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his room. Again, after he had cast out king Philip, if he could have brought it to pass, he had determined and appointed the kingdom of France to Albert, the king of the Romans.' He utterly destroyed the state of the most flourishing city and commonwealth of Florence, his own native country, and brought it out of a free and peaceable state, to be governed at the pleasure of one

He brought to pass, by his procurement, that whole Savoy on the one side was miserably spoiled by the emperor Charles the Fifth, and on the other side by the French king, so that the poor unfortunate duke had scant one city left him to hide his head in. gave the Pope the Exarchate or principality of Ravenna, in part recom. pense for his good will.- Whether the king, having nine years ruled his realm, were afterward deprived by right, or not, I will not reason." Defence, p. 371.

This was in 750. " It is impossible," says HallAM, (Middle Ages, 1. 422.) “ to consider this in any other light than as a point of casuistry laid before the first religious judge in the Church. Certainly the Franks who raised the king of their choice upon their shields, never dreamed that a foreign priest had conferred upon him the right of governing. Yet it was easy for succeeding advocates of Rome to construe this transaction very favourably for its usurpation over the thrones of the earth.” And in a note he adds: “EGINHARD says, that Pepin was made king 'per auctoritatem Romani pontificis ’-an ambiguous word, which may rise to command, or sink to advice, according to the disposition of the interpreter.”—To fix it at the middle height of consent would be wisest, and most conformable to fact. Such is the opinion of the judicious historian VELLY; Histoire de France, Tom. I. p. 350. Such, too, is the construction put upon the transaction by a Romish author quotod by JEWELL, Defence, p. 371. "Glossa ordinaria exponit, Deposuit, id est, deponentibus consensit.“The ordinary Gloss (on the Canon Law) expounds it thus, He deposed him, that is, he consented to them that did depose him.” JOH. DE PARISIIS, cap. xv.)

1 [It was Boniface the Eighth, who thus treated Philip the Fair of France. After having declared, in a constitution published in a council held at Rome, that "the temporal authority must be subject to the spiritual power,” and that 'the subjection of every human creature to the Roman pontiff is a necessary article of faith,' he at last excommunicated the king of France, and offered his crown to Albert I. of Austria. The arrest of the Pope by a civil faction in Italy, at the instigation of Philip, put an end to the contest, by causing his death-the effect of his violent rage.—These events took place in 1302-3.]

m (Clement the Seventh, known before his elevation to the Papacy as the Cardinal Julio de Medici, was cousin of Leo the Tenth, and succeeded Adrian VI. in the pontificate, in 1523. With the concurrence of the emperor and the king of France, he took advantage of civil dissensions raging in Florence, and made Alessandro de Medici, reputed to be his own son, Duke of that city, in 1532.]

· [This was the act of the same Pope, Clement VII. See Notem, above.]

We are accloyed [satiated] with examples in this behalf, and it should be very tedious to reckon up all the notorious practices o of the Bishops of Rome. But of which side were they, I beseech you, that poisoned the emperor Henry the Seventh, even in the receiving of the sacrament? Which poisoned Victor the Pope, even in the receiving of the chalice ?r Which poisoned our king John, of England, in a drinking cup? Whosoever at least they were, and of what sect soever, I am sure they were neither Lutherans, nor Zuinglians. Who is he at this day which alloweth the mightiest kings and monarchs of the world to kiss his blessed feet?' Who is he that commandeth the emperor to go

• [The word practices was taken in an ill sense when JEWELL wrote,' and used to signify 'secret villanies.']

p (Henry VII. had undertaken a war against the king of Naples, in opposition to the injunctions of Pope Clement V. and was carrying it on successfully, when he died suddenly at Buonconvento, in 1313. A Dominican friar, Bernard of Montepulciano, was accused of poisoning him in the administration of the Eucharist, and such height did these suspicions attain that the General of the Order found it necessary to obtain a justificatory document from the son of Henry, thirty years after the death of the emperor. JewelL quotes several authorities of middling value, in proof of the truth of the story; Defence, p. 374.]

4 (Victor III. succeeded Gregory VII. in the Papacy, in 1085, and died in October, 1087. The Romish historians confess the mode of his death, and ascribe it to the instigation of the emperor Henry IV. BERTI, Hist. Eccl. Brev. Tom. II. p. 11.-JEWELL (Defence, p. 374) quotes several writers of the middle ages as proofs.]

[Chalice : the cup of consecrated wine, in the administration of the Eucharist.]

• [Of this statement, JEWELL afterward declared : "Touching the death of John, whether he were poisoned by a monk, or no, I will not strive ; referring myself therein to the credit of our chronicles : the common report whereof, together with the general opinion of the people, is this, that he was destroyed with poison."-Defence, p. 374.]

