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past, when NAZIANZEN saw in his days how men in such assemblies were so blind and wilful, that they were carried with affections, and laboured more to get the victory than the truth, he pronounced openly, that he never had seen good end of any Council.”s. What would he say now, if he were alive at this day, and understood the heaving and shoving of these men ? For at that time, though the matter were laboured on all sides, yet the controversies were well heard, and open errors were put clean away by the general voice of all parts. But these men will neither have the case to be freely disputed, nor yet, how many errors soever there be, suffer they any to be changed. For it is a common custom of theirs often and shamelessly to boast, that their Church cannot err--that in it there is no fault—and that they must give place to us in nothing: or, if there be any fault, yet must it be tried by their bishops and abbots only, because they be the directors and rulers of matters; for that they be the Church of God. ARISTOTLE saith, that “a city cannot consist of bastards.” Now, whether the Church of God may corsist of these men, let themselves consider. For doubtless, neither be their abbots, Abbots indeed, nor their bishops such natural right Bishops as they ought to be.
Sect. 4. But grant they be the Church : let them be heard speak in Councils : let them alone have authority
rejecere quovis prætextu audeat, vel præsumat.' 'Let no man dare or presume by any manner of colour to refuse the old common translation of the Bible.' (Conc. Trid. Sess. IV. Sacrosancta Ecumenica.) As if your Councils were purposely summoned to maintain errors. "If ye will so wilfully deceive us in sensible matters, how may we then trust you in matters of faith ?" Defence, p. 523.)
• GREGOR. NAZIANZ. ad Procopium. ["These words, thus uttered, whether they be universally true or otherwise, I will not reason. It may seem hereby, this learned father, for his time, by experience found them true. And for aught that may appear to the contrary, he seemeth to utter the same as well of General Councils, as of Provincial,” De. fence, p. 524.)
("The abbots and monks that were in old times, were men given to study and learning. And out of monasteries learned men were then taken, as out of schools and universities, to the rule and government of the Church. (AUGUST. Epist. 76. 81.) But your 'abbots now, are as much like those abbots, as your Church is like the primitive Church of Christ." Defence, p. 525.]
to give consent. Yet in old times, when the Church of God (if ye will compare it with their Church) was very well governed; both elders and deacons, as saith St. CYPRIAN,' and certain also of the common people, were called thereunto, and made acquainted with ecclesiastical matters.w
Sect. 5. But I put case, these abbots and bishops have no knowledge. What if they understand nothing, what religion is, nor how we ought to think of God?
[So Lady Bacon renders JEWELL's Latin presbyteri.' -HARDING objects to it, as a false translation. JEWELL replies: "* Priests,' ye say, 'this youthful gentlewoman interpreteth elders. Oh, M. Harding, little needeth that godly learned and virtuous lady to fear your so unmanly and childish toys. If ye had been either so sagely studied as yé pretend, and your friends have thought, ye might soon bave learned that 'presbyter'--a priest, is nothing else but 'senior,' that is, an elder; and that a priest and an elder are both one thing."Defence, p. 527.]
" [" CYPRIAN saith: 'A primordio episcopatus mei statui nihil sine consilio vestro, et sine consensu plebis, mea privatim sententia, gerere." ' From my first entering into the bishopric, I have determined to do nothing by mine own authority, without your advice, (being the priests and deacons,) and without the consent of the people.' (Lìb. III. Epist. 10.) For doing the contrary hereof, the ancient father ORIGEN (In Exod. Hom. 11.) rebuketh bishops of pride and stateliness." Defence, p. 527.]
