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holy signs and ceremonies, which CHRIST would we should use, that by them he might set before our eyes the mysteries of our salvation, w and might more strong. ly confirm the faith which we have in his blood, and might seal his grace in our hearts. And these sacraments, together with TERTULLIAN, ORIGEN, AMBROSE, AUGUSTINE, JEROME, ChrysOSTOM, BASIL, DIONYSIUS, and other catholic fathers, we do call figures-signs-marksbadges-prints-copies-forms-seals-signets-similitudes
-patterns-representations-remembrances-and memories. And we make no doubt, together with the same doctors, to say, that these be certain visible wordsy
, w ["Although the death of Christ be already passed, yet is it laid lively and freshly before our eyes in the ministration of the sacraments. St. AMBROSE saith 'In baptismo crucifigimus in nobis Filium Dei.' * In baptism we crucify in ourselves the Son of God. (De Penitent. Lib. ii. cap. 2.) CHRYSOSTOM saith : "The death of Christ is wrought in the mysteries.' (in Act. Hom. xxi.) Thus the grace of God is given unto us in the sacraments because it is represented and laid before us in the sacraments. We use them humbly, as the instruments of the grace of God.” Defence, p. 209.)
[Article xxv. “Sacraments—be-budges or tokens of Christian men's profession-sure witnesses, and effectual signs, of grace, and God's good will." —Article xxvii. “Baptism is-a sign of regeneration, or new birth whereby the promises are visibly signed and sealed." In Article xxix, the wicked who partake of the Lord's Supper are said. "to eat and drink the sign or sacrament" of the body and blood of CHRIST.
“CHRIST hath instituted—holy mysteries for a continual remembrance of his death.” “We do celebrate and make here—the memoria. thy Son hath commanded us.” Communion office. "Baptism doth represent unto us our profession, &c.” Baptism of Infants. ]
[This terse phrase expresses admirably the design of sacramental institutions. In the more diffuse language of Dr. Knox : “Heavenly things are so far above all human languages, that it is necessary to attempt a supply of the defect by allusive imagery, by hieroglyphical figures, by ritual performances; by the elements of bread, of wine, and and of water, in the sacraments.
"These signs are the language of our religion, who does not express herself by sounds only, differing in their meaning in different nations of the earth ; but by elements which, rightly used, are significant to all men, and form an universal language.
“Symbols, emblems, tropes, allegories, fables, expressive actions ; all these are used, and must of necessity-be used, to supply the defect of language. Their use in the sacraments is in every respect highly proper. They have spoken with effect to millions of the human race, who received solace from them in the pilgrimage of life, and who, in consequence of them, laid themselves down at its close to sleep in peace.” Knox's Considerations on the Nature and Efficacy of the Lord's Supper, p. 113, 114. ed. 1800.]
-seals of righteousness, and tokens of grace.
And we do expressly pronounce, that in the Lord's Supper there is truly given unto the believing, the body and blood of our LORD—the flesh of the Son of God, which quickeneth our souls--the meat [food] that cometh from above—the food of immortality, of grace, truth, and life: and that the same Supper is the communion of the body and the blood of Christ; by the partaking whereof we be revived, strengthened, and fed unto immortality ; and whereby we are joined, united and incorporate unto CHRIST, that " we may abide in him, and he in us.".
"The signification and substance of the sacrament [of the LORD's Sunnerlis to show us how we are fed with the body of UHR
how us how we are fed with the body of CHRIST: that is, that like as material bread feedeth our body, so the body of CHRIST nailed on the cross, embraced and eaten by faith, feedeth the soul. The like representation is also made in the sacrament of Baptism; that as our body is washed clean with water, so our soul is washed clean with Christ's blood. Therefore S. AUGUSTINE saith: "Nisi sacramenta similitudinem quandam earum rerum, quarum sacramenta sunt, haberent, omnino sacramenta non essent. If sacraments had not a certain likeness and representation of the things whereof they be sacraments, then indeed were they no sacraments. (Epist. 23.") Defence, p. 20.]
[JEWELL appears to use the word 'righteousness' here, in the signification which it has in many parts of St. Paul's Epistles—that of justification-being accounted holy, pardoned, acceptable, in the sight of God, through CHRIST.)
