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as that most holy man Justin Martyr said of himself, we would not believe Gop himself, if he should teach us another gospel.]' For where these men bid the holy Scriptures away as dumb and fruitless, and procure us to come to God himself rather, who speakethin the Church and in their Councils—that is to say, to believe their fancies and opinions—this way of finding out the truth is very uncertain, and exceeding dangerous, and in manner a fantastical and mad way, and by no means allowed of the holy fathers.p ChrysosTOM saith : “ There be many oftentimes which boast themselves of the Holy Ghost : but truly whoso speak of their own head, do falsely boast that they have the SPIRIT OF God." 6. For like as saith he, “ Christ denied he spake of himself, when he spake out of the Law and Prophets ; even so now, if any thing be pressed upon us in the name of the Holy Ghost, save the gospel, we ought not to believe it. For as Chris'r is the fulfilling of the Law and Prophets, so is the Holy Ghost the fulfilling of the gospel.” Thus far goeth Chrysostom.

· [The passage in brackets is inserted from the translation in the Fathers of the Church of England. Although in the original Latin, it is not given in the text of the ' Apology' printed by JEWELL with his ' Defence. Probably his better judgment inclined him to omit an overstrained expression which it would have been difficult to defend.]

p ["Neither do we despise the authority of Councils. Good Councils be grave, and reverend. But thus we say : Councils are often against Councils. And if we make reckoning of number, the Arian heretics have had more councils than the Christians. JEROME saith : 'SPIRITUS SANCTI doctrina,' &c. "That is the doctrine of the Holy Ghost, that is set abroad in the canonical Scriptures : against which doctrine if Councils determine any thing, I think it wicked.' (In Epist. ad Galat.)--And to increase the uncertainty hereof, the whole weight and judgment of Councils hangeth now evermore she means, of course, in the opinion of the Church of Rome,) upon the Pope ; as it may appear by these words of the conclusion of the late Chapter (Council] of Trent: 'Salva semper in omnibus sedis Apostolicæ authoritate :' "The authority of the Apostolic See in all things evermore reserved.' (Conc. Trid. Sess. vi.) W hereby it appeareth, that the determination of matters hangeth not of the Council, but of the Pope. But PLATINA saith : 'Acta priorum Pontificum sequentes Pontifices semper aut infringunt, aut omnino tollunt:' "The Popes that follow do evermore either break, or wholly abrogate, the decrees of the Popes that were before. (In Stephano.) And thus being turned from all other bishops unto Councils, from Councils unto the Pope, and from one Pope to another, we shall evermore build upon sand, and uncertainty, and never be assured where to stand.” Defence, p. 433 s.)


The Fathers and Councils not opposed to Protestants.

Section 1. But here I look they will say, Though they have not the Scriptures, yet it may chance they have the ancient doctors (teachers) and the holy fathers with them. For this is a high brag they have ever made, how that all antiquity, and a continual consent of all ages, doth make on their side : and that all our cases be but new, and yesterday's work; and until these few late years were never heard of.

Questionless, there can nothing be more spitefully spoken against the religion of God, than to accuse it of novelty, as a matter lately found out: for as there can be no change in God himself, so ought there to be no change in his religion.

Yet nevertheless, we wot not by what means, but we have ever seen it come to pass, from the first beginning, that as often as God did give but some light, and open his truth unto men; though the truth were not only of greatest antiquity, but also from everlasting; yet of wicked men, and of the adversaries, it was called new-fangled, and of late devised." That ungra

9 [" The truth of God neither is furthered by the face of antiquity, nor hindered by the opinion of novelty. For oiten times the thing that indeed is new, is condemned as old: and the thing that indeed is old, is condemned as new. If newness in religion in all respects and every where were ill, Christ would not have resembled his doctrine to new wine,' (Matth. ix. 17;) nor would he have said unto his disciples, ' A new commandment I give unto you,' (John xii. 31;) neither would he have called the 'cup of thanksgiving the new testament in his blood.' (Luke xxii. 20.) ARNOBIUS saith : (Contra Gentes, Lib. II.) * Religionis authoritas non est tempore æstimanda, seil numine: nec qno die, sed quid colere cæperis, intueri convenit. Quod verum est, serum non est : The authority of religion must be weighed by God, (hy the certainty of its divine origin,) and not by time. It behoveth us to consider, not upon what day, but what thing we began to worship. The thing that is true, is never too late. » Defence, p. 436.]

(" Ye say, "They were infidels only, that charged the religion of CHRisT with novelty. And further ye say, 'We tell them, that all new doctrine now in the Church of Christ is naught.' Hereto, M. Harding, we soon agree. And therefore we tell you, that your nera

Vol. III.-13

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cious' and blood-thirsty Haman, when he sought to procure the king Ahasuerus' displeasure against the Jews, used this accusation against them : “ There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the people in all the provinces of thy kingdom: and their laws are diverse from all people; neither keep they the king's laws." When Paul also, began first to preach and expound the gospel at Athens, he was called “ a setter forth of strange gods”._as much as to say, of a new religion ; for said the Athenians,“ May we not know of thee what this new doctrine, of which thou speakest, is ?” CELsus likewise, when he of set purpose wrote against CHRIST, to the end he might more scornfully scoff out the gospel by the name of novelty : “ What,” saith he, “hath God after so many ages now at last, and so late, bethought himself ?"w EUSEBIUS also writeth, that the Christian religion, from the beginning, for very spite, was called véa kaì tévn, that is to say, new and strange..