["St. Luke-speaking of the first Christian Council, bolden in the apostles' time, saith thus : "The apostles and elders came together for to consider of this matter. (Acts xv. 6.) And again in the conclusion, "Then pleased it the apostles and elders, with the whole Church.' (7. 22.) Here, you see, the apostles and elders give their voices together. NICEPHORUs saith : Αθανάσιος, του χορού μεν των διακόνων εν Αλεξανδρεία ηγούμενος μέρος ουκ ελάχιστον της εν τη συνόδω βουλής ήν. * Athanasius, being (not a bishop but) the leader of the band of deacons in Alexandria, was not the least part of the council of Nice. (Hist. Eccies. Lib. VIII. c. xv.). TERTULLIAN saith : 'Præsident probati quique seniores, honorem istum non pretio, sed testimonio adepti.' The judges (in such ecclesiastical assemblies) be the best allowed elders, having obtained that honour, not for money, but by the witness of their brethren.' (Apologet. c. xxxix.)*—And in the Second Council of Nice, Peter Protopresbyter, and Peter Presbyter, not being bishops, but only priests, sent thither by Adrian the bishop of Rome, gave their assents, and subscribed their names, before all the bishops." --Defence;
* (Certainly Jewell has both misapplied and mistranslated this passage from TERTULLIAN. By the consent of all writers on ecclesiastical antiquisy, it refers to the ordinary meetings of Christians for public worship, not to she extraordinary ecclesiastical assemblies' called Councils. And in such peetings TERTULLIAN does not say that the elders (all allow that he means the clergy)'judge,' but that they'preside.')
I put case, the pronouncing and ministering of the Law be decayed in priests, and good counsel fail in the elders, and, as the prophet Micah saith, " the night be unto them, that they shall not have a vision, and it be dark unto them, that they shall not divine.": Or, as Isaiah saith, what if “ the watchmen are blind ?''y What if 6 the salt have lost his savour,” and, as Christ saith, “ be thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men ?" ?
Sect. 6. Well yet, then, they will bring all matters before the Pope, who cannot err.
To this I say, first, it is a madness to think that the Holy Ghost taketh his flight from a General Council to run to Rome, to the end if he doubt, or stick in any matter, and cannot expound it of himself, he may take counsel of some other spirit, I wot not what, that is better learned than himself! For if this be true, what needed so many bishops, with so great charges and so far journies, to have assembled their convocation at this present at Trent? It had been more wisdom and better, at least it had been a much nearer and handsomer way, to have brought all things rather before the Pope, and to have come straight forth, and have asked counsel at his divine breast.a i
1 Micah iii. 6. y Isaiah lvi. 10. z Matth. v. 13.
- [It is the belief of the Church of Rome, based upon a misunderstanding of Acts xv. 28. in connexion with her own extravagant claims to equality in all things with the Apostolic Church, that the peculiar influences of the Holy Spirit are vouchsafed to her Councils, as an infallible preservative from error. The glaring inconsistency of this belief with the pretensions of the Pope to a right of appeal from all Councils—even a General Council, is what JEWELL holds up to derision in the text. Harding upbraids him with jesting
in things touching God himself'_setting light by the Holy Ghost'-talking unreverently, and like a Christian hick-scorner.' JEWELL replies:
"We jest not at God's HOLY SPIRIT. We know it is the same Spirit of wisdom that hath renewed the face of the world, and discovered the multitude of your follies. But well may we jest at your unhandsome and open legerdemain, that so vainly seek to blind us with a painted shadow of the Spirit of God. Ye pretend Jong prayers, much fasting, great conference of doctors and Seriptures, and the undoubrul presence and assistance of God's Holy Spirit in all your doings, and yet openly strive against the manifest Word and Spirit of God, and follow only your own spirit, which we may truly call the spirit of vanity. The spirit that you mean, is nothing else
Secondly, it is also an unlawful dealing, to toss our matter from so many bishops and abbots, and to bring it at last' to the trial of one only man ;b specially of
but the spirit of Rome, which, you say, is 'the spirit of truth, and cannot err. In one of your late Councils holden at Rome, as ye were singing and roaring out Veni Creator Spiritus, a poor old owl, amazed with the noise, leaped out of the hole where she sat, and pitched down in the midst, and sat among you. (Nicolaus de Clavengiis.) Thus it pleased God to discover your hypocrisy, and your folly, that the world might know in what spirit ye were assembled.
"Elias, the prophet of God, jested thus at the priests of Baal: ? “Cry aloud : for he is a god; either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is in a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be awaked.. (1 Kings xviii. 27.) Yet neither was Elias a hick-scorner,' nor jested he at God's' Holy Spirit, nor did he any thing that was unseemly for his person.
