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But if there be any that think these above rehearsed authorities be but weak and slender, because they were decreed by Emperors, and certain petite [petty] bishops, and not by so full and perfect Councils, taking pleasure rather in the authority and name of the Pope : let such an one know, that Pope Juliusk doth evidently forbid that a priest in ministering the Communion should dip the bread in the cup. These men, contrary to Pope Julius' decree, divide the bread, and dip it in the wine.

Pope Clement saith, it is not lawful for a bishop to deal with both swords ;m “ For if thou wilt have both,” saith he,“ thou shalt deceive both thyself and those that obey thee."--Now-a-days the Pope challengeth to himself both swords, and useth both. Wherefore it ought to seem less marvel if that have followed, which CLEMENT saith, that is, that “he hath deceived both himself, and those which have given ear unto him.”n

saith POLYDORE Virgil: "Multorum Divorum,' &c. "They read the lives of many saints although written with little attention to the truth.' (In Oration. Dominic.) Ludovicus Vives writing of your Legenda Aurea (Golden Legend) which was the mother of all your devout ecclesiastical stories or fables, saith thus: "Nescio cur,' &c. 'I know not why it should be called Golden ; for it must have been written by a man with a forehead of iron, and a heart of lead, and is full of the most impudent lies.' (Leon. LAVATERus in Prov. Salomonis, p. 134.)” Defence, p. 463.

ERASMUS, P. Virgil, and Vives, were all writers of the sixteenth century, Papists until their death, and men of talents, learning, and integrity.]

* [Julius I. succeeded Mark in the See of Rome, A. D. 337, and filled it until 352. He was a man of learning and piety. Two of his letters to ATHANASIUS, whoin he warmly supported, are extant in the works of that father, and display considerable ability.]

| De Consecrat. Distinct. Il. Cum omne crimen.

m [That is, the spiritual and the temporal—the power of inflicting both temporal and spiritual penalties.]

[The quotation in this paragraph is confused.--"I know not by what error,” says JewELL, " in this place two sundry authorities, the one of CLEMENT, the other of S. BERNARD, were joined in one, and hoch alleged and set forth under the name only of CLEMENT. there was herein an oversight.--The words of CLEMENT are as you report them. The words of BERNARD, written unto Pope Eugenius, are these : 'Planum est,' &c. 'It is plain, that unto the Apostles of Christ, lordship (or temporal princehood) is forbidden. Go thou thy way therefore (thus he saith to the Pope) and dare thou to usurp, either the apostleship, being a lord ; or the lordship, being an apostle. From one of them undoubtedly thou art forbidden. If thou wilt indif

I grant

Pope Leo' saith, “Upon one day it is lawful to say but one Mass in one church.”—These men say daily in one church, commonly ten Masses, twenty, thirty, yea, oftentimes more. So that the poor gazer on can scant tell which way he were best to turn himself.

Pope Gelasius saith, it is a wicked deed, and subject to sacrilege, to divide the Communion, and when he hath received one kind, to abstain from the other.pThese men, contrary to God's word, and contrary to Pope Gelasius, command that one kind only of the holy Communion be given to the people: and by so doing, they make their priests guilty of sacrilege.

Sect. 6. But if they will say, that all these things are worn now out of ure (use) and nigh dead, and pertain nothing to these present times : yet to the end all 'folk may understand what faith is to be given to these men, and upon what hope they call together their General Councils, 9 let us see in few words what good heed they take to the self same thing, which they themselves, these very last

years, (and the remembrance thereof is yet new and fresh,) in their own General Council that they

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ferently have both, thou wilt lose both. (De Consideratione, Lib. II.)" Defence, p. 465.

Harding had quoted Clement in Latin. Neither he nor Jewell have stated to what Clement they refer.--It is the pseudo-Clement in the Clementines, Epist. Clem. ad Jac.c. vi., where the passage quoted stands : Επεί εάν βιωτικάις μερίμναις ασχοληθής, και σεαυτόν και τους ακροατές ενεδρεύσεις. 'For if thou be burdened with the cares of this life, thou wilt deceive both thyself and thy hearers.'—Of course the passage is evidence of nothing more than the opinion of some obscure writer of the third or fourth century.]

[Leo I., surnamed the Great, one of the most eminent in the Papal list, succeeded to the See of Rome in 440. He bore a signal part in the attempts to settle the disputes with the Pelagians, Priscillianists

, Nestorians, and Eutychians. After a busy episcopate, oceupied with ecclesiastical feuds and temporal negotiations in the midst of devastating wars, he died in 461. He lefi a number of works principally Sermons, which have been published in one folio volume.]

po De Consecrat. Distinct. 2. Comperimus. [See p. 54, note m?

