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only be eaten of the wicked and unfaithful men, but also (which is monstrous and horrible to be spoken) of mice and dogs.
We use to pray in our churches after that fashion as, according to Paul's lesson,d the people may know what we pray, and may answer Amen with a general consent.—These men, like sounding metal, yelle out in the churches unknown and strange words without understanding, without knowledge, and without devotion : yea, and do it of purpose because the people should understand nothing at all.
Sect. 11. But, not to tarry about rehearsing all points wherein we and they differ—for they have well nigh no end : we turn the Scriptures into all tongues; they scant suffer them to be had abroad in any tongue. We
1 I Cor. xiv. 15, 16, 19.
· [This expression is harsh. Yet it may be borne out by such passages as the following from the learned and pious Erasmus, who, though he never departed from the bosom of the Church of Rome, could see her folly and feel her shame.—'Homines suaves (he is speaking of the clergy of his day) se suo officio probe perfunctos aiunt, si preculas illas suas utcunque permurmurarint: quas, mehercle. d si quis Deus vel audiat, vel intelligat, cum ipsi fere nec audiant nec intelligant, tum cum eas ore perstrepunt. The darling men say that they have done their duty well, if they have muttered over their so called prayers after any sort; prayers, which, in sooth, I should wonder if the Deity either heard or understood, since they themselves neither hear nor understand them, even when they bawl them loudest. Encomium Moria, p. 149. ed. Lugd. Bat. 1641.—The Abbe MENAGE, a titular Romish ecclesiastic of France, has left in his collected Sayings, &c. a scandalous anecdote, the whole point of which consists in the resemblance between the chanting of an officiating Romish priest and the braying of an ass !)
f ["We gladly suffer them to be had in every place of Christendom in the learned tongues, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin,” says Harding in reply.
JEWELL answers : “ Ye can vouchsafe to allow the Scriptures in the three learned tongues, Greek, Hebrew, and Latin ! That is to say, in such sort as the simple people may in no wise touch them. But where did God ever sanctify these tongues, and call them learned? Or where were they ever so specially canonized and allowed, above all other tongues, to the custody of the Scriptures ? S. AUGUSTINE saith: 'Scriptura canonica tot linguarum literis, et ordine et successione celebrationis ecclesiasticæ custoditur.' "The 'canonical Scripture is kept in the letters of so many tongues, and by the order and succession of ecclesiastical publishing.' (Epist. 48.) Again he saith : 'Scriptura divina ab una lingua profecta, per varias interpretum linguas, longe
allure the people to read and to hear God's word :: they drive the people from it. We desire to have our cause known to all the world : they flee to come to any trial. We lean unto knowledge : they unto ignorance.
We trust unto light : they unto darkness. We reve· rence, as it becometh us, the writings of the Apostles
and Prophets : and they burned them. Finally, we in God's cause desire to stand to God's only judgment : they will stand only to their own.
Wherefore, if they will weigh all these things with a quiet mind, and fully bent to hear and to learn ; they will not only allow this determination of ours, who have forsaken errors and followed Christ and his Apostles, but themselves also will forsake their own selves, and join of their own accord to our side, to go with us.
lateque diffusa, innotuit gentibus ad salutem.' "The holy Scriptures, passing from one tongue, and being published abroad far and wide by surdry tongues of interpreters, have come to the knowledge of the nations to their salvation. (De Doctr. Christ. Lib. II. c. v.)”- Defence, p.516.--He goes on to quote, to the same effect, AUGUST. In Psalm. 105; CHRYSOSTOM, Hom. I. in Johan. ; JEROME, In Psalm. 86; and Theo. DORET, De Corrigend. Græcor. Affect. Lib. V.]
S[“ We teach not the people to presume of knowledge :--but only we exhort them, for the better satisfaction of their consciences, to read the Scriptures, and therein to learn the good will of God. And notwithstanding ye may not allow them to be judges, (that is to say, to discern between the light of God and your darkness,) yet ye might suffer them to pick out some small crumbs that fall from the LORD's table. Howbeit SOCRATES saith : "The simple unlearned people, in cases of truth, judgeth oftentimes more uprightly than the deepest philosophers.' (PLATONIS Apologia Socratis.) Likewise CHRIST saith :
I thank thee, o Father, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes.' (Matth. xi. 25.)" Defence, p.516.-He goes on to quote the opinions of AUGUSTIN, (Contr. Julian. Lib. V. c. 1-Epist. 3.-In Ps. 131.) CHRYSOSTOM, (In Matth. Hom. 1.) and CYRIL, (Contr. Julian. Lib. VII.) to the effect that the Scriptures are not unintelligible to the poor and unlearned, and that ignorance of saving truth cannot be excused on the score of difficulty in the word of God.]
The Use and Authority of Councils.
Sect. 1. But peradventure they will say it was treason to attempt these matters without a sacred General Council : for that therein consisteth the whole force of the Church; there Christ hath promised that he will ever be a present assistant. Yet they themselves, without tarrying for any General Council, have broken the commandments of God and the decrees of the Apostles, and, as we said a little above, they have spoiled and disannulled almost all, not only the ordinances, but even the doctrine of the primitive Church.
And where they say, It is not lawful to make a change without a Council :--what was he that gave us these laws? or from whence had they this injunction ?
