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• flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bone;' and that “Christ continueth in us, and we in him.".

And therefore, in celebrating these mysteries, the people are to good purpose exhorted, before they come to receive the Holy Communion, to 6

their hearts,”d and to direct their minds to heaven-ward; because he is there, by whom we must be fed, and live. And Cyril saith, when we come to receive these holy mysteries, all “gross imaginations" must quite be banished. The Council of Nice, as it is alleged by some in

c John vi. 56. d

[The allusion is to the passage of the Communion Service immediately following the sentences :

Priest. Lift up your hearts.
Answer. We lift them up unto the LORD.”

These versicles were in general use in the second century-received in all likelihood, from the Apostles themselves: for CYPRIAN thus mentions them—"Sacerdos ante orationem, præfatione præmissa, parat fratrum mentes, dicendo, sursum corda: ut dum respondet plebs, Habemus ad DOMINUM, admoneatur, nihil aliud se quam DOMINUM cogitare debere." “The Priest before prayer prepares the hearts of the brethren by a preface, saying, Lift up your hearts: that when the people answer We lift them up unto the LORD, they may be put in mind that they ought to think of nothing else beside the LORD." (In Oratione Dominica.),

That these responsive addresses were used in the Communion Ser. rice, appears from the testimony of ChrySOSTOM (Hom. 9. in Matt.) -"We cry aloud, in sight of the oblation, Lift up your hearts ;" and of AUGUSTINE, “Inter sacra mysteria cor habere sursum jubemur.” "In the celebration of the holy mysteries we are commanded to Lift up our hearts.(De Bono Persever. Lib. II. c. 13.) Defence, p. 267. s.]

e Anathematismo 11. [The whole passage is given in the Defence, p. 270.—"Num hominis comestionem, &c." “Dost thou say that our sacrament is the eating of a man? And dost thou unreverently, and without religion force the mind of the faithful unto gross cogitations ? And goest thou about with natural imaginations to deal those things that be received by only, pure and perfect faith ?"

Cyril of Alexandria, bishop of that see during thirty-two years, died in 444. He distinguished himself hy turbulence and noisy zeal, in the disputes relative to the person and nature of Christ which agitated the Church in his day. He presided in the council of Ephesus celebrated for its disgraceful violence against the partizans of the heretic Nestorius.

The works of Cyril comprise commentaries on a considerable proportion of the Old and New Testaments ; defences of Christianity against the apostate JULIAN, against the Jews, and against the Heathens generally; and a great number of controversial treatises, principally relative to the doctrines of the Trinity, and the cognate questions concerning the connexion of the divine and human natures in the Saviour. They display more talent than sound knowledge, and greater attachment to forms of belief than to spiritual religion.]

us.

Greek, plainly forbiddeth us to be basely affectioned or bent toward the bread and wine which are set before

And as CHRYSOSTOM very aptly writeth, we say that “the body of Christ is the dead carcase, and we ourselves must be the eagles,” meaning thereby that we must fly on high, if we will come to the body of CHRIST ; for “this table," as ChrySOSTOM saith, “is a table of eagles, and not of jays.CYPRIAN also: “ This bread," saith he “is the food of the soul, and not the meat of the belly."

And S. AUGUSTINE saith: “How shall I hold him, being absent? How shall I reach my

hand up to heaven, to lay hold upon him, sitting there ?" He answereth, “Reach thither thy faith, and then thou hast laid hold on him."h

Neither can we away in our churches with these shows, and sales, and markets of masses ;k nor with

f In 1 Cor. c. X. Hom. 24.

[CHRYSOSTOM doubtless alludes, in this passage, to our Saviour's saying, Matth. xxiv. 28; although he may possibly have designed to convey the further allusion pointed out by JEWELL. AUGUSTINE, (Quæst. Evangel. Lib. I. c. 42.) says: 'Ubi fuerit,' &c. "Wherever the body may be, there the eagles will be gathered together; that is, in heaven; there the eagles will be gathered together. This is spoken of the spiritual-minded, who by imitating the passion and humiliation of Christ, become as it were, satisfied by a participation of his body.”

So also LEO: 'Circa hoc, &c.' " About this body gather eagles, which fly with with spiritual wings (the wings of faith.") Quoted in, the Canon Law, De Consecr. Dist. 2. In quibus.

