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deed, sometime saith there is such a certain place;« sometime he denieth not but there may be such an one ;" sometime he doubteth :" sometime again he utterly denieth that there is any at all, and thinketh that men are therein deceived by a certain natural good will they bear their friends departed. But yet of this one error hath there grown up such a harvest of those Massmongers, that the masses being sold abroad commonly in every corner, the temples of God became shops, to get money; and silly souls were born in hand [persuaded] that nothing was more necessary to be bought. Indeed, there was nothing more gainful for these men to sell !

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u AUGUSTINUS in Psalm. 85.

“ Tale aliquid, etiam post hanc vitam fieri, incredibile non est : et utrum ita sit, quæri potest.” “That some such thing may be even after this life, is not incredible : and whether it be so, may be a question." Aug. ad Laurent. cap. 67. To the same effect, De Civitate Dei. Lib. xxi. c. 26. De Fide et Operibus. c. 16.

“Quis sit iste modus, et quæ sint ista peccata, quæ ita impediant perventionem ad regnum Dei, ut tamen sanctorum amicorum meritis impetrent indulgentiam, difficillimum est invenire; periculosissimum definire :

: ego certe usque ad hoc tempus, cum inde satagerem, ad eorum indaginem pervenire non potui." " What mean is this, and what sins there be, which so let a man from coming unto the kingdom of God, that they may notwithstanding obtain pardon by the merits of holy friends, it is very hard to find; and very dangerous to determine: certainly I myself

, notwithstanding great study and travail taken in that behalf

, could never attain to the knowledge of it.” De Civitate DEI. Lib. xxi. cap. 27.

* [" Primum locum fides catholicorum, divina authoritate, regnum credit esse cælorum unde non baptizatus excipitur : secundum, gehennam ; ubi omnis apostata, et a Christi fide alienus, æterna supplicia experietur: tertium penitus ignoramus; imo, nec esse in Scripturis sanctis inveniemus." "The first place, the catholic faith, by divine authority, believeth to be the kingdom of heaven; from whence whosoever is not baptized is excluded : the second place the same catholic faith believeth to be hell ; where all apostates, and whosoever is without the faith of Christ, shall taste everlasting punishment: as for any third place, we utterly know none ; neither shall we find in the Holy Scriptures that there is any such.” Hypognost. Lib. v. In other places he asserts doctrine directly at variance with belief in Purgatory : “ In quo quemque invenerit suus novissimus dies, in hoc eum comprehendet mundi novissimus dies. Quoniam qualis in die isto quisque moritur, talis in die illo judicabitur." « In what state soever his own last day shall find each man, in the same state the last day of the world shall find him. For such as every man in this day shall die, even such in that day shall he be judged." Epist. 80. To the same effect, In Apocalyps. Hom. 11; Ad Petrum Diac, cap, 3; In Johan, Tract. 49.-Jewell's Defence, p. 291.1


Sect. 15. Ceremonies.--As touching the multitude of vain and superfluous ceremonies, we know that St. AuGUSTINE did grievously complain of them in his own time :' and therefore have we cut off a great number of them, because we know that men's consciences were incumbered about them, and the churches of God overladen with them. Nevertheless, we keep still, and esteem, not only those ceremonies which we are sure were delivered us from the Apostles, but some others too besides, which we thought might be suffered without hurt to the Church of God :a for that we had a desire that all things in the holy congregation might, as St. Paul commandeth “be done decently, and in order.”+ But as for all those things which we saw were either very superstitious, or utterly unprofitable, or noisome, or mockeries, or contrary to the Holy Scriptures, or else unseemly for sober and discreet people ;c whereof there be infinite numbers now-a-days where the Roman religion is used :— these, I say, we have utterly refused, without all manner of exception, because we would not have the right worshipping of God to be any longer defiled with such follies.

Sect. 16. Common Prayer.We make our prayers in that tongue which all our people, as meet is, may understand; to the end they (as St. Paul counselleth us)a take common commodity by common prayer; even as all the holy fathers and catholic bishops, both in the Old and New Testament, did use to pray themselves, and taught the people to pray too : lest, as St. AUGUSTINE

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y Ad Januar. Ep. 119.

