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same place where it is now appointed. There assembled many bishops and abbots, and others, whom it behooved for that matter. They were alone by themselves. Whatsoever they did, nobody gainsayed it; for they had quite shut out and barred our side from all manner of assemblies : and there they sat six years, a feeding folks with a marvellous expectation of their doings. The first six months, as though it were greatly needful, they made many determinations of the Holy TRINITY—of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost—which were godly things indeed, but not so necessary for that time. Let us see, in all that while, of so many, so manifest, so often confessed by them, and so evident errors, what one error have they amended ? From what kind of idolatry' have they reclaimed

c [The Council of Trent was still sitting, when the Apology was first published, in 1562.]

d (Jewell here alludes to the first convocation of the Council, under Paul III. and Julius III. which lasted from 1545 to 1552. After a suspension of ten years, the Council was convened again under Pius IV., and finally closed in 1563.)

e [“Whether your fathers in the Chapter at Trent, sat there six whole months debating and reasoning about the Trinity, or no, of certain knowledge I cannot tell. But certainly, what thing else they did, either in all that time, or long after, you can hardly show us. Notwithstanding, CASSANDER saith (Consult

. de Comm. sub utraque Specie. In Præf.) they bestowed one whole summer in great and holy disputations about meaner matters than the Trinity : I mean, only about the Communion of the cup. MARTIN CHEMNITIUS saith (Éram. Conc. Trid. p. 638.) they held disputations there and kept great stir, seven whole months together, about the Justification of Faith and Works; and yet in the end left it worse than they found it.”Defence, p. 551.)

† ["Ye are bold to assure us there is no kind of idolatry,' nor ever was any, in your whole Church of Rome. Notwithstanding, some others of your best learned fathers have thought otherwise, as it shall appear.

" It seemeth this error began to spring long since, even in the time of the old fathers : and that hereof FAUSTUS, the heretic, took occasion thus to charge the Catholics for the same: 'Idola vertistis in martyres.' 'Ye have changed the Heathen idols into your martyrs.' (August. contra Faust. Lib. XX. cap. xxi.) Ye say, that the reverence ye give unto Saints' images is no idolatry. Yet POLYDORE Virgil, speaking hereof, saith thus : 'Quia Sacerdotes,' &c. "Because the priests instruct not the people, and are thought to hold their peace for gain's sake, the matter is brought to such a dotage, that this part of piety differeth but little from extreme wickedness. (De Invent. Rer. Lib. VI. cap. xiii.) And Ludovicus Vives saith, he seeth no great difference between many Christian men worshipping their images, and a Heathen man

the people? What superstition have they taken away! What piece of their tyranny and pomp have they dimi

adoring his idols. (In Civit. Dei.). CATHARINUS, one of your great doctors of Trent, saith thus : 'An licet,' &c. Whether is it lawful to worship the very images, or no? Some men say, Nay; and call it idolatry : and they seem to be moved with no light arguments, nor without the authority as well of the fathers, as of the Scriptures.' (In Libello de Imagin.) Jacobus NANCLANTUS saith : 'Non solum,' &c. “We must grant, that the faithful in the Church do not only worship before the image, but also worship the image itself : and that, without any manner scruple of conscience whatsoever. And further, they worship the image with the self-same honour wherewith they worship the thing itself that is represented by the image. So that if the thing itself be worshipped with godly honour (Latria), then must the image itself likewise be worshipped with godly honour (Latria).' (In Epist

. ad Rom. Cap. 1.) Hereto agreeth another of your late writers, JACOBUS PAYNA. (Lib. IX.). And another of your like doctors (Fortalitium Fidei) saith : 'this is the very use and practice of the Church of Rome.'

“But Robert Holcot (in Lib. Sapient. Lection. 158.) saith : "This kind of worshipping is plain idolatry. Therefore, I trow, there hath been some idolatry in the Church of Rome.

“Ye will say, "Ye know the image is no God.' And this, ye think, is excuse sufficient. But so likewise said the Heathens of their idols: and yet, as S. AUGUSTINE saith, (De Verbo Domini sec. Matth. Serm. VI.) they were idolaters notwithstanding.'

“Ye will say, 'It is the image of an apostle, of Christ, or of God himself, and therefore it can be no idolatry. But GREGORÝ the bishop of Nyssa, S. Basil's brother, saith thus : 'He that worshippeth a creature, notwithstanding he do it in the name of CHRIST, yet is he a worshipper of images, as giving the name of Christ unto an image.'By these few, it may soon appear that your churches are not all void of idolatry," Defence, p. 552.