These are bold figures and displeasing to the more refined taste of our days. But they were abundantly authorized by the custom of the age in which they were used, and inust be taken with allowance for such custom.]

% De Cæna Domini.
h In Johannem. Tractat. 50.

i [The exhibition of the consecrated wafer for the adoration of the people, accompanied by the sound of a bell to give them warning to prostrate themselves in adoration. This is termed the Elevation of the Host, from the attitude of the Priest, who, standing with the pyr (the silver vessel in which the wafer is deposited) in both hands joined, raises them above his head, and presents it to the view of the congregation.]

k [The belief of the real presence of Christ's body in the Communion soon generated the opinion that the celebration of the rite was an actual repetition of the sacrifice of Christ. Hence readily arose the belief that it must be equally available for spiritual benefit with the one great sacrifice upon the cross. The priests were not long in persuading the ignorant multitude that the application of these benefits was in their power; and joining this error with the doctrine of purgato

the carrying about and worshipping of the bread;' nor with such other idolatrous and blasphemous fondness ; which none of them can prove that Christ or his Apostles ever ordained, or left unto us. And we justly blame the bishops of Rome, who, without the word of God, without the authority of the holy fathers, without any example of antiquity, after a new guise, do not only set before the people the sacramental bread to be worshipped as God, but do also carry the same about upon an ambling palfrey whithersoever themselves journey,m in such sort as in old time the Persians' fire," and the relics of the goddess Isis, were solemnly carried about

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ry, set up a pretence to the power of aiding souls in the torment of that place of temporary punishment, by the celebration of masses in their behalf. For these masses they asked a price, either in advance, from the person to be benefitted by them, before his death; or from the relatives and friends of the deceased. It became a regular trade. Whole ecclesiastical endowments were supported by it. It was customary to leave by will a certain sum to pay for masses to be said for the good of the departed soul. Even at the present day, in countries where the Romish faith prevails, masses are as regularly bought and sold as any temporal goods; nay, associations are formed, on the principle of mutual insurance, in which the members bind themselves to procure a certain number of masses to be said after death for such as subscribe a certain sum.

Masses are also bought and sold as votive or propitiatory offerings. A person in some great danger vows a certain number of masses, if he escape. Should that be the case, they are bargained for with some neighbouring priest, and procured at the cheapest possible rate. if a man lave been robbed, he pays a priest to say one or more masses for the detection of the thief, or recovery of his stolen property. Such are the sales' and 'markets' which our reformers could not away with.']

[When the Communion is administered to the sick, in Papist countries, it is borne in the pyr, under a canopy, in solemn procession, while all who may be present where it passes, kneel in adoration.

A yearly festival called Corpus Christi, or the Body of Christ, is celebrated in the Church of Rome on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday, in attestation of the corporal presence of Christ in the Eucharist., It was founded, on occasion of a pretended miracle, by Pope Urban IV. who died in 1264. On this day the consecrated wafer is borne about in procession from church to church, with great display.] m Ceremon. Eccles. Rom. Sect. xii. cap. 5.

[“ The kings of Persia used in old times to carry before them upon a horse the fire which they called the Orimasda, and imagined the same to be their God.” Defence, p. 281.)

· [Jewell, in his Defence, p. 281, quotes NICOLAUS LEONICENUS, a Romanist, as allowing the resemblance between the ceremonies relative to the host in the Romish Church, and those of the Egyptian god

Vol. III.-6

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in procession: and have brought the sacraments of Christ to be used now as a stage-play, and a solemn sight; to the end that men's eyes should be fed with nothing else but with mad gazings and foolish gauds [displays,] in the selfsame matter wherein the death of Christ ought diligently to be beaten into our hearts, and wherein also the mysteries of o’r redemption ought with all holiness and reverence to be executed.

Besides, where they say, and sometimes do persuade fools, that they are able by their masses to distribute and apply unto men's commodity all the merits of Christ's death-yea, although many times the parties think nothing of the matter, and understand full little what is done ; this is a mockery, a heathenish fancy, and a very toy. For it is our faith that applieti the death and cross of Christ to our benefit, and not the act of the Massing priest.p • Faith had in the sacraments” saith AUGUSTIN, “ doth justify, and not the sacraments.' And Origen saithr “Christ is the priest, the propitiation and sacrifice : which propitiation cometh to every one by means of faith.” And so by this reckoning we say that the sacraments of Christ, without faith, do not once profit these that bo alive: a great deal less do they profit those that be dead.