? ["In the Pope's own book of the Ceremonies of Rome, it is written thus : 'Electus imperator cum suis omnibus,' &c. "The emperor elect, going in array with all his train, passeth up the steps upon the scaffold. And as soon as he seeth the Pope, he worshippeth (Lat. veneratur, doth reverence) him with bare head, touching the ground with his knee; and again when he approacheth the foot of the Pope's throne, he kneeleth down. Last of all, when he cometh unto the Pope's feet, he kisseth them devoutly, in reverence of our Saviour. Ceremoniar. Lib. I. Sect. v. c. 3.) This is ordered as a special ceremony, and appointed unto the emperor as a part of his duty.

"Likewise it is written of the empress, as concerning her duty : ' Imperatrix coronata, mox osculatur pedem pontificis. 'The empresa being crowned, immediately kisseth the Pope's foot.' (Ibid, c. 6.)

by him at his horse's bridle, and the French king to hold his stirrup ?u Who hurled under his table Francis Dandolo, the Duke of Venice, king of Crete and Cyprus, fast bound with chains, to feed of bones among his dogs ?'

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Again, of the Pope himself it is written : 'Papa nemini omnino mortalium,' &c. “The Pope himself does reverence to no mortal, either openly by standing up, or by bending, or uncovering his head.” (Ceremoniar. Lib. III. c. 5.)Defence, p. 375.]

[“ In the Pope's own Book of Holy Ceremonies it is particularly appointed, and laid out in order, to avoid confusion, what each estate ought and is bound to do.

« Thus therefore it is appointed : 'Cum Papa per scalam,' &c. 'When the Pope ascendeth his steps to mount on horseback, the greatest prince that is present, whether he be king or emperor, holdeth his stirrup: and afterward leadeth his horse a little way forward by the bridle. But if there were two kings in presence, the more honourable of them should hold the bridle of the right side, and the other of the left. If there happen to be no king present, then let the worthiest persons lead his horse. But if the Pope would not ride, but be borne on men's shoulders in a chair, then must four of the worthiest princes, yea the emperor himself, or any other mighty monarch, if he be present, bear the chair, Pope and all, a little way forward upon their shoulders.'— "The most noble layman-shall bear up the train of the Pope's cope, yea, though it be an emperor or king.'-'Let the most noble layman, whether he be king or emperor, bring water to wash the Pope's hands. And while the Pope washeth, let all the bishops and laymen kneel down.'—'While the Pope is yet sitting at table, the noblest man within the court, be he emperor, be he king, shall be brought—to give him water.'— The first dish the noblest prince shall carry, whether he be emperor or king.'— When the Pope is at breakfast, the king shall bear his first cup.'" The references for all these passages, and most of them at length, are given by JEWELL. He continues : “For excuse hereof perhaps ye will say, These were the abuses of old times. Therefore it may please you to remember, that the self-same ceremonies, touching kings and emperors' duties, have been lately renewed and confirmed, and published abroad into the world, word for word as they were before, without any manner of alteration; and that in the Pope's own Pontifical, now newly printed at Venice, in the year of our LORD 1561.”— The modern reader, calling to mind the events of the pontificate of Pius VI. and the present state of the Ronnish court, may be tempted to join in the prophet's exclamation, “How art thou fallen, O Lucifer, son of the morning !"

As to the practice under such rules—Pope Adrian IV. contested the matter with the emperor Frederic I. The latter refused to hold the stirrup; the Pope, in consequence, denied his kiss of peace; and finally, the emperor was fain to end the contest by submission.]

["The Venetians had given aid, to restore one Friscus, a banished man, unto the dukedom of Ferrara. Therefore i ope Clement V. interdicted them, and all that they had, and further signified his pleasure unto all the world, that whithersoever they, or any of them, came, it should be lawful for any man, not only to take their bodies, and to sell

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Who set the imperial crown upon the emperor Henry the Sixth's head, not with his hand, but with his foot: and with the same foot again cast the same crown off, saying : I have power to make emperors, and to unmake them again at my pleasure ?"w Who put in

them for slaves, and to spoil their goods, but also to kill them, whether it were by right or by wrong. For so Sabellicus writeth, 'Ut eos fas esset unicuique jure, et injuriâ, interficere.' (Ennead. ix. Lib. 7.) And this high indignation had never been slacked, had not so noble a person abased himself to be tied by the neck in a chain, and to creep under the Pope's table upon all four like a dog. This disdainful fact, SABELLicus the author reproveth vehemently and with many words, as immoderate tyranny and intolerable pride, and most shameful abusing of the state of princes.”Defence, p. 379.