[ Tokens of grace,' i. e. of the divine favour (gratia, xapis.)] bi The bread of the sacrament is one thing, and the flesh of CHRIST is another. The bread entereth only into the bodily mouth : CHRIST'S flesh entereth only into the soul. Without eating of the bread of the sacrament we may be saved : without eating of Christ's flesh we can never be saved. St. AUGUSTINE saith precisely : 'Qui non sumit carnem CHRISTI, non habet vitam: et qui eam sumit, habet vitam, et eam utique æternam.' 'He that receiveth not the flesh of Christ, hath not life: and he that receiveth the same hath life, and that forever.' (in Johan. Tractat. 26.) Again he saith “The sacrament is received of some unto life, of some unto destruction. But the thing itself (that
is, the flesh of Christ) whereof the sacrament is a sacrament, is · received of all men unto life, and of no man to destruction whosoever shall be partaker of it.” (in eodem Tractatu.)
"Likewise ORIGEN saith : "The body of Christ is the truc food, which no evil man can eat. For if the evil man could eat the body of our LORD, it should not be written, He that eateth this bread shall lide for ever.' (in Matth. c. 15.”) Defence, p. 209, 213. See the manner in which this doctrine is stated in Articles xxviii. and xxix.).
• John xv. 4. [In the thanksgiving after the Communion, this union with Christ is thus explained :-"and dost assure us thereby'' (by the due reception of the holy mysteries') “that we are very members
THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. Besides this, we acknowledge there be two sacraments, which, we judge, properly ought to be called by this name: that is to say, Baptism, and the Sacrament of thanksgivingd [Eucharist.] For thus many we see were delivered and sanctified by CHRIST, and well allowed of the old fathers, AMBROSE, and Augustin, and such others.e incorporate in the mystical body of thy Son, which is the blessed company of all faithful people.” See also the 'Invocation']
d[JEWELL's use of this title for the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, and his retention of the Latin word ' Eucharistia’in the beginning of Sect. 14, seem to show that the word Eucharist had not then been adopted into our language. Its meaning is literally The Thanks giving, such being the signification of the Greek word Evxapısıa, which it merely represents in English letters.]
el“We will grant without force, and freely, that the holy catholic fathers have made mention, not only of seven, but also of seventeen sundry sacraments. TERTULLIAN (adversus Judæos, c. 13) calleth the helve, wherewith Elisha recovered the axe out of the water sacramentum ligni the 'sacrament of wood :' and the whole state of the Christian faith he calleth (contra Marcionem. Lib. IV.) 'the sacrament of the Christian religion. S. AUGUSTINE in many places hath 'sacramentum crucis' 'the sacrament of the cross,' (Epist, 12.) Thus he saith ; 'in this figure or form of the cross, there is contained a sacrament: (in Sermone de Sanctis 19.) So saith Leo, de Resurr. Domini, Serm. 2. St. JEROME saith: 'Out of Christ's side the sacraments of baptism and martyrdom are poured forth both together.' (ad Oceanum) Leo calleth the promise of virginity, a sacrament; inter Decreta, c. 14. The bread that was given unto the novices, or beginners in the faith, called Catechumens, before they were baptized, of s. AUGUSTINE is called a sacrament (de Peccat. merit. et remiss. Lib. II.) St. Hilary in sundry places, saith : 'The sacrament of prayer-of fasting—of the Scriptures-of weeping—of thirst. (in Matth. Canon. 11. 12. 23.) St. BERNARD calleth the washing of the Apostles' feet a sacrament (in Serm. de Cæna Dominica.)
" Thus many, and many more sacraments it had been easy for M. HARDING to have found in the catholic learned fathers. Yet, I trow, he will not say, that either the 'helve of an axe,' or the whole religion of CHRIST,' or a 'cross' printed in the forehead, or 'martyrdom,' or 'the Scriptures,' or a 'vow of virginity,' on the 'bread given to the Catechumens,' or 'prayer,' or 'fasting,' or 'weeping,' or thirst,' or washing of feet,' are the necessary seyen sacraments of the Church ! Howbeit, we will not greatly strive for the name, It appeareth hereby that many things that in deed, and by special property, be no sacraments, may nevertheless pass under the general name of a sacrament. But thus we say, It cannot be proved, neither by the Scriptures, nor by the ancient learned fathers, that this number of sacraments is so specially appointed and consecrate to this purpose, or that there be neither more nor less sacraments in the Church, but only seven,
As for the reasons that they of M. HARDING's side have brought for proof hereof, they are too childish to be remembered. For thus they
Sect. 13. Baptism.-We say, that Baptism is a sacrament of the remission of sins, and of that washing which we have in the blood of Christ; and that no person, which will profess CHRIST's name, ought to be restrained or kept back therefrom-no, not the very babes of Christians, forsomuch as they, be born in sin, and do pertain unto the people of God.
