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Sect. 3. But I put case an idol be set up in the Church of God, and the same desolation, which Christ prophesied to come, stood openly in the holy place." What if some thief or pirate invade and possess Noah's ark ? These folks, as often as they tell us of the Church, mean thereby themselves alone, and attribute all these titles to their own selves, boasting as they did in times past, that cried out “ The temple of the LORD, the temple of the LORD :"w or as the Pharisees and Scribes did, which craked [boasted] they were

66 Abraham's children."x

Thus with a gay and jolly show deceive they the simple, and seek to choke us with the bare name of the Church. Much like as if a thief, when he hath gotten into another man's house, and by violence either hath thrust out, or slain the owner, should afterward assign the same house to himself, casting forth of possession the right inheritor: or if Antichrist,” when he had once

biddeth him God speed, is partaker of his evil deeds.' (2 John, 10, 11.) St. Paul saith, 'I have written unto you not to keep company-with such, no, not to eat.' (1 Cor. v. 11.) And God himself saith, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues." (Rev. xviii. 4.)”-Defence, p. 391.]

• Matt. xxiv. 15. (JEWELL’s reference, if confined to the import of this passage, must be taken as a mere hypothesis : for it hardly admits of question, that our LORD's prediction referred to the presence of the Roman eagles, (at once their military standards, and the objects of their idolatrous worship,) in the sacred precincts of Jerusalem. See Luke XXI. 20; and Bp. Porteus' Lectures on Matthew, Lect. xix.]

["This ‘put case' and what if' are not so impossible. For St. Paul saith Antichrist (sO JEWELL interprets what is in our version "the man of sin,'] shall sit in the temple of God, and show himself above all that is worshipped, or called Gor: [a reference to the passage, 2 Thess. ii. 4. will show that JEWELL quotes loosely, probably from memory :]-that is to say, being a thief and a pirate, he shall enter perforce into Noah's ark."-Defence, p. 393.]

✓ Jer. vii. 4.
* John viii. 39.
! ['Jolly' is here used in the obsolete sense of handsome -


in appearance ;'—a sense nearly corresponding with that of the French word joli.]

["I will not say, the Pope is Antichrist. God will reveal him in his time, and he shall be known. St. John saith, (Rev. xiii

. 18.) . This is the wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast : for it is the number of a man; and his number is, Six hundred threescore and six. Upon which IRENÆUS, well near fifteen hundred years ago, [in 1566 ; of course, now more than seventeen, saith thus: "The name of Antichrist, expressed by the number, shali

entered into the temple of God, should afterward say, This house is mine own, and CHRIS'T hath nothing to do withal. For these men now, after they have left nothing remaining in the Church of God that hath


likeness of his Church, yet will they seem the patrons and the valiant maintainers of the Church. Verily like as Gracchus among the Romans stood sometime in defence of the treasury, notwithstanding with his prodigality and fond expenses he had utterly wasted the whole stock of the treasury. And yet was there never any thing so wicked, or so far out of reason, but lig.htly it might be covered and defended by the name of the Church : for

be LATINUS.'* And he addeth further: Hoc valcle verisimile est : quoniam verissimum regnum hoc habet vocabulum.' "This is very probable : since that word most certainly is the name of a kingdom. (Adv. Hær. Lib. v. cap. ult.)

“St. GREGORY (GREGORÝ the First] saith : 'He is .Antichrist, that shall claim to be called Universal Bishop; and shall have a guard of priests to attend upon him.' (Epist. 34. Lib. iv.) Agrain Irenæus saith : ' Antichristus, cum sit servus, tamen adorari vult ut Deus,' Antichrist, notwithstanding he be but a slave, yet he will be worshipped as if he were God.' (Ado. Hær. Lib. v. cap. penult.) The Abbot JOACHIM ' Antichristus jampridem natus est Romæ, et altius extolletur in sede apostolica. Antichrist is long since born, in Rome, and yet shall be higher advanced in the apostolic see.it

"Thus is he described that shall sit in the place of Christ, (2 Thess. ii. 4.) and shall maintain possession against Christ. But CHRisT shall come with his holy angels, and shall consume him with the breath of his mouth,' (2 Thess. ii. 8.) which is the holy word of the living God."-Defence, p. 393.

Although Jewell does not, himself, decide whether the Pope be Antichrist, his quotations leave no difficulty in discovering his opinion.]