POLYDORE VIRGIL, and LEWIS Vives, cited by JEWELL as authorities in this passage, were both ecclesiastics who, although they censured its errors with freedom, lived and died in the Church of Rome. They flourished in the early part of the sixteenth century, and were eminent among their contemporaries for varied learning and eloquent style.

NANCLANT and PAYNA are Romish divines of the sixteenth century, of little eminence, and no authority, except as evidence of the opinions which they were allowed to hold and propagate.

GREGORY of Nyssa (thence called NYSSENUS) was born in Cappadocia about 331, elected bishop of Nyssa in 372, exiled by the emperor Valentinian for his orthodoxy in 374, honoured with a mission to visit the churches of Palestine and Arabia by the Council of Antioch in 379, assigned a prominent station in the General Council of Constantinople in 382, and died in 396. His works consist of Commentaries, Doctrinal Treatises, Sermons, Moral Essays, Panegyrics on the Saints, and some business letters. They contain many singular opinions, and little matter of real importance.

Faber has exposed the idolatrous image-worship of the Church of Rome with his usual ability, in the 17th chapter of his Difficulties of Romanism.]

nished ? As though all the world may not now see, that this is a conspiracy, and not a Council ! and that these bishops whom the Pope hath now called together, be not wholly sworn and become bound to bear him their faithful allegiance, and will do no manner of thing but that they perceive pleaseth him, and helpeth to advance his power, and as he will have it: or, that they reckon not of the number of men's voices, rather than of the weight and value of the same: or, that might, there, doth not oftentimes overcome right !

Sect. 13. And therefore, we know that divers times many good men and catholic bishops did tarry at home, and would not come, when such Councils were called, wherein men so apparently laboured to serve factions, and to take parts ; because they knew they should but lose their travail, and do no good, seeing whereunto their enemies' minds were so wholly bent.-ATHANASIUS denied to come, when he was called by the emperor to his Council at Cæsarea; perceiving plainly he should

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$ ["Other greater matters I will not touch. For in cases of faith, for your credit's sake, ye may grant no manner error.--Now, therefore, tell us, M. Harding, what one abuse of all the abuses in your Mass; what one disorder, or deformity, of so many disorders and deformities in your Church ; what one vain ceremony; what one childish fable ; what appeal to Rome ; what simony; what pardon; what stews what courtezans; what concubines; have ye reformed ? If ye redress not those gross and sensible abuses, that ye see with your eyes : how then will ye redress other more secret matters that pertain only to faith, and be not seen ?" Defence, p. 551.]

b. ["Verily, the Pope for his Præmunire will not suffer any bishop to give voice in Council

, unless he have him first solemnly sworn to the see of Rome : and therefore they be all called his creatures.-And that it may appear in what obedience, and servile subjection, all bishops be unto the Pope; ÆNEAS Sylvius, otherwise called Pope Pius the Second, saith thus : Quod si episcopus, &c. 'If a bishop speak against the Pope, yea, although he speak the truth, yet nevertheless he sinneth against the oath that he hath made unto the Pope. (Ad Capit. Mogunt.) Therefore, whereas at the late Conference (Diet] at Nuremberg it was required by the princes and states of Germany, that all bishops coming to the Council might both be discharged from their oath made to the Pope, and also sworn to speak and to promote the truth; the Pope's Legate there made answer in great disdain, that it might not so be; ‘for that so the Pope's hands should be bound. (SLEIDAN, Lib. IV. An. 1523.)—Hereby a blind man may easily see the form and freedom of your Councils. If the bishops be free to say the truth, then is the Pope left in bondage.Defence, p. 551.]

but come among his enemies, which deadly hated him.i The same ATHANASIUS, when he came afterward to the Council at Sirmium, and foresaw what would be the end, by reason of the outrage and malice of his enemies; he packed up his carriage, and went away immediately.JOHN CHRYSOSTOM, although the emperor Arcadius commanded him by four sundry letters to come to the Arians' Council, yet kept he himself at home still. When Maximus, the bishop of Jerusalem, sat in the Council of Palestine, the old father PAPHNUTIUS took him by the hand, and led him out at the doors, saying, • It is not lawful for us to confer of these matters with wicked men.'m— The bishops of the East would not come to the Syrmian Council, after they knew Athanasius had gotten himself thence again.-Cyril called men back, by letter, from the Council of them which were named Patropassians.-PAulinus, the bishop of Treves, and many others more, refused to come to the Council at Milan,' when they understood what a stir and rule Auxentius kept there ; for they saw it was in

i THEODORET. Hist. Eccles. Lib. I. c. xxviii.

