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of the ancient holy fathers ever said, that you are not a mere natural man, but a certain substance made and grown together of God and man?h Which of the ancient fathers ever said, that you are the only head. spring of all laws ?-_Which of the ancient fathers ever said, that you have power over purgatory ?iWhich of the ancient fathers ever said, that you are able to command the angels of God as ye list yourself ?k --Which of the ancient fathers ever said, that you are the Lord of lords, and King of kings?

ter [Council) at Trent, oftentimes calleth the Pope "Terrenum Deum ; "an earthly God.'—Upon the Pope's own Clementines, [one of the divisions of the Canon Law) ye shall find the matter thus taken up, and qualified with great indifference and modesty, and thus specially noted in the margin, 'Papa nec Deus est, nec homo :' "The Pope is neither God nor man.' (Extrav. Johan. XXII. Cum inter.) And to leave other his blasphenious and fond styles, in another like Gloss, ye shall find it written thus : 'Credere DOMINUM DEUM NOSTRUM PAPAM non potuisse statuere, prout statuit, hæreticum censeretur.' "To believe that OUR LORD GOD THE Pope might not decree, as he decreed, it were a matter of heresy. (Ibid. in Glossa.) Thus, and even with the self-same express words, hath it been printed often, and in sundry places, (at Paris, anno 1513, and at Lyons, anno 1555.) Yet have I not heard of any Pope that ever found fault with the printing.

“These things might seem incredible, had not St. Paul foretold us, that the man of sin’ should sit in the temple of God,' showing himself that he is God.' (2 Thess. ii.)- EUSEBIUS saith, (Præparatio Evang. Lib. VII.) “This is a token that they hate God, for they will have themselves called by the name of God.'» Defence, p. 481.)

h ["In the Pope's own Decretals (one of the divisions of the Canon Law,) it is noted thus in the margin : Papa non est homo :' "The Pope is not man.' (In Sext. de electione.) Your Gloss upon the Pope's own Clementines allegeth these words out of one of your allowed poets : 'Papa stupor mundi :' "The Pope is the wonder of the world.'* And again : 'Nec Deus es, nec homo : quasi neuter es inter utrunque: "Thou art neither god, nor man : in a manner thou art neither of both. but rather a mean between both.'”Defence, p. 481.]

ip"One of your allowed doctors (Angelus PARISIENSIS) saith : 'Purgatorium est peculium Papæ :' 'Purgatory is the peculiar possession of the Pope. I trow, as being a college only of his own foundation.” Defence, p. 482.]

A [“FELINUS, your doctor, saith thus : ‘Nedum circa cælestia, terrestria, et infernalia Papa gerit vicariatum Christi, sed etiam super angelos bonos et malos : "The Pope acts as vicar of Christ, not only over things in heaven, in earth, and in hell; but also over the good and bad angels.' (Extra de Constitut. Statuta Conon. Felin.) INNOCENT the Pope himself saith : Vicario Creatoris omnis creatura subjecta est :' 'Unto the vicar of the CREATOR every creature is subject. Your own doctor ANTONINUS the Archbishop of Florence saith : 'Potestas Papæ,' &c. "The power of the Pope is greater than any other created power,

VOL. III.-15

Sect. 8. We can also go further with you in like sort. What one amongst the whole number of the old bishops and fathers ever taught you, either to say private mass, while the people stared on, or to lift up the sacrament over your head ;' in which points consisteth now all your religion? Or else to mangle Christ's sacraments, and to bereave the people of the one part thereof, contrary to Christ's institution, and plain express words?

But that we may once come to an end: What one is there of all the fathers which hath taught you to distribute CHRIST's blood, and the holy martyrs' merits, and to sell openly your pardons, [indulgences,] and all the roomsm and lodgings of purgatory, as a gainful kind of merchandize ?"

Sect. 9. These men are wont to speak much of a certain secret doctrine [learning] of theirs, and of their

in some manner extending to things celestial, terrestrial, and infernal : so that of it the saying is verified, Thou hast put all things under his feet.' (In Summa, Part. III. Tit. xxii. Cap. 5. ante 8)” Defence, p. 483.

