the way
"It is well said, Snow frozen or congealed can never be hot. For as long as it is snow, it is not possible to make it hot. (Cont, Fortunat.) And yet the liquor that now is snow, may afterwards be resolved and made hot.
“What is there so contrary in judgment, as a Jew and a Christian ? Yet God hath promised, 'that he will turn the hearts of the fathers (the Jews) unto their children (the Christians): and the hearts of the children (the Christians) unto their fathers.' (Malachi iv. 6.) And St. Paul saith the Jews 'if they abide not in unbelief, shall be graffed in; for God is able to graff them in again.' (Rom. xi. 23.) What is there so contrary as light and darkness? Yet the prophet saith, 'the LORD my God will enlighten my darkuess.' (Ps. xviii. 28.) To conclude : what is so contrary, as the kingdom of the Pope, and the kingdom of Christ? Yet we trust, it is not impossible, but the Pope himself may once turn to God, and confess his errors, and profess the gospel of CHRIST, that he now oppresseth."-Defence, p. 331.]
[Absol kekinueda. Just. MART. Apol. I. $6. Δημοσια καταμαρτυρει, ώς άθεων και ασεβων Χριστιανων οντων. Ιd. Apol. II. 63.
Justin, surnamed from the manner of his death the Martyr, is the earliest Apologist (or writer in defence) of Christianity whose works are extant.
He was a native of Neapolis, in Palestine, but educated in the Grecian philosophy, with which he became deeply imbued, being specially attached to the sect of Plato. He was converted to Christianity, at a mature age, about A.D. 132. His First Apology for the Christians was presented to the emperor ANTONINUS Pius, about the year 150, to avert the persecution under which the Christians were then labouring. The Second Apology was addressed, according to Eusebius, to the emperor MARCUS AURELIUS, and to the Roman Senate. It was designed to answer several common objections against Christianity, and occasioned by the martyrdom of three persons whom URBINUS, prefect of ome, had put to death solely because they were Cnristians.
Both these treatises are invaluable, as portraits of the faith and discipline of the Church in the middle of the second century, and as records of the difficulties with which the gospel had to struggle in its progress, and the nature of its influence and success.]
these wicked and godless creatures. And this was, not because it was true, that the Christians were godless indeed, but because they would not worship stones and stocks, which then were honoured as God.
The whole world seeth plainly enough already, what we and ours have endured at these men's hands for religion and our only God's cause. They have thrown us into prison, into water, into fire, and have imbrued themselves in our blood : not because we were either adulterers, or robbers, or murderers, but only for that we confessed" the gospel of Jesus Christ, and putour confidence in the living God; and for that we complained, too justly and truly, (LORD, thou knowest !) that they did break the law of God for their own most vain traditions, and that our adversaries were the very foes to the gospel and enemies to Christ's cross, so wittingly, and willingly, and obstinately, despising God's commandments.
Wherefore, when these men saw they could not rightly find fault with our doctrine ; they would needs pick a quarrel, and inveigh and rail, against our manners; surmising that we do condemn all well doings : that we set open the door to all licentiousness and lust, and lead away the people from all love of virtue.
Sect. 9. And in very deed, the life of all men, even of the devoutest and most Christian, both is, and evermore
[JEWELL’s memory appears to have deceived him when he made this quotation. The main fact, indeed, that the Christians were reproached as Atheists, is correct. But the reproach did not come, as he asserts, frorn the infuriate multitude. It was proposed to POLYCARP himself, by the Proconsul before whom he was tried, as a sort of test. " " Recant,' he said; 'say, Away with the Atheists.' Then POLYCARP, looking sternly at the whole multitude in the stadium, and shaking his hand at them, groaned and looked up to heaven, and said, ' Away with the Atheists." The reproach which the Proconsul wished him to cast upon the Christian name, he applied, as was more fit, to the heathen mob.—The passage is from the Epistle of the Church of Smyrna relative to the martyrdom of POLYCARP, quoted by Eusebius, Eccles. Hist. Lib. iv. cap. 15.
POLYCARP was martyred A. D. 167, or according to Bishop PEAR
*'[Confessed-made profession of. In this sense, such among the ancient Christians as endured persecution, without actually suffering martyrdom, for their faith, were called Confessors.
The word is similarly used in Matt, x. 32, and the parallel passages, and 1 Tim. vi. 13.)
hath been, such as one may always find some lack, even in the very best and purest conversation. And such is the inclination of all creatures unto evil, and the readiness of all men to suspect, that the things which neither have been done, nor once were meant to be done, yet may be easily both heard and credited to be true. And like as a small spot is sooner espied in the neatest and whitest garment, even so the least stain of dishonesty is easily found out in the purest and sincerest' life. Neither take we all them which have at this day embraced the doctrine of the gospel, to be angels, and to live clearly without any mote or wrinkle: nor yet think we these men neither so blind, that if any thing may be noted in us, they are not able to perceive the same even through the least crevice; nor so friendly, that they will construe aught to the best; nor yet so honest of nature or courteous, that they will look back
themselves, and weigh our lives by their own.
If so be we list to search this matter from the bottom, we know that in the very Apostles' times there were Christians, through whom the name of the LORD was blasphemed and evil spoken of among the Gentiles. Constantius the emperor bewaileth, as it is written in Sozomenus, that many waxed worse and worse, after they had fallen to (joined] the religion of Christ. And Cyprian, in a lamentable oration setting out the corrupt manners of his time : “The wholesome discipline,” saith he," which the Apostles left unto us, hath idleness and long rest now utterly marred.” •Every one studied to increase his livelihood ; and clean forgetting, either what they had done before, whilst they were under the Apostles, or what they ought continually to do, having received the faith ; they earnestly laboured to make great their own wealth, with an insatiable desire of covetousness.' “There is no devout religion,” saith he, “ in priests, no sound faith in ministers ; no charity showed
[The sense now generally attached to the word 'sincere' is that of freedom from deceit-frankness. Jewell here uses it in the old sense of freedom from corruption-purity. This is worthy of remark, as the same sense belongs to the word in Phil. i. 10; 1 Pet. Ü. 2; Phil. i. 16 (not sincerely not from pure motives); 1 Cor. v. 8 (pureness of life); 2 Cor. i. 12; ii. 17 (as of sincerity — from pure motives-with a pure conscience); Tit
. ii. 7: passages which would be misunderstood, if the word were taken in its modern acceptation.