(IRENÆUS wrote in Greek. The Greek letters are used as numerals. Those composing the word Aateivos (which is equivalent to Latinus, and means 'a Latin,' or · Roman,') express, when added together, the number 666-thus, 1, 30; a, 1'; T, 400; 4, 5; ", 10; v, 50; 0, 70; 5, (or the Sanpi) 100; total, 666.

The fathers have several such computations founded on the numerical value, or form, of letters. They are generally worthless; and, of course, rest on no stronger authority than that of their judgment as individuals. The reader must decide on the value of IRENÆUS' computation for himself. In its favour may be urged: 1. That in the explanation of a prophetic symbol used by the Apostle John in his old age, the testimony of a disciple of Polycarp, the friend and scholar of St. John, may have some weight. 2. That the circumstances of Christianity at Rome in the days of IRENÆUS can hardly be supposed to have suggested his view. 3. That the remarkable agreement of the Scriptural characteristics of Antichrist with the subsequent history of the Latin Church, must be allowed to be at least, a singular coincidence with IRENÆUS. interpretation.]

(The Abbot JOACHIM, a monk of the Cistercian order, famous for his sanctity and austerity, but not wholly orthodox, according to the views of the Church of Rome, flourished in the twelfth century. The corruptions of the Papac y were then at their height.]

[The Roman Pontiff claims to be the Vicar of CHRIST.]

the wasps also make honeycombs, as well as the bees, although there be no honey in them; and wicked men have companies like to the Church of God.a

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Sect. 4. Yet for all that, they be not straightway the people of God, which are called the people of God; neither “ are all Israel, which are of Israel” thé father. The Arians, notwithstanding they were heretics, yet bragged they, that they alone were the catholics, calling all the rest, now • Ambrosians, now • Athanasians,'

• Johannites.” And Nestorius,d as saith THEODORET, for all that he was a heretic, yet covered he himself tñs fpJodošías mpooxíuati—that is to wit, with a certain cloak and colour of the true and right faith.' Ebion, though



a Rev. ii. 9. üi. 9.

b Augustin. Serm. cont. Arianos. Tom. VI. Opp. ; et in Epist. ad Vincent.

e [These terms are formed from the names of Ambrose, Archbishop of Milan ; of ATHANASIUS, Archbishop of Alexandria, the great champion of the doctrine of the Trinity; and of John (Chrysostom) the Archbishop of Constantinople. By their use the Arians wished to intimate that those eminent supporters of the Trinitarian faith were the founders, or at least establishers of new opinions.]

d [NESTORIUS was elevated from the station of presbyter in Antioch, to the bishopric of Constantinople, by the choice of the emperor Theodosius, in 429. A presbyter whom he had brought with him from Antioch, censured from the pulpit the practice of calling the Virgin Mary OEOTOKOS, or "Mother of God. This excited disturbance among the Constantinopolitans, who were accustomed to the expression, and regarded an attack upon it as an assault upon their faith. Nestorius was induced to defend his presbyter, and by degrees was led into incautious statements relative to the union of the divine and human natures in the SAVIOUR. He was considered as denying their junction in one person. The most violent heats were excited by the controversies which hence

The Council of Ephesus, convened in 431, after fierce disputes, condemned the opinion of Nestorius, and deposed him from his see. Their sentence was confirmed by the emperor, who banished the unhappy prelate. After four years exile, he died of a fall from his horse, in 439.]

? [Ebion is the reputed leader of a sect of Judaizing Christians, which arose in the second century. It is a matter of considerable doubt whether there ever did exist a man of that name: many having supposed, in the absence of all personal history of such a man, that the term Ebionites had some other derivation. This sect held the perpetual obligation of the Mosaic law; and while they received CHRIST as the Messiah, asserted him to be a mere man, the son of Joseph. They also admitted a portion of the Gospel of St. Matthew in Hebrew, although corrupted by large interpolations favourable to their own opinions.]


he agreed in opinion with the Samaritans, yet, as saith EPIPHANIUS, he would needs be called a Christian. The Mahometans at this day, for all that all histories make plain mention, and themselves also cannot deny but they took their first beginning of Agar the bondwoman, yet for the very name and stock's sake choose they rather to be called Saracens, as though they came of Sarah the free-woman, and Abraham's true and lawful wife. So likewise the false prophets of all ages, which stood up against the prophets of God, and resisted Isaiah, Jeremiah, Christ, and the Apostles, at no time craked [boasted] of any thing so much as they did of the name of the Church. And for none other cause did they so fiercely vex them, and call them • renegates' and 'apostates,' than for that they had forsaken their fellowship, and kept not the ordinances of the elders.h