1 [See Note i page 60.]

m (Rooms—places. So in Matth. xxiii. 6; Mark xii. 39; Luke xiv. 7, 8, 9, 10; xx. 46.]

u [Roffensis (Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, the martyr for the Pope's supremacy under Henry the Eighth ;) saith: 'Ego respondeo, Non satis constare,' &c. 'I answer, It cannot well appear from whom pardons first began. Among the ancients there was either no mention of purgatory, or very little. As long as there was no care for purgatory, no one sought indulgences. For on it depends the whole value of indulgences.' (Contra Lutherum.)-JOHANNES Major [a Scholastic divine of some eminence, of the early part of the sixteenth century ;] saith : ‘De indulgentiis pauca,' &c. 'Of pardons little may be said with certainty; for the Scripture does not speak of them expressly. For what was said to Peter, To thee will I give the keys, &c. must certainly be understood with a grain of salt. Therefore some of the indulgences, which extend to twenty thousand years, are foolish and superstitious.' (In 4 Sent, Dist. 20. Quæst. 2.)—Your School doctors themselves are wont sometime to say, 'Inventio indulgentiarum,' &c. “The invention of indulgences is a pious fraud and deceit without evil, by which the people is drawn to piety by a useful error.' (VESSELIUS.)

- Here, M. Harding, ye see the antiquity, authority, and best countenance, of your pardons ; that they flowed first out of the sinks of your purgatory, as one vanity floweth out of another : you see, that your pardons sometimes may be superstitious, and full of folly : you see that the sale of your pardons is a godly guile, and a devout kind of error, to lead the people. This is the fairest colour ye can devize to lay upon it. But miserable is that people, that must be led by guile and error!" Defence, p. 486.]

manifold and sundry readings. Let them, therefore, bring forth somewhat now if they can, that it may appear they have at least read, or do know, somewhat. They have often stoutly noised in all corners where they went, that all the parts of their religion be very old, and have been approved, not only of the multitude, but also by the consent and continual observation of all nations and times. Let them, therefore, once in their life show this their antiquity. Let them make appear to the eye, that the things whereof they make such ado, have taken so long and large increase.' Let them declare (make it appear] that all Christian nations have agreed by consent to this their religion.

Nay, nay, they turn their backs, as we have said already, and flee from their own decrees, and have cut off and abolished again within a short space the same things which but a few years before themselves had established, for evermore, forsooth, to continue. How should one then trust them in the fathers, in the old Councils, and in the words spoken by God? They have not, good LORD! they have not, I say, those things which they boast they have : they have not that antiquity, they have not that universality, they have not that consent, neither of all places, nor of all times. And though they have a desire rather to dissemble, yet they themselves are not ignorant hereof: yea, and sometime also they let shesitate] not to confess it openly. And for this cause they say, that the ordinances of the old councils and fathers be such, as may now and then be altered; and that sundry and divers decrees serve for sundry and divers times of the Church. Thus lurk they under the name of the Church, and beguile silly creatures with their vain glozing. It is to be marvelled, that either men be so blind, that they cannot see this ; or if they see it, that they be so patient, so lightly and quietly to bear it.

Sect. 10. But whereas they have commanded that those decrees should be void, as things now waxen too old, and that have lost their grace ; perhaps they have provided, in their stead, certain other better things, and more profitable for the people. For it is a common saying with them, that · if Christ himself, or the Apostles, were alive again, they could neither better, nor more godly, govern God's Church, than it is at this present governed by them.'. They have put somewhat in their stead, indeed : but it is chaff instead of wheat, as Jeremiah saith,p and such things as, according to Isaiah the prophet's word, God • never required at their hands. They have stopped up all the veins of the clear springing water, and have digged up for the people deceivable and puddle-like pits, full of mire and filth, which neither have, nor are able to hold, pure water. They have plucked away from the people the holy Communion; the word of God, from whence all comfort should be taken ;s the true worshipping of God

O ["One of your friends saith : ' Apostolorum temporibus rudis adhuc erat Ecclesia: 'In the times of the Apostles the Church was as yet unfinished.' (LATOMUS de Utraque Specie.) Another saith :

Omnes sanctiones,' &c. 'All the laws of the apostolic see are so to be received, as if they were confirmed by the divine voice of Peter himself.' (ANDREAS BARBATUS ad Bessarionem.) "-Defence, p. 488.]

p jer. xxiii. 28.
9 Isa. i. 12.
r Jer. ii. 13.