Indeed king Agesilaus did but fondly in this behalf, who, when he had a determinate answer made him of the opinion and will of mighty Jupiter, would afterward bring the whole matter before Apollo, to know whether he would allow thereof, as his father Jupiter had done, or no. But yet should we do much more fondly, when we hear God himself plainly speak to us in his most holy Scriptures, and may understand by them his will and meaning, if we would afterward (as though this were of none eifect) bring our whole cause to be tried by a Council : which were nothing else but to ask whether men would allow as God did, and whether men would confirm God's commandment by their authority.
h [The allusion is to Matth. xviii. 20.)
i (“TERTULLIAN thus upbraideth the Heathens: 'Apud vos do humano arbitratu divinitas pensitatur:' 'Among you the right of the Deity is weighed by the judgment of men.' (in Apologetico.) But CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS saith: ‘Forasmuch as the Word itself (that is, Christ) is come to us from heaven, we may not now any more seek unto the doctrine of man.' (in Orat. ad Gentes.) Likewise S. CHRYSOSTOM saith: 'It had been great folly for St. Paul, having received his doctrine from God himself, afterward to confer thereof with men,' (in Ep. ad Galat. c. 1.) that is to say, with Peter, or James, or with any others.” Defence, p. 520.).
Sect. 2. Why, I beseech you; except a Council will and command, shall not truth be truth, or God be God? If Christ had meant to do so from the beginning, as that he would preach or teach nothing without the bishops' consent, but refer all his doctrine over to Annas and Caiaphas, where should now have been the Christian faith? Or who at any time should have heard the gospel taught ? Peter, verily—whom the Pope hath oftener in his mouth, and more reverently useth to speak of, than he doth of JESUS CHRIST-did boldly stand against the holy council, saying, “ Whether it be right in the sight of God, to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye.”k And after that Paul had once entirely embraced the gospel, and had received it, not from men, nor by man, but by the only will of God,' “he conferred not with flesh and blood," m nor brought his case before his kinsmen and brethren, but went forthwith into Arabia," to preach God's divine mysteries by God's only authority.
Sect. 3. Yet truly we do not despise Councils, assemblies, and conferences of bishops and learned men: neither have we done that we have done altogether without bishops, or without a Council. The matter hath been treated in open parliament,' with long consultation, and before a notable Synod and convocation.p
* Acts iv. 19. " Gal. 1. 12. m Gal. i. 16.
Gal. i. 17. o JEWELL refers to the first parliament in the reign of Elizabeth, held in 1559, in which the royal supremacy, and the Book of Common Prayer, somewhat altered from the form given it under Edward the Sixth, were established by law. A formal conference between nine theologians of either party was commenced during the sitting of this parliament, but broken off by the defection of the Romish disputants. The debates in both houses of parliament were full and protracted. The two houses of Convocation (the Bishops, and delegates from the clergy of the inferior orders) also, sat at the same time. ]
D JEWELL's cause would have been no worse, had it wanted this plea." The best friends of the Church of England have ever been ready to acknowledge that it would have been happy had parliament possessed a far less conspicuous share in its reformation. The measure was one of necessity : for although the great body of the people, and the principal nobility, were friendly to the reformation, yet a large majority of the clergy retained their attachment to the distinguishing dogmas of Popery, and were strenuous in their opposition to the measures taken for their suppression. Left to themselves, they would, in
But touching this Council which is now summoned by Pope Pius [IV.1,9 wherein men so lightly are condemned, being neither called, nor heard, nor seen; it is easy to guess what we may look for or hope of it. In times
all probability, have relapsed into quiet submission to the yoke of Rome. Lay influence was the instrument employed by the providence of God to effect the purification of his Church. But these extraordinary means, adapted to the exigencies of the case, can hardly afford ground of boasting; or even of defence, if defence were needed.' They were no modification of the ordinary machinery of the Church, but a substitute provided to perform its office, for which it was incapacitated by its corruption.
JEWELL's argument from the intervention of parliament in the regulation of the Church of England is based on the admission that a Council is indispensable. Yet to give it validity on that ground, it would be necessary to show the identity of a Council in the ecclesiastical sense of the term, with the Parliament-a political assembly convened for political purposes. This it would be impossible to do: and in consequence the argument falls to the ground; while the imprudent admission of the necessity of a Council would bear with all its weight against the Reformation. "
There is much more sound wisdom in the following paragraph of the Defence :-"We will not discuss the right and interest of the Parhaments of England. As much as concerneth God's everlasting truth, we hold not by Parliament, but by GOD. Parliaments are uncertain, and often contrary, as we have seen : but God's truth is one, and certain, and never changeth.”
JEWELL's answer to the reproach that the Reformation was a work of parliament, which his adversary eagerly embraced the opportunity, afforded him by the argument in the text, to cast, is worth transcription.—"Further, whereas ye call the doctrine of Christ, that now, hy God's great mercy, and to your great grief, is universally and freely preached, a parliament religion, and a parliament gospel, ye might have remembered, that Christ himself at the beginning was universally received and honoured through this realm by assent of parliament: and further, that without parliament your Pope himself was never received, no, not in the late time of Queen Mary. Therefore, as ye now call the truth of God that we profess a parliament religion, and a parliament gospel ; even so, with like sobriety and gravity of speech, ye might have said our fathers in old times had a parliament CHRIST, and your late fathers and brethren had of late, in the time of Queen Mary, a parliament fuith, a parliament mass, and a parliament Pope." p. 521, 522.)
9 The Council of Trent. See Notes , page 22; and 3, page 23.]
ri" In your old Latin translation of the Bible, there be sundry errors, so open and so gross, that a very babe may soon espy them : as it may more plainly appear by BUDÆUS, ERASMUS, VALLA, FABER, LINDANUS, and others who have at various times, published criticisms, or lists of the errors in the Vulgate.) Yet, that notwithstanding, your Co incil saith precisely thus : Ne quis veterem vulgatam editionem