9 [The convocation of a General Council was a constant proposition of the Romish Church, as the means of procuring the reformation, the need of which, in answer to the strong remonstrances of princes of her own communion, she dared not have the hardihood to deny. For a time, a portion of the reformers had sanguine hopes of good results from such a measure.

But long before JEWELL wrote, the nature of the pre


had by order called, have decreed and commanded to be devoutly kept.

In the last Council at Trent, scant fourteen years past, it was ordained by the common consent of all degrees, 6. That one man should not have two benefices at one

What is become now of that ordinance ? Is the same, too, soon worn out of mind, and clean consumed? For these men, ye see, give to one man, not two benefices only, but sundry Abbeys: many times; sometimes also two bishoprics, sometime three, sometime four ;' and that not only to an unlearned man, but oftentimes also even to men of war.

In the said Council a decree was made, that “all bishops should preach the gospel." _These men neither preach, nor once go up into the pulpit; neither think they it any part of their office.v


parations for the Council held at Trent had undeceived them; and the decrees of that Council had proved the resolution of the Papal See to retain the whole mass of its corruptions.]

[“Nemo quacunque etiam dignitate, gradu, aut præeminentia præfulgens, plures Metropolitanas seu Cathedrales Ecclesias, in titulum, seu commendam, aut alio quovis nomine-retinere præsumat.” Sessió vii. De Reform. cap. 2.]

s [An Abbey or Abbacy is the presidency of a monastery. Many of the Abbots of the larger monasteries are possessed of large revenues ; exempted from episcopal jurisdiction; entitled to wear the mitre, and to a seat in provincial councils; and in short very little inferior, either in power or dignity, to bishops.]

i [Cardinal de Luca, in his Annotationes ad S. S. Conc. Trident., a work bound up with the best editions of the Decrees of that Council, avows this explicitly. " Adhuc tamen, ista decreto non obstante, firma remansit plurium Metropolitanarum, vel Cathedralium antiqua unio,-ut frequens in Italia hujusmodi unionum usus habetur.” Annot. Disc. vii. & 3. p. 30. ed. Col. 1722.]

u ["Statuit et decrevit sancta Synodus, omnes episcopos, archiepiscopos, primates, et omnes ecclesiarum prælatos teneri per seipsos, si legitime impediti non fuerint, ad prædicandum sanctum JESU CHRISTI evangelium." Sessio V. De Reformat. Cap. 2.]

(The acknowledgment of the Cardinal De Luca is not less explicit in this case than in the preceding; and is even amusing by its naivete : Rarius autem hodie in episcopis et archiepiscopis usus est prædicationis per seipsos, sed illud explent in statutis Adventus et Quadragesimæ temporibus per concionatores, qui ex peculiari studio ac professione id agunt." '--"At the present day bishops and archbishops rarely preach in their own person, but at the appointed seasons of Advent and Lent, they fulfil the duty by preachers who make it their peculiar study and profession!" Annot. &c. Discurs. iii

. $ 2. p. 12. It is related of one who thus 'fulfilled the duty', that being asked Wþo, fed his

What great pomp and crake, [boasting,] then, is this they make of antiquity? Why brag they so of the names of the ancient fathers, and of the New and Old Councils? Why will they seem to trust to their authority, whom, when they list, they despise at their pleasure ?

Sect. 7. But I have a special fancy to commune a word or two rather with the Pope's good holiness, and to say these things unto his own face :

:- Tell us, I pray you, good holy father, seeing ye do crake so much of all antiquity, and boast yourself that all men are bound to you alone ; which of all the fathers have at any time called you by the name of the Highest Prelate, the Universal Bishop, or the Head of the Universal Church ?w—Which of the ancient fathers or doctors

spiritual flock ? he replied that he did it by proxy. But if your deputy should do it ill

, and your people's souls be lost, will you be damned by proxy ? was the rejoinder.]

