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with me, that there is something infinitely more affecting in this dreadful dialogue between the mother and her son behind the scenes, han could have been in any thing transacted before the audience. Orestes immediately after meets the usurper at the entrance of his palace; and by a very happy thought of the poet avoids killing him before the audience, by telling him that he should live some time in his present bitterness of soul before he would dispatch him, and by ordering him to retire into that part of the palace where he had slain his father, whose murder he would revenge in the very same place where it was committed. By this means the poet observes that decency which Horace afterwards established by a rule, of forbearing to commit parricides or unnatural murthers before the audience.

Nec pueros coram populo Medea trucidet.

HOR. Ars Poet. 185.

Let not Medea draw her murthering knife,

And spill her children's blood upon the stage.

The French have therefore refined too much upon Horace's rule, who never designed to banish all kinds of death from the stage; but only such as had too much horror in them, and which would have a better effect upon the audience when transacted behind the scenes. I would therefore recommend to my countrymen the practice of the ancient poets, who were very sparing of their public executions, and rather chose to perform them behind the scenes, if it could be done with as great an effect upon the audience. At the same time I must observe, that though the devoted persons of the Tragedy were seldom slain before the audience, which has generally something ridiculous in it, their bodies were often produced after their death, which has always in it something melancholy or terrifying; so that the killing on the stage does not seem to have been avoided only as an indecency, but also as an improbability.

Nec pueros coram populo Medea trucidet;
Aut humana palam coquat exta nefarius Atreus;
Aut in avem Progne vertatur, Cadmus in anguem,
Quodcunque ostendis mihi sic, incredulus odi.

HOR. Ars Poet. 185.

Medea must not draw her murth'ring knife,
Nor Atreus there his horrid feast prepare,
Cadmus and Progne's metamorphosis,
(She to a swallow turn'd, he to a snake,)
And whatsoever contradicts my sense,

I hate to see and never can believe.


I have now gone through the several dramatic inventions which are made use of by the ignorant poets to supply the place of tragedy, and by the skilful to improve it; some of which I could wish entirely rejected, and the rest to be used with caution. It would be an endless task to consider comedy in the same light, and to mention the innumerable shifts that small wits put in practice to raise a laugh. Bullock in a short coat, and Norris in a long one, seldom fail of this effect. In ordinary comedies, a broad and a narrow brimmed hat are different characters. Sometimes the wit of the scene lies in a shoulder-belt, and sometimes in a pair of whiskers. A lover running about the stage, with his head peeping out of a barrel, was thought a very good jest in king Charles the second's time; and invented by one of the first wits of that age.1 But because ridicule is not so delicate as compassion, and because the objects that make us laugh are infinitely more numerous than those that make us weep, there is a much greater latitude for comic than tragic artifices, and by con sequence a much greater indulgence to be allowed them.

1 The comedy of the Comical Revenge,' or 'Love in a Tub; by Su George Etheredge, 1664.--B.


Natio comada est

Juv. Sat. 8, v. 100.

The nation is a company of players.

THERE is nothing which I more desire than a safe and honour able peace, though at the same time I am very apprehensive of many ill consequences that may attend it.' I do not mean in regard to our politics, but to our manners. What an inundation of ribbons and brocades will break in upon us? what peals of laughter and impertinence shall we be exposed to? for the prevention of these great evils. I could heartily wish that there was an act of parliament for prohibiting the importation of French fopperies.

The female inhabitants of our island have already received very strong impressions from this ludicrous nation, though by the length of the war (as there is no evil which has not some good attending it) they are pretty well worn out and forgotten. I remember the time when some of our well-bred country women kept their Valet de Chambre, because, forsooth, a man was more handy about them than one of their own sex. I myself have seen one of these male Abigails tripping about the room with a looking-glass in his hand, and combing his lady's hair a whole morning together. Whether or no there was any truth in the story of a lady's being got with child by one of these her handmaids, I cannot tell; but I think at present the whole race of them is extinct in our own country.

About the time that several of our sex were taken into this kind of service, the ladies likewise brought up the fashion of receiving visits in their beds. It was then looked upon as a piece


Compare the distress of the newswriter in the Tatler, No. 15.-G.

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of ill breeding for a woman to refuse to see a man, becau was not stirring; and a porter would have been thought u his place, that could have made so awkward an excuse. to see every thing that is new, I once prevailed upon my Will. Honeycomb to carry me along with him to one of travelled ladies, desiring him, at the same time, to present a foreigner who could not speak English, that so I might obliged to bear a part in the discourse. The lady, thoug ling to appear undrest, had put on her best looks, and p herself for our reception. Her hair appeared in a very nic order, as the night-gown which was thrown upon her shou was ruffled with great care. For my part, I am so shocked every thing which looks immodest in the fair sex, that I not forbear taking off my eye from her when she moved i bed, and was in the greatest confusion imaginable every tim stirred a leg or an arm. As the coquets, who introduced custom, grew old, they left it off by degrees; well knowing a woman of threescore may kick and tumble her heart out, out making any impressions.

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Sempronia is at present the most professed admirer of French nation, but is so modest as to admit her visitants no ther than her toilet. It is a very odd sight that beautiful ture makes, when she is talking politics with her tresses flo about her shoulders, and examining that face in the glass, w does such execution upon all the male standers by. How tily does she divide her discourse between her woman and her tants! What sprightly transitions does she make from an of or a sermon, to an ivory comb or a pin-cushion! How hav been pleased to see her interrupted in an account of her trav by a message to her footman? and holding her tongue in midst of a moral reflection by applying the tip of it to a patch

There is nothing which exposes a woman to greater dang

than that gaiety and airiness of temper, which are natural to most of the sex. It should be therefore the concern of every wise and virtuous woman, to keep this sprightliness from degenerating into levity. On the contrary, the whole discourse and behaviour of the French is to make the sex more fantastical, or (as they are pleased to term it) more awakened, than is consistent either with virtue or discretion. To speak loud in public assemblies, to let every one hear you talk of things that should only be mentioned in private, or in whisper, are looked upon as parts of a refined education. At the same time, a blush is unfashionable, and silence more ill-bred than any thing that can be spoken. In short discretion and modesty, which in all other ages and countries have been regarded as the greatest ornaments of the fair sex, are considered as the ingredients of narrow conversation, and family behaviour.

Some years ago I was at the tragedy of Macbeth, and unfortunately placed myself under a woman of quality that is since dead; who, as I found by the noise she made, was newly returned from France. A little before the rising of the curtain, she broke out into a loud soliloquy, 'When will the dear witches enter?' and immediately upon their first appearance, asked a lady that sat three boxes from her, on her right hand, if those witches were not charming ereatures. A little after, as Betterton was in one of the finest speeches of the play, she shook her fan at another lady, who sat as far on the left hand, and told her with a whisper, that might be heard all over the pit, we must not expect to see Balloon to night. Not long after, calling out to a young baronet by his name, who sat three seats before me, she asked him whether Macbeth's wife was still alive; and before he could give an answer, fell a talking of the ghost of Banquo. She had by this time. formed a little audience to herself, and fixed the attention of all about her. But as I had a mind to hear the play, I got out of

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