Sect. 14. The Eucharist.-We say, that Eucharistia, that is to say, the Supper of the Lord, is a sacramentthat is, an evident representation-of the body and blood of Christ, wherein is set, as it were, before our eyes, the death of CHRIST, and his resurrection, and whatsoever he did whilst he was in his mortal body; to the end we may give him thanks for his death, and for our deliverance; and that by the often receiving of this sacrament, we may daily renew the remembrance thereof, to the intent we, being fed with the body and blood of Christ, may be brought into the hope of the resur
say: "The book in the Apocalypse hath seven seals :—the seven angels there have seven trumpets :-Christ hath in his right hand seven stars :-CHRIST walketh in the midst of seven golden candlesticks :Zachariah saw seven eyes upon a stone:-there were seven candlesticks in the tabernacle :-ergo' say they, 'there must needs be just seven sacraments in the Church of God.
"But to leave these vanities, and to come to the purpose : unto every necessary sacrament of the Church, two things specially are required: that is, a sensible outward element, and the word of institution. Without either of these there is no sacrament. Therefore S. AUGUSTINE saith : “ Accedat verbum ad elementum, et fit sacramentum.” “ Join the word of Christ's institution unto the sensible creature, or outward element, and thereof is made a sacrament." (in Johan. Tr. 80.) The element, or creature in Baptism, is water: the elements or creatures in our LORD's Supper, are bread and wine : the words of institution' are common and known. The other five sacraments, (so called,] want either the word, or the element, or both together. As for example, Matrimony, Orders, and Penance, have the word of God, but they have no outward creature, or element: Extreme Unction, and Confirmation, have neither word nor element. Therefore these five latter, in proper use of speech, are not taken for necessary sacraments of the Church.” Defence, p. 214, 215.)
fp We confess, and have evermore taught, that in the sacrament of Baptism, by the death and blood of Christ is given remission of all manner sins : and that not in half, nor in part, nor by way of imagination, nor by fancy; but full, whole, and perfect of all together : so that now, as St. Paul saith, · There is no condemnation to them which are in CHRIST Jesus.'"- Defence, p. 219.]
rection, and of everlasting life, and may most assuredly believe that as our bodies be fed with bread and wine, so our souls be fed with the body and blood of CHRIST.S
To this banquet we think the people of God ought to be earnestly bidden, [invited] that they may all communicate among themselves, and openly declare and testify, both the godly society which is among them, and also the hope which they have in Christ Jesus. For this cause, if there had been any which would be but a looker on, and abstain from the holy Communion, him did the old fathers, and bishops of Rome, in the primitive Church, before private massesh came up, excommunicate, as a wicked person and as a pagan.i
& [“ These two kinds of eating must evermore necessarily be joined together. And whosoever cometh to the holy table, and advanceth not his mind unto heaven, there to feed upon Christ's body at the right hand of God, he knoweth not the meaning of these mysteries, but is void of understanding, as the horse or mule, and receiveth only the bare sacraments to his condemnation."--Defence, p. 223.]
b. [Private or solitary masses are celebrations of the Communion in which none but the officiating priest communicate. They were introduced into the Church of Rome in the twelfth century. JEWELL gives the following description of them, in his Defence :--" What manner of feast is it that Mr. HARDING prepareth for the people? How is it seasoned ? How is it dressed ? First, by very uncourteous and uncivil dealing, he withdraweth the one half, that is, the cup of the New Testament, and reserveth it severally to himself : and yet would make the people believe they have the whole. And thus doth he, when he hath greatest company to sup with him, and when his feast is best furnished. Otherwise [in private masses) he suffereth his guests to stand aloof, and he consumeth all his provision himself alone. Neither, indeed, hath he any thing to set before them, saving only a cold surcharge of dead shows, and dumb ceremony. The poor people heareth nothing ; understandeth nothing; eateth nothing'; drinketh nothing ; tasteth nothing. They publish not the Lord's death : (1 Cor. xi. 26.) they know not the Lord's Supper." -Defence, p. 226.]
i [“\Good men,' saith M. HARDING, "withdraw themselves, and are contented to be present only, and to stand by, but receive not the Sacrament.' But CHRYSOSTOM saith to such a good, devout man, If thou stand by, and do not communicate, thou art wicked, thou art shameless, thou art impudent. Thou wilt say, I am unworthy to be partaker of the holy mysteries. Then art thou unworthy to be partaker of the prayers. Thou mayest no more stand here than one of the Novices, (called Catechumeni,) that never was christened.' (CHRYSOST. ad Ephes. Hom. 3.)
" ANACLETUS saith : 'Let them all communicate, unless they will be thrust out of the church. (De Consecrat. Distinct. 1. Episcopus.) The apostles in their canons say thus : Whoso entereth into the church, and heareth the Scriptures, and receiveth not the Communion,