And as for their bragss they are wont to make of

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dess Isis, and deriving the former from the latter : Varia Historia, Lib. ii. c. 21.]

p [The priest celebrating Mass.]

9 I"The merits of Christ's death, whereof we treat, are conveyed unto us by God, and received by us. God conveyeth them to us only of his mercy, and we receive them only by faith. But the ways whereby to procure God's mercy, or to enkindle our faith, are many, and sundry. God's mercy is procured sometimes by prayer, sometimes by other means. But to breed or increase faith in us, there are more ways than can be reckoned. Some men are moved only by the hearing of God's word : some others by the beholding and weighing of God's miracles.--Among other causes, the Sacraments serve specially to direct and to aid our faith ; for they are, as St. AUGUSTINE calleth hem "visible words,” and seals, and testimonies of the gospel. All ibis notwithstanding, we say, It is neither the work of the priest

, nor the nature of the sacrament, as of itself, that maketh us partakers of Christ's death, but only the faith of the receiver.Defence, p. 284.]

ORIGEN In Ep. ad Rom. cap. iii. Lib. III.

[In justification of his use of this word, JEWELL quotes their own writers claiming for the Pope an especial prerogative of jurisdiction crer purgatory. · Animæ existentes in Purgatorio, sunt de juris.

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their Purgatory;' though we know it is not a thing so very late risen among them, yet is it no better than a blockish, and an old wives, device. AUGUSTINE, in

dictione Papæ ; et Papa, si vellet, posset totum Purgatorium evacuare.' The souls being in Purgatory, are under the Pope's jurisdiction : and the Pope, if he would, might empty all Purgatory' Jo. AngeLUS. And to this purpose the Pope himself commandeth (CLEMENS PAPA Virus, in Bulla,) and chargeth the angels of God to fetch forth from thence whomsoever, and how many soever, he will have delivered." Defence, p. 285.)

{ [Purgatory, signifying a state of cleansing, is a supposed place of temporary punishment, for the expiation of sin subsequently to death, and preparatory to admission to the joys of heaven. The unrepentant are supposed to have no concern in it, being consigned immediately to the eternal torments of hell. Such as are recognized by the Romish Church as Saintsor die, to use the customary expression, in the odour of sanctity, that is, wholly free from the stain of sin-are equally unconcerned with purgatory, being admitted forthwith to the future happiness of the blessed. All else are subjected to greater or less degrees of torment, in purgatory, for periods varying from a single day to thousands of years, according to their grades of sinfulness in this life.

“The doctrine of the Church of Rome is, that every man is liable both to temporal and to eternal punishment for his sins; that God, upon the account of the death and intercession of Christ, does indeed pardon sin as to its eternal punishment, but the sinner is still liable to temporal punishment, which he must expiate by acts of penance and sorrow, in this world, together with such other sufferings as God shall think fit to lay upon him: but if he does not expiate these in this life, there is a state of suffering and misery in the next world, where the soul is to bear the temporal punishment of its sins; which may continue longer or shorter, till the day of judgment. And in order to the shortening this, the prayers and supererogations of men here on earth, or the intercession of the saints in heaven, but above all things, the sacrifice of the mass, are of great efficacy." BURNET on the Articles, Art. xxii. p. 215. s.

The prayers and supererogations (i.e. acts of penance and mortification over and above those necessary for themselves) of departed saints, are believed to be, as a sort of fund, under the control and at the disposal of the Pope. His application of these to the benefit of whom he will, is supposed to give him that power of which, in Jewell's phrase, his followers make their brags.'

Of the origin of this doctrine, JEWELL says: “ As for the fantasy of Purgatory, it sprang first from the heathens, and was received amongst them in that time of darkness, long before the coming of CHRIST; as it may plainly appear by Plato (in Timæo,) and Virgil, (Æneid. Lib. vi.) in whom ye shall find described at large the whole commonweal, and all the orders and degrees, of Purgatory. ST. AUSTIN saith the old heathen Romans had a sacrifice which they called 'Sacrum Purgatorium,' a Purgatory Sacrifice. De Civit. Dei. Lib. vii. c. 7."'. Defence, p. 285.]

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