With the account in the text, HARDING, JEWELL's opponent, has many faults to find. 1. Dandolo was not Duke (or Doge) of Venice at the time. 2. He was not bound, but put on the chain himself. 3. There is no evidence either that he gnawed bones, or that there were dogs under the table !

To the first count, Jewell makes answer that Dandolo was not then Doge, but was elected shortly after; and justifies the use of the title by anticipation, by the example of several approved writers. At all events, he was a noble, and the ambassador of his Republic.

To the second, he says: “No doubt, whoso knoweth an Italian courage, will soon believe that Francis Dandolo, a gentleman of such nobility, and the ambassador of so noble a commonwealth, was soon, and easily, and willingly, won to come creeping with an iron chain on his neck, and to wallow under the Pope's table as a dog, to his own immortal shame, and to the everlasting dishonour of his country! Verily he would never have yielded himself to such villany, had it not been to avoid some other greater villany. For 1 beseech you, whether is it more cruelty, for you to run upon a poor man with sword drawn,' and to strike him through, and so to kill him; or else to force him to lay cruel hands upon his own body, and to kill himself? In whether of these two acts is more cruelty ?-So say we, it was far greater grief unto that noble gentleman so vilely to dishonour and abase himself

, than if he had been driven thereto by the force and violence of his enemy.To the third, he replies; as to the bones, “.

we will rather say, he lay there to gather up the crunbs that fell from his lord's table :” as to the dogs, "the negative were very hard to prove. Howbeit, hereat I will not greatly strive. And yet it had been a more seemly sight, in my judgment, to see a dog lying there, than a man, and specially a noble gentleman, the ambassador of so noble a city.”Defence, p. 379, 380.

These circumstances are in themselves trifling: but trifles as they are, they shed a fearful light on the unearthly arrogance which created them.]

w (Henry VL son of Frederic Barbarossa, was crowned at Rome by Celestine IIL in 1191; having been compelled previously to resign the district of Tusculum, which he claimed, to the Holy See.

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arms Henry, the son, against his father the emperor Henry the Fourth, and wrought so, that the father was taken prisoner of his own son, and being shorn,; and shamefully handled, was thrust into a monastery, where with hunger and sorrow he pined away to death? Who so ill-favouredly and monstrously put the emperor Frederic's neck under his feet, and, as though that were not sufficient, added further this text out of the Psalms : “ 'Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder : the young lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under feet ?"??

story” related in the text, says JEWELL, "is recorded by RANULPHUS, ROGER CESTRENSIS, and Roger Hovedey, that lived at the same time.” Defence, p. 381.]

* [Receiving the tonsure—having a circular spot, or ring (for the rule is different in different monastic orders) shaven, on the crown of the head. This is considered as the first preparative for orders, and the lowest degree of assumption of the sacerdotal character and obligations, by the Church of Rome. According to the opinions of the times, it for ever incapacitated the emperor for his secular dignity.]

y (Henry IV. had been for many years involved in quarrels with successive Roman Pontiffs, by which he had more than once been reduced to the very verge of ruin. (See Note f, p. 101.) At last Paschal II. absolved the emperor's son Henry from an oath which he had taken not to attempt his father's throne during his life. On the pretext that Henry IV. being under sentence of excommunication, was incapable of reigning, the Papal legate engaged the clergy and many discon. tented nobles in the son's behalf. The most touching letters were addressed by the father to his rebellious son, but received for answer that he knew not an excommunicated man either as father or as emperor. Seduced by false promises of obedience from his son, and of absolution from the clergy, the old emperor disbanded his forces, and attended a diet at Mentz. Having thus got him in their power, " the bishops" (JEWELL shall continue the narrative) “ disrobed him of his weeds of state, and pulled the crown imperial from his head. The ancient reverend prince, having now continued in his empire fifty whole years, bare all these things quietly, and said unto them : Videat Deus, et judicet.' 'Let God see, and judge. At the last, being left naked and out of all

, he turned himself to the Bishop of Spires, and said unto him, "Now I beseech you, for God's sake give me a prebend in your church. For I am able to read, and can do some good in the choir. But he was kept still in close prison at Liege, until he died. And being dead, he was kept five whole years together above ground, at the Pope's commandment, and might not be buried.” Defence, p. 382 s.

Such was the Papal policy in the beginning of the twelfth century. Jewell's authorities are : Chron. Ursperg. p. 235: SABELLICOS, Ennead. ix. Lib. 3; CARION; HELMold. His statement agrees with that of PFEFFEL, Histoire d'Allemagne, Tom. I. p. 225 s.)

• Ps. xci. 13.—["The whole story hereof is thus reported by Carion: • Usus est Fredericus,' &c. “The emperor Frederic used all manner of submission and humility. For he came to Venice, and at the gates of

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