[He doubtless intends Baptism, the Eucharist, Confirmation, and Common Prayer.]

[Such as the use of Sponsors in the administration of infant baptism; the sign of the cross in baptism ; bowing at the name of Jesus in the Creed; the use of the surplice and clerical robes in public worship, &c.] b 1 Cor. xiv. 40.

[It would be wearisome to enter into an enumeration of such ceremonies, practised in the Church of Rome. As an instance, liable to almost all the charges brought by JEWELL, it may suffice to mention the administration of baptism, in the name of the Holy TRINITY, with the intervention of godfathers and godmothers, to the bells of churches ! a rite even yet retained in Europe !) d 1 Cor. xiv.

saith, “like parrots and ousels we should seem to speak that we understand not."

Sect. 17. Saints' Worship.-Neither have we any other Mediator and Intercessor, e by whom we may have access to God the Father, but only Jesus Christ; in whose only name all things are obtained at his Father's hands. But it is a shameful part, and full of infidelity, that we see every where used in the churches of our adversaries, not only in that they will have innumerable sorts of mediators, and that utterly without the authority of God's word; (so that, as Jeremiah saith, the saints be now as many in number, or rather above the “ number of the cities,”h and poor men cannot tell to which saint it were best to turn them first; and though there he so many as they cannot be told, yet every one of them hath his peculiar duty and office assigned unto him by these folks-what thing they ought to ask, what to give, and what to bring to pass ;) but besides this also, in that they do not only wickedly, but also shamefully, call upon the Blessed Virgin, Christ's mother, to have her “ remember that she is the mother,” and “to command her son,” and to “ use a mother's authority

over him.” i

e 1 Tim. ii. 5. Rom. viii. 34. | Eph. ii. 18. iii. 12.

% [The growth and extent of this practice are briefly recounted in BURNET's Exposition of the XXXIX. Articles, Art. xxii. p. 247. ss. Some revolting examples of the lengths to which it has been carried, are collected by FABER, Difficulties of Romanism. Book I. chap. xv. p. 193. ss. Philad. 1830.]

" (By a happy accommodation, Jewell applies what the prophet spoke of the idols of the Jews (Jer. ii. 28. xi. 13.) to the saints of the Romish Church. It is a well known fact, that almost every city and village in Romish countries has its distinct patron saint; and that in addition to these, there are saints recognized as the special protectors of persons afflicted with the various diseases—the tooth-ache, the leprosy, &c—to whom the petitions of the sufferer for relief are addressed, and the votive offering made, if relief is obtained.]

i [The blasphemies into which the Church of Rome has run, in its addresses to the Virgin, are such as could hardly be conceived, before acquaintance with the fact. The following specimens are given by Faber, Difficulties of Romanism, p. 193.

“Holy mother of God, who hast worthily merited to conceive him whom the whole world could not comprehend; by thy pious intervention wash away our sins, that so, being redeemed by thee, we may be Sect. 18. The Atonement.-We say also, that man is born in sin, and leadeth his life in sin : that nobody is able truly to say • his heart is clean:' that the most righteous person is but an “unprofitable servant:""" that the law of God is perfect, and requireth of us perfect and full obedience :' that we are able by no means to fulfil that law in this worldly life : that there is no one mortal creature which can be justified by his own


able to ascend to the seat of everlasting glory, where thou abidest with thy Son for ever.” Collect. in Hor, ad usum Sarum. Paris, 1520. fol. 4.

“Let our voice first celebrate Mary, through whom the rewards of life are given unto us. O Queen, thou who art a mother and yet a chaste virgin, pardon our sins, through thy Son.” Ibid. fol. 80.

“ Cardinal BEMBUS, sometime the Pope's secretary, calleth the same blessed virgin 'Dominam et Deam nostram,' Our Lady and Goddess.' (in Epist. ad Carol. V.)-AMBROSIUS CATHARINUS, in your late Chapter at Trident, [the Council of Trent] representing, as you say, your whole Catholic Church, calleth the same blessed virgin God's fellow,' by these words - Fidelissima ejus socia,' ' His most faithful fellow (or companion)' (Conc. Trident. Sess. 2.) ”– JEWELL's Defence, p. 297.] k Luke xvii. 10.