Sect. 5. Wherefore, like as it is written that Her. cules in old time was forced, in striving with Antæus that huge giant, to lift him quite up from the earth, that was his mother, ere he could conquer him; even so must our adversaries be heaved from their mother, that is, from this vain colour and shadow of the Church,' wherewith they so disguise and defend themselves : otherwise they cannot be brought to yield unto the word of God. And therefore saith Jeremiah the prophet, “ Trust ye not in lying words, saying, The temple of the LORD, the temple of the Lord, the temple of the LORD, are these.”- -“ Behold, ye trust in lying words, that cannot profit.”i The angel also saith in the Apocalypse : “they say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan.” And Christ said to the Pharisees, when they vaunted themselves of the kindred and blood of Abraham : “ Ye are of your father the devil,” for you resemble not your father Abraham. As much as to say, Ye are not the men ye would so fain be called : ye beguile the people with vain titles, and abuse the name of the Church, to the overthrowing of the Church.

f Lib. I. Heres. 30. και Τουτο γαρ το φύλον απισμαηλ του Αβραάμ παιδώς την αρχήν λαβών, και την προσηγορίαν ειχε, και ισμαηλίτας αυτούς οι αρχαιοι από του προπάτερος ωνόμασαν. Αποτριβόμενοι δε του νόθου τον έλεγχον, και της άγάρ μητρός την δυσγένειαν, δούλη γάρ ήν, σαρρακηνούς σφάς ωνόμασαν, ώς από σάρδας rõv áßpaàu yaperñs kutayouévous. Sozomeni Hist. Eecles. Lib. VI. cap. xxxviii. (Other derivations of the name have been given ;- from a village called Saraka among the Nabatæan Arabs—from an Arabic word signifying a thievish disposition-and from another implying an eastern residence. GIBBON, while his bigotted infidelity leads him to throw ridicule on the opinion of SoZoMEN, adopted by JEWELL, confesses each of the others to be liable to strong objections. Whoever takes into accou

the importance attached to genealogic traditions by the natives of the east, and the fact that to this day the Arabs glory in their descent from Abraham, will be in no haste to decide against the statement of Sozo. Men, though he have not given his authority.]

h Matth, xv. 2 ss,

So that these men's parts had been, first to have clearly and truly proved that the Romish Church is the true and right instructed Church of God; and that the same, as they do order it at this day, doth agree with the primitive Church of Christ, of the Apostles, and of the holy fathers, which we doubt not but was indeed the true catholic Church.

For our parts, if we could have judged ignorance error-superstition-idolatry"-men's inventions, and the same commonly disagreeing with the holy Scrip

i Jer. vii. 4, 8.

k Rev. ii. 9. (This is another instance of quotations made by JEWELL from memory, and incorrectly. It was not an angel, but Christ, who spake these words to the angel of the Church of Smyrna.]

1 John viii. 44, 39.

m ["'That by your [HARDING's, as a Papist) doctrine, Ignorance highly pleaseth God, and is sufficient to salvation, besides the general practice of your whole Church, ye may soon call to mind, that one of your dearest friends, in most honourable audience, not long since openly published the same, in the name and behoof of all his brethren, as a secret mystery,' and the very bottom of your divinity—' Ignorance is the mother of devotion.' You know, that Cardinal CUSANUS teacheth you, 'Obedientia irrationalis est consummata obedientia,' &c. 'Obedience without reason is the full and most perfect obedience ; I mean, when a man is obedient to do whatsoever he is commanded without requiring of any reason, even as a horse is obedient to his master. Therefore if thou see thy bishop to refuse the communion of any man, refuse thou to communicate with the same.' (Nicol. Cusan. Excit. Lib. vi. Ubi Eccles.) This, M. HARDING, is your doctrine of simple ignorance." Defence, p. 396.

The Cardinal's illustration will probably recall to the reader's mind another authority, in which it is written, 'Be ye not like unto horse and mule.']

· ["Concerning superstition and idolatry, what need we many words? The thing itself is well able to prove itself. Whoso but looketh into your churches, may easily, not only see it with his eyes, but also feel it with his fingers.Defence, p. 396.]


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