o [In the Defence, JEWELL quotes at length Justin MARTYR, (Apol. II.) TERTULLIAN, (in Apol. c. 39 ; Ad Uxorem, Lib. II.) CYPRIAN," (Epist. Lib. V. Ep. 5.) ORIGEN, (Hom. 15 in Josuam; Hom. 5 in Leviticum.) Chrysostom, (Hom. 19 in Act.) AUGUSTIN, (in Ps. 36; Cont. Crescon. Lib. I. c. 9.; in Ps. 66.) LEO, (de Res. Dom. Serm. 2.; de Pass. Dom. Serm. 19.) the fifth Council of Constantinople, (Act. 1.) and the Council of Laodicea, (Can. 16.) in proof of the primitive and universal usage of the stated reading of the Scriptures in public worship. With this he contrasts the usages of the Romish Church : "there you may hear,

Ave mater Anna

Plena melle canna.' ('Hail, mother Anna; Cane full of honey!") And at the hallowing [consecration] of your Agnos Dei, (small cakes of white wax, stamped with the figure of a lamb, and blessed with much pomp and ceremony by the Pope himself, on particular festivals,] in cometh a post in haste, and sweating, and telleth the Pope, Domine, Domine, Domine: Isti sunt Agni novelli, qui annuntiaverunt Alleluia. Modo venerunt ad fontes,' &c. (“Sir, Sir, Sir: These are new born lambs, which have proclaimed Hallelujah. Now they have come to the fountains,' &c.) Here is pretty gear to comfort the conscience ! as good as a song of Robin Hood! Better were it for you to sit dumb in the Church of God, than thus to speak!

“Your churches are full, not only of spiritual, but also of corporal and horrible dumbness. Of all that is said or done there, be it never so fond [foolish] the poor godly people knoweth nothing. S. AUGUSTIN saith: 'Si intellectum,' &c. *If ye remove the understanding of the

also, and the right use of Sacraments and prayer : and have given us of their own to play withal in the mean. while, salt, water,“ oil, boxes, w spittle, palms,: bulls," jubilees,” pardons, crosses, a censings, and an endless rabble of ceremonies : and, as a man might term them, with Plautus, ludos ludificabiles, pretty games to make sport withal.

Sect. 11. In these things have they set all their religion ; teaching the people that by the same God may be duly pacified, spirits be driven away, and men's conmind, no man is edified by hearing what he cannot understand.' (De Gen. ad Lit. Lib. XII. c, viii.) Chrysostom (in Matth. Hom. 131) saith: 'They have lost both their labour in hearing, and also the time. For he that understandeth not what he heareth, loseth the thing that he heareth.'— Touching the prayers that simple people make in a tongue unknown, CHRIST saith : This people honoureth me with their lips : but their hearts are far from me.' (Maith. xv.8.)” Defence, p. 489–491.)

t Salt is used in the consecration of water for baptism in the Church of Rome. It is a custom of considerable antiquity, and probably derived from our Saviour's frequent allusions to the true doctrines and spirit of Christianity under the figure of salt.]

w [The manifold imaginary virtues of the holy water (consecrated by the priest with set forms of prayer and benediction, and kept in its assigned receptacle just within the doors of all Romish churches) are notorious.]

» [Oil is used by the Romish Church in the administration of confirmation, and in the pretended sacrament of Extreme Unction]

w (JEWELL probably alludes to the pyx or repository in which the consecrated wafer is kept ; whence it is taken with much ceremony at the celebration of masses; and in which it is paraded in procession.]

3 [Used in a procession made on the Sunday before Easter, (thence called Palm Sunday,) in commemoration of our Saviour's triumphant entry into Jerusalem. ]

y [The solemn edicts of the Pope are called bulls, because sealed with a leaden seal, resembling the ornament (bulla) formerly worn on the neck of the youth of Rome.

3 [Pope Boniface VII, in the year 1300, established a centennial festival, or Jubilee, on which extraordinary indulgences were to be granted to all such as should make a pilgrimage to Rome, and visit certain places of reputed sanctity. The festival attracted vast crowds, and was found to be exceedingly lucrative to the Papal see. This induced Clement VI. before fifty years had expired, to reduce the interval to that period; and in 1475 its return was hastened to every twentyfifth year. "Since then it has continued to be observed at that interval.]

a (The use of the crucifix, or carved image of the Saviour extended on the cross; and of the sign of the cross, made with the fingers, or hand, in blessing, praying, &c. in the Church of Rome, is notorious,

[The burning of incense by one of the assisting acolythes (ar inferior ministers, generally boys) during the celebration of the mass.)

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