["' God himself hath showed what perfection he requireth in man. Thus he saith: 'Thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength: (Deut. vi. 5. Matth. xxii. 37.) 'Thou shalt not decline-neither to the right hand, nor to the left : (Deut. xvii. 11.) Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the words of this law to do them :' (Deut. xxvii. 26 ; Gal. iii. 10.) "Whosoever shall-offend in one point, he is guilty of all:'(James ii. 10.) And Christ saith, “Be ye perfect (not measuring yourselves by your own ability, but) as your Father in heaven is perfect.' (Matth. v. 48.) And yet hereby he meaneth not the perfection that is in God and his angels, (HARDING had contended that there were different kinds of perfection-of men-of angels-of God: and that such passages as Vatt, v. 48. only meant a quasi perfection-an inferior sort ;] but only that perfection that is required in man.”

“ Ye will say, as the Pelagians did, Wherefore then doth CHRIST say. Be ye perfect ?? Wherefore doth St. Paul say, (Phil. iii. 15.) ' Let us, as many as be perfect ?' Hereto St. JEROME answereth thus : 'Quid ergo sapimus, &c. What then do we think, or ought we to think, that be not perfect ? We ought to confess that we are imperfect, and that we have not yet arrived at, or received (the perfection required.) This is the true wisdom of man, to know himself imper. fect.' (Adv. Pelagianos, Lib. I.) Again he saith : 'Justi appellantur,' &c. "They are called just men, not for that they be void of all manner of sin, but for that they are furnished with the greater part of virtues.' (Ad Ctesiphont.) So likewise saith St. AUGUSTINE: Virtus, quæ nunc est,' &c. "The virtue, that is now in a just man, so far forth is called perfect, that it pertaineth to the perfection thereof, both in truth to knoro, and in humility to confess, that it is imperfect.' (40 Bonifacium, Lib. III. c. 7.)Defence, p. 299. s.]

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deserts in God's sight: and therefore that our only suc. cour and refuge is to fly to the mercy of our Father by Jesus Christ, and assuredly to persuade our minds that he is the obtainer of forgiveness for our sins ; and that by his blood all our spots of sin be washed clean : that he hath pacified and set at one all things by the blood of his cross that he by that same one only sacrifice, which he once offered upon the cross, hath brought to effect and fulfilled all things; and for that cause he said, when he gave up the ghost, “ It is FINISHED, as though he would signify that the price and ransom was now full paid for the sin of mankind.

If there be any that think this sacrifice not sufficient, let them go, in God's name, and seek a better.

We, verily, because we know this to be the only sacrifice, are well content with it alone, and look for none other : and forasmuch as it was to be offered but once,p we command it not to be renewed again : and because it was full and perfect in all points and parts, we do not ordain in place thereof any continual succession of offerings.

Sect. 19. Good Works.-Besides, though we say, we have no meed (merit] at all by our own works and deeds, but appoint all the means of our salvation to be in CHRIST alone;' yet say we not, that for this cause men ought to

m "Ideo Deus jubet aliqua, quæ non possumus, ut noverimus quid ab ipso petere debeamus." "God commands us to do some things that we are not able, to the end that we may know what we ought to ask of him.” AUGUSTINUS, de Gratia et Lib. Arbitr. c. 16.

n Col. i. 20.
o John xix. 30.
p? Heb. ix. 25, 26, 28.

a [“ Ye will say, ' If we find ourselves void of merit, how then shall we stand and be justified before God ? St. John saith : “They have washed their robes, and made them white (not in their own merits,) but in the blood of the Lamb. (Rev. vii. 14.) And God saith, 'I will give to him that is athirst, of the fountain of the water of life (not for his deserts, but) freely (dwplav, as a gift]. (Rev. xxi. 6.) The ancient father Origen saith : Quia omnia conclusa sunt sub peccato; nunc non in meritis, sed in misericordia Dei salus humana consistit.' · Forasmuch as all men are concluded under sin; now the salvation of man standeth not in man's merits, but in God's mercy.' (Ad Rom. Lib. IX. c. 12.) So saith St. JEROME: 'In Christo Jesu,' &c. 'In Christ Jesus our LORD, in whom we have boldness, and liberty to come, (to God,) and trust, and affiance by faith in him : not through

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