“As for your Councils; whether they be all and evermore summoned by the SPIRIT OF God, or no, it may well be doubted. The University of Paris thus protested, by way of appeal, against Pope Leo the Tenth, and his Council of Rome : Dominus Leo Papa Decimus,' &c. 'Our Lord Pope Leo the Tenth, in a certain Council gathered in the city of Rome, by what mean we know not, but surely not by the Spirit of God.' (Apellatio Univers. Par. Anno 1517.) And touching your late Chapter, or Conventicle, which ye call the Council of Trent, the French king's ambassador, being there in presence, saith thus :
Minùs legitima,' &c. "The saying is, that these were neither lawful, nor free Councils. The bishops that were there, spake (not always of the Spirit of God, but) evermore to please some other :' by which other he meant the Pope. (Orat. Synod. Anno 1562.)”-Defence, p. 529, 530.]
” [Notwithstanding her belief of the guiding presence of the Holy Spirit in Councils, securing their infallibility; the Church of Rome maintains that their decrees (even those of a General Council) are not binding, unless ratified by the Pope. To this strange pretension JEWELL here alludes. He adds, in the Defence : Concerning the confirmation of Councils, we have spoken otherwhere (Reply to Harding's Answer to the Sermon at Paul's Cross, Art. IV. Div. 26.) more at large. Councils were confirmed not only by the bishop of Rome, but also by other bishops and patriarchs: and not only by other bishops, but also by kings and emperors. The emperor Marcian saith : "By the holy edict of our majesty we confirm this reverend Council.' (Conc. Chalcedon. Act. 3.) Likewise the bishops in the Council of Constantinople besought the emperor Theodosius : We beseech your clemency, that by your majesty's letters ye will ratify and confirm the decree of the Council.' (Conc. Constantinop. 1.) Touching the Council of the Apostles at Jerusalem, your own doctor saith : Postquam Petrus dixisset, Jacubus, authoritate pontificali, protulit definitivam sententiam. When Peter had said his mind, James, by his episcopal autho rity, pronounced the definitive sentence.' (JO. DE PARISIIS, Cap. 14.) That is to say, he gave his confirmation to the whole. By whịch sayhim who himself is appeached by us of heinous and foul enormities, and hath not yet put in his answer ; who hath also aforehand condemned us, without judgment by order pronounced, and ere ever we were called to be judged.
Sect. 7. How say ye? Do we devize these tales ? Is not this the very course of the Councils in these days? Are not all things removed from the whole holy Council, and brought before the Pope alone : that as though nothing had been done to purpose by the judgments and consents of such a number, he alone may add, alter, diminish, disannul, allow, remit, and qualify, whatsoever he list? Whose words be these, then ? And why have the bishops and abbots in the late Council at Trent concluded thus at the end : “Saving always the authority of the See Apostolic in all things ?"?c Or why doth Pope Paschald write so proudly of himself? “ As though' saith he“ there were any General Council able to prescribe a law to the Church of Rome : whereas all Councils both have been made, and have received their force and strength, by the authority of the Church of Rome; and in ordinances made by Councils is ever plainly ex
ing it may appear, that James was in authority above Peter : for he that pronounceth definitive sentence, in all assemblies is ever the greatest.
"To conclude; Councils have been allowed, and holden for good, whether the bishop of Rome would or no. LIBERATUS saith, when Anatolius by consent of the Council of Chalcedon had obtained the primacy, and the bishop of Rome's legates stood against it, their gainsaying of the judges and bishops there was not received.
"And notwithstanding the apostolic see of Rome even hitherto stand against it, yet the decree of the Council, by the authority and maintenance of the emperor, after a sort (quodammodo) standeth still in force.' (LIBERAT. Cap. 13.)".Defence, p. 530, 531.j
C "Postremo S. Synodus omnia et singula sub quibuscunque clausulis et verbis, quæ de morum reformatione atque ecclesiastica disciplina, tam sub felicibus recordationis Paulo III. ac Julio HII. quam sub beatissimo Pio IV. Pontificibus Maximis, in hoc saero Concilio statuta sunt ; declarat, ita decreta fuisse, ut in his salva semper auctoritas Sedis Apostolicæ, et sit, et esse intelligatur.”. Conc. Trid. Decret. Sese. XXV. Cap. xxi. De Reform.---p. 627 ed. Col. Ag. 1722.
á (Paschal II. succeeded Urban II. in the Papacy 1099, and died in 1818. He was involved in perpetual disputes on the subject of investitures, with Henry I. of England and the emperor Henry IV., the last of whom he dethroned, by intriguing with his rebellious subjects. See Note ), page 108.]