["Ye answer us, 'S. JEROME so called him, in the book Contra Luciferianos. For his words be plain Summus Sacerdos.'—But what if it be found, that these words belong no more to the Pope, than to any other particular bishop ?—Call to your remembrance, M. Harding, your own words, uttered, not elsewhere, but even in this self same book. The words of S. JEROME be these : "The safety of the Church hangeth upon the dignity of the highest priest.' Hereupon ye say : This peerless authority S. Jerome in that place doth attribute to the bishop of every diocese. (M. Hard. p. 204 b.) And thus, by M. Harding's own exposition, not only the Pope, but also the bishop of any other diocese, is called by S. Jerome the highest priest. But, for thy better satisfaction, good Christian reader, it is well known to any mean student in divinity, that not only the bishop of Rome, but also every other bishop, within his own diocese was commonly called the highest priest, for that, within his own diocese, of all other priests he was the highest. TERTULLIAN saith : 'Dandi baptismum jus habet summus sacerdos, qui est episcopus.' "The highest priest, that is, the bishop, hath authority to minister baptism.? (De Baptismo, c. xvii.) S. AugusTINE saith: 'Quid est episcopus, nisi primus presbyter, hoc est, summus sacerdos ?" "What is the bishop, but the first presbyter, that is, the high priest ?' (Quæst. ex utroque Test. Quæst. 101.) S. AMBROSE; writing not unto the Pope, but unto Felix the bishop of Comum, in France, saith : 'Suscepisti gubernacula summi sacerdotii.' "Thou hast taken the helm of the high priesthood. (Lib. I. Epist. 5.) Again he saith, speaking likewise of any one bishop: "Vidisti summum sacerdotem interrogantem et consecrantem.' "Thou sawest the high priest examining (the people that was to be baptized) and consecrating (the water). (De Tis qui initiantur. c. 3.)—I leave out sundry other ]ike authorities of Origen, of LACTANTIUs, of ATHANASIUS, of Leo, of VICTOR, of MILTIADES, and of others. 'EVAGRIUS (Lib. VII. C. Xxxü.)

ever said that both the swords are committed unto you? :—Which of the ancient fathers ever said, that you have authority and right to call councils ?5–

calleth Euphemius and Gregorius, the bishops of Antioch, ap.X?&pels

the highest priests.' RUFFINUS (Lib. II. c. xxviii.) calleth Athanasius the bishop of Alexandria, 'Pontificem maximum''the greatest (or highest) bishop.'-—By these, I trust, it may appear, that the title or dignity of the highest priest’ood was general, and common to all bishops; and not only closed up and mortised only in the Pope.

“Besides this ye bring us 'a word' ye say of greater sound.' 'In Romana ecclesia semper viguit apostolicæ cathedræ principatus.' 'In the Roman Church the princehood of the apostolic chair has always flourished.' (August. Epist. 162.)—But what if this word princehood be no more peculiar to the Pope, than is the other of highest priesthood ? PAULINUS writing unto Alypius, not the great bishop of Rome, but the poor bishop, as I remember, of Tagasta, saith thus : Deus in civibus civitatis suæ principalem te cum principibus populi sui, apostolica sede collocavit.' 'God hath placed thee amongst the citizens of his city, in the apostolic seat, being a principal (or a chief) with the princes (that is to say, the other bishops) of his people.' Epist. inter Epist. August. Ep. 35.) Here have you found the princehood of the see apostolic, not only in Rome, but also in the poor city of Tagasta. Likewise Chrysostom saith, (De Orando Deum, Lib. I.) 'Paul the prince of the Apostles calleth on us to be always praying. So saith S. GREGORY, (in 1 Lib. Reg. c. 10. Lib. IV. c. iv.) “Paulus obtinuit totius Ecclesiæ principatum.' 'Paul obtained the princehood of the whole Church. So saith LEO, (Epist. 62.) 'Juvenalis Episcopus ad obtinendum Palestinæ provinciæ principatum,' &c. 'Bishop Juvenal, that he might obtain the princehood of the Province of Palestine,' &c. It was great folly, therefore, these titles thus lying in common, to encroach the same only to the Pope.” Defence, p. 467, 468.]

* (In answer to this challenge, HARDING quoted BERNARD. JEWELL replies: “S. BERNARD's authority in this case is but simple. He lived eleven hundred years after Christ's ascension, in the time of King Henry the First, the king of England; in the midst of the Pope's rout and tyranny. Howbeit, touching his judgment and credit herein, let us rather hear one of your own doctors. HERVÆUS therefore saith thus, (JOHAN. DE PARISIIS, De Potest Regia, Cap. 11.) 'Bernardas ponit, &c. 'Bernard saith, that the Pope hath the material (or temporal) sword at his command. But this, besides that it is of small force, maketh also more against them, than for them.'—Likewise ye may find it written in your own Decrees, [the first division of the Canon Law,} under the name of S. CYPRIAN, that Christus actibus propriis, et dignitatibus distinctis, officia potestatis utriusque discrevit. Christ hath (not committed both these swords into one man's hand, but) by several duties, and sundry dignities, severed the offices of either power.' (Distinct. 10. Quoniam idem.) Whereupon your own Gloss saith thus : 'Ergo est argumentum,' &c. “This therefore is a proof, that the Pope hath not both the swords.' "-Defence, p. 469.]

[In reply to this inquiry, HARDING cited Socrates and SozoMEN in EPIPHANIUS' translation, (Hist. Tripartit. Lib. IV. c. ix., Lib. III.

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