Sect. 2. After like sort, these men condemn all our matters as strange and new : but they will have their own, whatsoever they are, to be praised as things of long continuance. Wherein they do much like to the conjurers and sorcerers now-a-days, who working with devils, use to say, They have their books and all their holy and hid mysteries from Athanasius, Cyprian, Moses, Abel, Adam, and from the Archangel Raphael; to the end that their cunning’ being thought to come from fantasies, which ye have painted with the colour of ancienty, and therewith have deceived the world, are naught. As for us, we have planted no new religion ; but only have renewed the old, that was undoubtedly founded and used by the Apostles of Christ, and other holy fathers in the primitive Church, and of this late time, by means of your traditions and vanities, hath been drowned." Defence, p. 436.]

* [The word 'ungracious' is here used to signify impious ; the original Latin being 'impius.' So the word 'gracious' came into very common use among the Puritans, to express the possession of Christian graces.]

1 Esther iii. 8.
* Acts xvii. 18.

Acts xvii. 19.
w ORIGEN contra Celsum.
* Eusebii Hist. Eccles. Lib. I. c. iv. init. et fin.

Y [It seems that JEWELL was not free from the superstitions of his age concerning witchcraft.] » [Cunning-skill; science. So in Ps. cxxxvii. 5.)

such patrons and founders, might be judged the more high and holy. After the same manner, these men, because they would have their own religion, which they themselves, and that not long since, have brought forth into the world, to be the more easily and rather accepted of foolish persons, or of such as cast little whereabout they or others do go; they are wont to say, They had it from AUGUSTIN, JEROME, CHRYSOSTOM, from the Apostles, and from Christ himself. Full well know they, that nothing is more in the people's favour, or better liketh the common sort, than these names.

Sect. 3. But how if the things which these men are so desirous to have seem new, be found of greatest antiquity ? Contrariwise, how if all the things well nigh, which they so greatly set forth with the name of antiquity, having been well and thoroughly examined, be at length found to be but new, and devised of very late ? Soothly to say, no man that hath a true and right consideration, would think the Jews' laws and ceremonies

a [“The Bishop of Sidon, in the late diet of the Empire holden at Augusta (Augsburg) avouched openly, that ye had your whole Canon [of the Mass) from the Apostles of CHRIST, word by word, even as it is peevishly written in your Mass-books. ANDREUS BARBATUS proveth the antiquity of the Cardinals of Rome by these words, written in the first book of Kings [1 Sam. ii. 8.] 'Domini sunt cardines terræ : et posuit super eos orbem. [This is the Vulgate version, recognized as of equal authority with the Hebrew by the Church of Rome.] 'The corners of the earth are the Lord's; and upon them hath he set the world.' Abbot Panormitan saith : Cardinalatus est de jure divino : quia Papa per sacerdotes Leviticos intelligit Cardinales : The Cardinalate is of divine right : because the Pope by the Levitical priests understands Cardinals.' Hosius seemeth to say, that Monks have their beginning even from the Apostles; meaning thereby, as one of your companions there doth, in favour, I trow, of religion, that CHRIST himself was the Abbot : for thus he saith : 'CHRIstus dux et exemplar vitæ monasticæ :''CHRisT was the captain and exemplar of the Monastic life. (in Confess. Petricov. c. 88.) And yet the same man afterward, as having forgotten his former dream, utterly displaceth Christ, and giveth the whole honour hereof unto Elijah and Elisha. These be his words : 'Elias et Elizaus duces instituti Benedictini :'

Elijah and Elisha were the leaders of the order of St. Benedict,' that is to say, they were Black Monks. By like wisdom ye would seem to fetch your holy water from Elisha ; your Cardinal's hat from S. Jerome; your Monk's cowl from S. Augustine. This was sometime a jolly good way to win credit ; specially while whatsoever ye said the preople was ready to give you ear." Defence, p. 441.]


to be new indeed, for all Haman's accusation. For they were graven in very ancient tables of greatest antiquity. And although many did take Christ to have swerved from Abraham and the old fathers, and to have brought in a certain new religion in his own name, yet answered he them directly : “Had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me ;'i. e. my doctrine is not so new as you make it; for Moses, an author of greatest antiquity, and one to whom ye give all honour, hath spoken of me. St. Paul likewise ; though the gospel of Jesus Christ be of many counted to be but new, yet hath it, saith he, a testimony most old, “ being witnessed by the law and the prophets." As for our doctrine, which we may more rightly call Christ's catholic doctrine ; it is so far off from new, that God, who is above all most ancient, and the FATHER of our LORD Jesus Christ, hath left the same unto us, in the gospel, in the prophets and Apostles' works, being monuments of greatest age.

So that no man can now think our doctrine to be new ; unless the same think either the prophets' faith, or the gospel, or else Christ himself, to be new.

Sect. 4. And as for their religion, if it be of so long continuance as they would have men ween it is, why do they not prove it so by the examples of the primitive Church, and by the fathers and councils of old times? Why lieth so ancient a cause thus long in the dust, destitute of any advocate ? Fire and sword they have always ready at hand : but as for the old councils and fathers, all mum-not a word. They did surely against all reason, to begin first with these so bloody and extreme means, if they could have found other more easy and gentle ways.

And if they trust so fully to antiquity, and use no dissimulation, why did John CLEMENT," a countryman

h John v, 46.
c Rom. iii. 21.

a [This John CLEMENT was probably the CLEMENT who was among the friends of the learned Erasmus, belonged to Cardinal WOLSEY'S family, and, with some other papists, was excepted from a general pardon granted by Edward VI. in 1552. (JORTIN's Life of Erasmus, Vol. I. p. 81, 140.) If so, however censurable his bigotry, he deserves

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