[The Council (or Synod) of Cæsarea was called by the emperor Constantine, in the year 334, at the instigation of the enemies of Athanasius, for a judicial investigation of his conduct. It consisted almost exclusively of bishops of the Eusebian party, who were hostile both to the principles and to the person of Athanasius.]

k ''The translation published with the Defence, by a strange error, has the name of the emperor Constantius here,]

| Hist. Tripartit. Lib. X. cap. xiii.
m RUFFINI Hist. Eccles. Lib. I. c. xvii.

[In this Council, held at Jerusalem in 334, Arius was received to communion.]

* Hist. Tripart. Sozom. Lib. V. c. xv.

(The example of the violent and factious Cyril of Alexandria is of little worth; and is rendered of still less by the 'railing accusation' with which it is coupled. In his days the Patropassians (a set of heretics who maintained that one Divine Person was under the Jewish dispensation the Father, during CHRIST'S stay on earth the Son, and since his ascension the Holy Ghost,) had been long extinct and he injuriously applied the epithet to the Nestorians, who merely maintained the identity of the Divine and human natures in CHRIST or, still more probably, (and if so, with still less justice,) to such as were unwilling to condemn Nestorius with as much bitterness, or to run to equal lengths in opposition to his error, as himself.]

[Convened by the emperor Constantius, in 355, for the condemnation of ATHANASIUS on account of his maintenance of the doctrine of the Trinity.]


vain to go thither, where not reason, but faction should prevail, and where folk contended, not for the truth, but for partiality and favour.

Sect. 14. And albeit those fathers had such malicious and stiff-necked enemies; yet, if they had come, they should have had free speech, at least in the Councils.

But now, since none of us may be suffered so much as to sit or once to be seen in these men's meetings Pmuch less suffered to speak freely our mind ;4 and seeing the Pope's Legates, Patriarchs, Archbishops, Bishops, and Abbots, all being conspired together, all linked together in one kind of fault, and all bound by one oath, sit alone by themselves, and have power alone to give their consent, and at last, when they have all done,

p. [“ Ye say, 'The Pope gave out his Safe-conduct to all the princes and free cities and to the whole people of Germany. But what safety can there be in his Safe-conduct, that is not able to save himself? Pope Eugenius the Fourth, if he had come to the Council of Basle, as you know, had been quite deposed from his popedom, all his Safe. conducts notwithstanding. (Conc. Bas. Sess. 3 et 4.) Pope John XXII. gave out as sure a Safe-conduct for the Council of Constance, as Pope Pius (IV.) could devize any for your late Chapter of Trent: yet notwithstanding all his safety, being himself present in the Council

, he was pulled out of Peter's chair, and deprived of his dignity, and stripped out of his Pontificals, and turned home again in his Minorite (garments, i.e. dress of a Minorite friar,) and allowed only to be a Cardinal, and no longer to be a Pope. (Conc. Constant. Sess. 2. 3. 4.) Ye may remember CICERO saith : 'Qui multorum custodem se profiteatur, eum sapientes sui primum capitis aiunt custodem esse oportere :' "Wise men say, Whoso will take upon him to save others, must first save himself. (Philipp. XII.)- And what credit may we give to your Safe-conducts ? JACOBUS NACHIANTES, the bishop of Chioca, for that he had simpered out one

half word of truth to the misliking of the Legates, was fain to run to Rome, to creep to the Pope's feet, and to crave pardon. (ILLYRI. cus in Prot. cont. Conc. Trid. p. 77.) Ye shamefully betrayed, and cruelly murdered John Huss, and JEROME OF PRAGUE, in your Council of Constance. Neither the Protection of the emperor, nor the Pope's Safe-conduct, was able to save them. No; yourselves have already ruled the case, in your said Council. For thus ye say: 'Fides non est servanda hæreticis. 'Ye may hold no faith with (them that ye call) heretics." (Conc. Const. Sess. 19.) Such is the safety and liberty of your Councils !” Defence, p. 556.]

9 ["Ye say "Our learned men were allowed to propound, to talk, to dispute.'. What should this avail ? For ye reserved the determination and whole judgment unto yourselves ; and yourselves are sworn to submit your

whole judgment to the Pope, and without his judgment to judge nothing. And how may this seem a free Council, where the guilty party shall be the judge ?»' Defence, p. 556.]

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